Bible with Cross

NET Bible Introduction

The New English Translation, like the New International Version, New Jerusalem Bible and the New American Bible, is a completely new translation of the Bible, not an update or revision of an older one (such as the New Revised Standard Version of 1989, which is a revision of the Revised Standard Version of 1946/71, itself a revision of the American Standard Version of 1901, all of which are from the Critical Text).

The translation and extensive notes were undertaken by more than twenty biblical scholars who worked directly from the best currently available Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek texts. The NET Bible was initially conceived at an annual meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature in November 1995 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The translation project originally started as an attempt to provide a digital version of a modern English translation over the Internet and on CD-ROM without cost for the user: “The NET Bible project was commissioned to create a faithful Bible translation that could be placed on the Internet, downloaded for free, and used around the world for ministry.” Many of those involved in the project’s initial discussions eventually became part of the translation team. The translation itself claims to be non-sectarian, “inter-denominational” and evangelical.

The translation is most notable for an immense number of lengthy footnotes (which often explain its textual translation decision), its open translation process, its availability on the Internet (both during its beta process and in its final form), and its open copyright permitting free downloads.

Abbreviations

Abbreviations for Biblical Booksand Nonbiblical Literature

Old Testament

Gen Genesis
Exod Exodus
Lev Leviticus
Num Numbers
Deut Deuteronomy
Josh Joshua
Judg Judges
Ruth Ruth
1 Sam 1 Samuel
2 Sam 2 Samuel
1 Kgs 1 Kings
2 Kgs 2 Kings
1 Chr 1 Chronicles
2 Chr 2 Chronicles
Ezra Ezra
Neh Nehemiah
Esth Esther
Job Job
Ps(s) Psalms
Prov Proverbs
Eccl Ecclesiastes
Song Song of Songs
Isa Isaiah
Jer Jeremiah
Lam Lamentations
Ezek Ezekiel
Dan Daniel
Hos Hosea
Joel Joel
Amos Amos
Obad Obadiah
Jonah Jonah
Mic Micah
Nah Nahum
Hab Habakkuk
Zeph Zephaniah
Hag Haggai
Zech Zechariah
Mal Malachi

Books of the Old Testament Apocrypha

Bar Baruch
Add Dan Additions to Daniel
Pr Azar Prayer of Azariah
Bel Bel and the Dragon
Sg Three Song of the Three Young Men
Sus Susanna
1–2 Esd 1–2 Esdras
Add Esth Additions to Esther
Ep Jer Epistle of Jeremiah
Jdt Judith
1–4 Macc 1–4 Maccabees
Pr Man Prayer of Manasseh
Ps 151 Psalm 151
Sir Sirach/ Ecclesiasticus
Tob Tobit
Wis Wisdom of Solomon

New Testament

Matt Matthew
Mark Mark
Luke Luke
John John
Acts Acts
Rom Romans
1 Cor 1 Corinthians
2 Cor 2 Corinthians
Gal Galatians
Eph Ephesians
Phil Philippians
Col Colossians
1 Thess 1 Thessalonians
2 Thess 2 Thessalonians
1 Tim 1 Timothy
2 Tim 2 Timothy
Titus Titus
Phlm Philemon
Heb Hebrews
Jas James
1 Pet 1 Peter
2 Pet 2 Peter
1 John 1 John
2 John 2 John
3 John 3 John
Jude Jude
Rev Revelation

Abbreviations for Bible Versions

English Versions
NET
The NET BIBLE / New English Translation (NT, 1998; First Beta Edition, 2001; Second Beta Edition, 2003; First Edition, 2005)
TNIV
Today’s New International Version (NT, 2001)
NLT
New Living Translation (1996)
CEV
The Contemporary English Version (1995)
NIrV
New International Reader’s Version (1995)
Message
E. H. Peterson, The Message: The New Testament in Contemporary Language (1993)
NCV
New Century Version (1991)
REB
Revised English Bible (1989)
NRSV
New Revised Standard Version (1989)
NJB
New Jerusalem Bible (1985)
NJPS
Tanakh (1985), produced by the Jewish Publication Society
NKJV
New King James Version (1979)
TEV
Today’s English Version, also known as Good News for Modern Man (1976)
NIV
The New International Version (NT, 1973; OT, 1978)
LB
The Living Bible (1971)
NASB
New American Standard Bible (1971; update 1995)
NAB
The New American Bible (1970)
NEB
The New English Bible (1970)
JB
Jerusalem Bible (1966)
Amplified
The Amplified Bible (1965)
BBE
C. K. Ogden, The Bible in Basic English (1965)
JPS
The Torah (1962), The Prophets (Nevi’im) (1978), The Writings (Kethuvim) (1982), produced by the Jewish Publication Society
MLB
Modern Language Bible: New Berkeley Version (1959; rev. 1969)
Phillips
J. B. Phillips, The New Testament in Modern English (1958)
RSV
Revised Standard Version (NT, 1946; OT, 1952)
Knox
R. A. Knox, The New Testament in English (1945)
AT
The Bible—An American Translation (1927)
Moffatt
James Moffatt, A New Translation of the Bible (1926)
TCNT
The Twentieth Century New Testament (1898-1901; rev. 1904)
ASV
American Standard Version (1901)
RV
Revised Version (NT 1881; OT 1885)
YLT
Young’s Literal Translation (1862; rev. 1898)
KJV (=AV)
The King James Version, known in Britain as the Authorized Version (1611)
AV (=KJV)
The Authorized Version, known in America as the King James Version (1611)
Douay
Douay-Rheims Version, a translation for the Roman Catholic Church (NT 1582; OT 1609-1610)
Ancient Versions
MT
Masoretic Text (the traditional rabbinical text of the Hebrew Bible, dating from the medieval period)
LXX
Septuagint (the Greek Old Testament, translated between 250-100 B.C.)

