Easton's Bible Dictionary by M.G. Easton (book cover)

Habakkuk Embrace, the eighth of the twelve minor prophets. Of his personal history we have no reliable information. He was probably a member of the Levitical choir. He was contemporary with Jeremiah and Zephaniah.

Habakkuk, Prophecies of Were probably written about B.C. 650-627, or, as some think, a few years later. This book consists of three chapters, the contents of which are thus comprehensively described: “When the prophet in spirit saw the formidable power of the Chaldeans approaching and menacing his land, and saw the great evils they would cause in Judea, he bore his complaints and doubts before Jehovah, the just and the pure (1:2-17). And on this occasion the future punishment of the Chaldeans was revealed to him (2). In the third chapter a presentiment of the destruction of his country, in the inspired heart of the prophet, contends with his hope that the enemy would be chastised.” The third chapter is a sublime song dedicated “to the chief musician,” and therefore intended apparently to be used in the worship of God. It is “unequalled in majesty and splendour of language and imagery.”

The passage in 2:4, “The just shall live by his faith,” is quoted by the apostle in Rom. 1:17. (Comp. Gal. 3:12; Heb. 10:37, 38.)

Habergeon An Old English word for breastplate. In Job 41:26 (Heb. shiryah) it is properly a “coat of mail;” the Revised Version has “pointed shaft.” In Ex. 28:32, 39:23, it denotes a military garment strongly and thickly woven and covered with mail round the neck and breast. Such linen corselets have been found in Egypt. The word used in these verses is tahra, which is of Egyptian origin. The Revised Version, however, renders it by “coat of mail.” (See [253]ARMOUR.)

Habitation God is the habitation of his people, who find rest and safety in him (Ps. 71:3; 91:9). Justice and judgment are the habitation of God’s throne (Ps. 89:14, Heb. mekhon, “foundation”), because all his acts are founded on justice and judgment. (See Ps. 132:5, 13; Eph. 2:22, of Canaan, Jerusalem, and the temple as God’s habitation.) God inhabits eternity (Isa. 57:15), i.e., dwells not only among men, but in eternity, where time is unknown; and “the praises of Israel” (Ps. 22:3), i.e., he dwells among those praises and is continually surrounded by them.

Habor The united stream, or, according to others, with beautiful banks, the name of a river in Assyria, and also of the district through which it flowed (1 Chr. 5:26). There is a river called Khabur which rises in the central highlands of Kurdistan, and flows south-west till it falls into the Tigris, about 70 miles above Mosul. This was not, however, the Habor of Scripture.

There is another river of the same name (the Chaboras) which, after a course of about 200 miles, flows into the Euphrates at Karkesia, the ancient Circesium. This was, there can be little doubt, the ancient Habor.

Hachilah The darksome hill, one of the peaks of the long ridge of el-Kolah, running out of the Ziph plateau, “on the south of Jeshimon” (i.e., of the “waste”), the district to which one looks down from the plateau of Ziph (1 Sam. 23:19). After his reconciliation with Saul at Engedi (24:1-8), David returned to Hachilah, where he had fixed his quarters. The Ziphites treacherously informed Saul of this, and he immediately (26:1-4) renewed his pursuit of David, and “pitched in the hill of Hachilah.” David and his nephew Abishai stole at night into the midst of Saul’s camp, when they were all asleep, and noiselessly removed the royal spear and the cruse from the side of the king, and then, crossing the intervening valley to the height on the other side, David cried to the people, and thus awoke the sleepers. He then addressed Saul, who recognized his voice, and expostulated with him. Saul professed to be penitent; but David could not put confidence in him, and he now sought refuge at Ziklag. David and Saul never afterwards met. (1 Sam. 26:13-25).

Hadad Adod, brave(?), the name of a Syrian god. (1.) An Edomite king who defeated the Midianites (Gen. 36:35; 1 Chr. 1:46).

(2.) Another Edomite king (1 Chr. 1:50, 51), called also Hadar (Gen. 36:39; 1 Chr. 1:51).

(3.) One of “the king’s seed in Edom.” He fled into Egypt, where he married the sister of Pharaoh’s wife (1 Kings 11:14-22). He became one of Solomon’s adversaries.

Hadad, sharp, (a different name in Hebrew from the preceding), one of the sons of Ishmael (1 Chr. 1:30). Called also Hadar (Gen. 25:15).

Hadadezer Hadad is help; called also Hadarezer, Adod is his help, the king of Zobah. Hanun, the king of the Ammonites, hired among others the army of Hadadezer to assist him in his war against David. Joab, who was sent against this confederate host, found them in double battle array, the Ammonities toward their capital of Rabbah, and the Syrian mercenaries near Medeba. In the battle which was fought the Syrians were scattered, and the Ammonites in alarm fled into their capital. After this Hadadezer went north “to recover his border” (2 Sam. 8:3, A.V.); but rather, as the Revised Version renders, “to recover his dominion”, i.e., to recruit his forces. Then followed another battle with the Syrian army thus recruited, which resulted in its being totally routed at Helam (2 Sam. 10:17). Shobach, the leader of the Syrian army, died on the field of battle. The Syrians of Damascus, who had come to help Hadadezer, were also routed, and Damascus was made tributary to David. All the spoils taken in this war, “shields of gold” and “very much brass,” from which afterwards the “brasen sea, and the pillars, and the vessels of brass” for the temple were made (1 Chr. 18:8), were brought to Jerusalem and dedicated to Jehovah. Thus the power of the Ammonites and the Syrians was finally broken, and David’s empire extended to the Euphrates (2 Sam. 10:15-19; 1 Chr. 19:15-19).

Hadad-rimmon (composed of the names of two Syrian idols), the name of a place in the valley of Megiddo. It is alluded to by the prophet Zechariah (12:11) in a proverbial expression derived from the lamentation for Josiah, who was mortally wounded near this place (2 Chr. 35:22-25). It has been identified with the modern Rummaneh, a village “at the foot of the Megiddo hills, in a notch or valley about an hour and a half south of Tell Metzellim.”

Hadar Adod, brave(?). (1.) A son of Ishmael (Gen. 25:15); in 1 Chr. 1:30 written Hadad.

(2.) One of the Edomitish kings (Gen. 36:39) about the time of Saul. Called also Hadad (1 Chr. 1:50, 51).

It is probable that in these cases Hadar may be an error simply of transcription for Hadad.

Hadarezer Adod is his help, the name given to Hadadezer (2 Sam. 8:3-12) in 2 Sam. 10.

Hadashah New, a city in the valley of Judah (Josh. 15:37).

Hadassah Myrtle, the Jewish name of Esther (q.v.), Esther 2:7.

Hadattah New, one of the towns in the extreme south of Judah (Josh. 15:25).

Hades That which is out of sight, a Greek word used to denote the state or place of the dead. All the dead alike go into this place. To be buried, to go down to the grave, to descend into hades, are equivalent expressions. In the LXX. this word is the usual rendering of the Hebrew sheol, the common receptacle of the departed (Gen. 42:38; Ps. 139:8; Hos. 13:14; Isa. 14:9). This term is of comparatively rare occurrence in the Greek New Testament. Our Lord speaks of Capernaum as being “brought down to hell” (hades), i.e., simply to the lowest debasement, (Matt. 11:23). It is contemplated as a kind of kingdom which could never overturn the foundation of Christ’s kingdom (16:18), i.e., Christ’s church can never die.

In Luke 16:23 it is most distinctly associated with the doom and misery of the lost.

In Acts 2:27-31 Peter quotes the LXX. version of Ps. 16:8-11, plainly for the purpose of proving our Lord’s resurrection from the dead. David was left in the place of the dead, and his body saw corruption. Not so with Christ. According to ancient prophecy (Ps. 30:3) he was recalled to life.