 

General Abbreviations

NET BIBLE Footnote Types
tn
Translator’s Note—explains the rationale for the translation and gives alternative translations, interpretive options, and other technical information.
sn
Study Note—includes comments about historical or cultural background, explanation of obscure phrases or brief discussions of context, discussions of the theological point made by the biblical author, cross references and references to Old Testament quotations or allusions in the New Testament, or other miscellaneous information helpful to the modern reader.
tc
Text-critical Note—discusses alternate (variant) readings found in the various manuscripts and groups of manuscripts of the Hebrew Old Testament and Greek New Testament.
map
Map Note—gives map coordinates for site within the two map sections, “The Journeys of Paul” and “The Holy Land from the Heavens.”
Journals
ABR
Australian Biblical Review
ADAJ
Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan
AION
Annali dell’Istituto Orientale di Napoli
AJBA
Australian Journal of Biblical Archaeology
AJSL
American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literature
ArOr
Archiv Orientální
ASTI
Annual of the Swedish Thelogical Institute
AUSS
Andrews University Seminary Studies
BA
Biblical Archaeologist
BAR
Biblical Archaeology Review
BASOR
Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research
BBR
Bulletin for Biblical Research
BETS
Bulletin of the Evangelical Theological Society
Bib
Biblica
BiBh
Bible Bhashyam
Bijdr
Bijdragen: Tijdschrift voor filosofie en theologie
BJRL
Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester
BN
Biblische Notizen
BRev
Bible Review
BSac
Bibliotheca Sacra
BT
The Bible Translator
BTB
Biblical Theology Bulletin
BV
Biblical Viewpoint
BZ
Biblische Zeitschrift
CBQ
Catholic Biblical Quarterly
CentBib
Central Bible Quarterly
CTJ
Calvin Theological Journal
CTM
Concordia Theological Monthly
CTR
Criswell Theological Review
ErIsr
Eretz-Israel
EvQ
Evangelical Quarterly
ExpTim
Expository Times
FO
Folia orientalia
GOT
Glasgow Oriental Transactions
GTJ
Grace Theological Journal
HAR
Hebrew Annual Review
HBT
Horizons in Biblical Theology
HS
Hebrew Studies
HTR
Harvard Theological Review
HUCA
Hebrew Union College Annual
IEJ
Israel Exploration Journal
Int
Interpretation

JANESCU
Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society of Columbia University
JAOS
Journal of the American Oriental Society
JBL
Journal of Biblical Literature
JCS
Journal of Cuneiform Studies
JETS
Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society
JJP
Journal of Juristic Papyrology
JJS
Journal of Jewish Studies
JNES
Journal of Near Eastern Studies
JNSL
Journal of Northwest Semitic Languages
JPOS
Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society
JQR
Jewish Quarterly Review
JRAS
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society
JSNT
Journal for the Study of the New Testament
JSOT
Journal for the Study of the Old Testament
JSS
Journal of Semitic Studies
JTS
Journal of Theological Studies
JTVI
Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute
Jud
Judaica
Leš
Lešonénu
LTQ
Lexington Theological Quarterly
MAOG
Mitteilungen der Altorientalischen Gesellschaft
Mus
Muséon: Revue d’études orientales
NovT
Novum Testamentum
NTS
New Testament Studies
Or
Orientalia
OTS
Old Testament Studies
PEQ
Palestinian Exploration Quarterly
RA
Revue d’assyriologie et d’archéologie orientale
RB
Revue biblique
RevExp
Review and Expositor
RHPR
Revue d’histoire et de philosophie religieuses
RHR
Revue de l’histoire des religions
RQ
Römische Quartalschrift für christliche Altertumskunde und Kirchengeschichte
RSR
Recherches de science religieuse
Sem
Semitica
SJT
Scottish Journal of Theology
ST
Studia theologica
SwJT
Southwestern Journal of Theology
TA
Tel Aviv
TB
Theologische Bücherei: Neudrucke und Berichte aus dem 20. Jahrhundert
TGUOS
Transactions of the Glasgow University Oriental Society
TJ
Trinity Journal
TLZ
Theologische Literaturzeitung
TRu
Theologische Rundschau
TynBul
Tyndale Bulletin
TZ
Theologische Zeitschrift
UF
Ugarit-Forschungen
VT
Vetus Testamentum
WTJ
Westminster Theological Journal
WW
Word and World
ZÄS
Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde
ZAW
Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft
ZDMG
Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft
ZNW
Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft

Commentary and Monograph Series
AB
Anchor Bible
AfO
Archiv für Orientforschung
AGJU
Arbeiten zur Geschichte des antiken Judentums und des Urchristentums
AnBib
Analecta biblica
AnOr
Analecta orientalia
AOAT
Alter Orient und Altes Testament
ArBib
The Aramaic Bible
ATD
Das Alte Testament Deutsch
BASORSup
Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research: Supplement Series
BECNT
Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament
BibOr
Biblica et orientalia
BKAT
Biblischer Kommentar, Altes Testament
BSC
Bible Student’s Commentary
CBC
Cambridge Bible Commentary
CBQMS
Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series
CC
Continental Commentaries
CNT
Commentaire du Nouveau Testament
ConBOT
Coniectanea biblica: Old Testament Series
DissAb
Dissertation Abstracts
DJD
Discoveries in the Judaean Desert
DJDJ
Discoveries in the Judaean Desert of Jordan
DSBS
Daily Study Bible Series
EGGNT
Exegetical Guide to the Greek New Testament
FCI
Foundations of Contemporary Interpretation
FOTL
Forms of the Old Testament Literature
FRLANT
Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Testaments
GBS
Guides to Biblical Scholarship
HNTC
Harper’s New Testament Commentaries
HSM
Harvard Semitic Monographs
IBC
Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching
ICC
International Critical Commentary
JAARSup
Journal of the American Academy of Religion: Supplement Series
JBLMS
Journal of Biblical Literature Monograph Series
JPSTC
Jerusalem Publication Society Torah Commentary
JSNTSup
Journal for the Study of the New Testament: Supplement Series
JSOTSup
Journal for the Study of the Old Testament: Supplement Series
KAT
Kommentar zum Alten Testament
LHD
The Library of History and Doctrine
MNTC
Moffatt New Testament Commentary
NAC
New American Commentary
NCBC
New Century Bible Commentary
NICNT
New International Commentary on the New Testament
NICOT
New International Commentary on the Old Testament
NIGTC
New International Greek Testament Commentary
NovTSup
Supplements to Novum Testamentum
NTL
New Testament Library
OBO
Orbis biblicus et orientalis
OBT
Overtures to Biblical Theology
OTL
Old Testament Library
OTM
Oxford Theological Monographs
PTMS
Pittsburgh Theological Monograph Series
SB
Sources bibliques
SBA
Studies in Biblical Archaeology
SBG
Studies in Biblical Greek
SBLDS
Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series
SBT
Studies in Biblical Theology
ScrHier
Scripta hierosolymitana
SD
Studies and Documents
SHR
Studies in the History of Religions
SJLA
Studies in Judaism in Late Antiquity
SNTSMS
Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series
SoBB
Soncino Books of the Bible
SOTBT
Studies in Old Testament Biblical Theology
SOTSMS
Society for Old Testament Studies Monograph Series
SPCKTC
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge Theological Collections
SSN
Studia semitica neerlandica
StPB
Studia post-biblica
SUNT
Studien zur Umwelt des Neuen Testaments
TBC
Torch Bible Commentaries
TCS
Texts from Cuneiform Sources
TOTC
Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries
TU
Texte und Untersuchungen
VAB
Vorderasiatische Bibliothek
VTSup
Supplements to Vetus Testamentum
WBC
Word Biblical Commentary
WEC
Wycliffe Exegetical Commentary
WUNT
Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament
Text-critical Terms
al
Abbreviation for alii, a Latin phrase meaning “others,” referring to manuscripts
MS (MSS)
manuscript (manuscripts)

pc
Abbreviation for pauci, “a few (others),” referring to manuscripts
pm
Abbreviation for permulti, “a great many (others),” referring to manuscripts
vid
Abbreviation for videtur, a Latin word meaning “apparently” or “so it appears,” referring to an uncertain reading in a manuscript
Miscellaneous Abbreviations
abs.
absolute
acc.
accusative
ANE
Ancient Near East (noun), Ancient Near Eastern (adjective)
ca.
approximately (from Latin circa)
cf.
compare (from Latin confer)
chap.
chapter
dat.
dative
ed.
editor; edited by; edition
e.g.
for example (from Latin exempli gratia)
ET
English text (when versification in the English Bible differs from the Greek or Hebrew text)
expr.
expression
ff.
following
fig.
figurative; figuratively
gen.
genitive
GT
Greek text (when versification differs from the English Bible)
HT
Hebrew text (when versification differs from the English Bible)
i.e.
that is (from Latin id est)
loc. cit.
in the place cited (from Latin loco citato), usually referring to a Bible verse or passage cited in a commentary or other work
MS (MSS)
manuscript (manuscripts)
nom.
nominative
NT
New Testament
pl.
plural
q.v.
which see (from Latin quod vide)
sc.
supply (from Latin scilicet)
sing.
singular
suppl.
supplement
s.v.
under the word (from Latin sub verbo or sub voce)
trans.
translated; translator
v.
verse
viz.
namely (from Latin videlicet)
w.
with

 

 

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