Hadid Pointed, a place in the tribe of Benjamin near Lydda, or Lod, and Ono (Ezra 2:33; Neh. 7:37). It is identified with the modern el-Haditheh, 3 miles east of Lydda.

Hadlai Resting, an Ephraimite; the father of Amasa, mentioned in 2 Chr. 28:12.

Hadoram Is exalted. (1.) The son of Tou, king of Hamath, sent by his father to congratulate David on his victory over Hadarezer, king of Syria (1 Chr. 18:10; called Joram 2 Sam. 8:10).

(2.) The fifth son of Joktan, the founder of an Arab tribe (Gen. 10:27; 1 Chr. 1:21).

(3.) One who was “over the tribute;” i.e., “over the levy.” He was stoned by the Israelites after they had revolted from Rehoboam (2 Chr. 10:18). Called also Adoram (2 Sam. 20:24) and Adoniram (1 Kings 4:6).

Hadrach The name of a country (Zech. 9:1) which cannot be identified. Rawlinson would identify it with Edessa. He mentions that in the Assyrian inscriptions it is recorded that “Shalmanezer III. made two expeditions, the first against Damascus B.C. 773, and the second against Hadrach B.C. 772; and again that Asshurdanin-il II. made expeditions against Hadrach in B.C. 765 and 755.”

Haemorrhoids Or Emerods, bleeding piles known to the ancient Romans as mariscae, but more probably malignant boils of an infectious and fatal character. With this loathsome and infectious disease the men of Ashdod were smitten by the hand of the Lord. This calamity they attributed to the presence of the ark in their midst, and therefore they removed it to Gath (1 Sam. 5:6-8). But the same consequences followed from its presence in Gath, and therefore they had it removed to Ekron, 11 miles distant. The Ekronites were afflicted with the same dreadful malady, but more severely; and a panic seizing the people, they demanded that the ark should be sent back to the land of Israel (9-12; 6:1-9).

Haft A handle as of a dagger (Judg. 3:22).

Hagar Flight, or, according to others, stranger, an Egyptian, Sarah’s handmaid (Gen. 16:1; 21:9, 10), whom she gave to Abraham (q.v.) as a secondary wife (16:2). When she was about to become a mother she fled from the cruelty of her mistress, intending apparently to return to her relatives in Egypt, through the desert of Shur, which lay between. Wearied and worn she had reached the place she distinguished by the name of Beer-lahai-roi (“the well of the visible God”), where the angel of the Lord appeared to her. In obedience to the heavenly visitor she returned to the tent of Abraham, where her son Ishmael was born, and where she remained (16) till after the birth of Isaac, the space of fourteen years. Sarah after this began to vent her dissatisfaction both on Hagar and her child. Ishmael’s conduct was insulting to Sarah, and she insisted that he and his mother should be dismissed. This was accordingly done, although with reluctance on the part of Abraham (Gen. 21:14). They wandered out into the wilderness, where Ishmael, exhausted with his journey and faint from thirst, seemed about to die. Hagar “lifted up her voice and wept,” and the angel of the Lord, as before, appeared unto her, and she was comforted and delivered out of her distresses (Gen. 21:18, 19).

Ishmael afterwards established himself in the wilderness of Paran, where he married an Egyptian (Gen. 21:20, 21).

“Hagar” allegorically represents the Jewish church (Gal. 4:24), in bondage to the ceremonial law; while “Sarah” represents the Christian church, which is free.

Hagarene Or Hagarite. (1.) One of David’s mighty men (1 Chr. 11:38), the son of a foreigner.

(2.) Used of Jaziz (1 Chr. 27:31), who was over David’s flocks. “A Hagarite had charge of David’s flocks, and an Ishmaelite of his herds, because the animals were pastured in districts where these nomadic people were accustomed to feed their cattle.”

(3.) In the reign of Saul a great war was waged between the trans-Jordanic tribes and the Hagarites (1 Chr. 5), who were overcome in battle. A great booty was captured by the two tribes and a half, and they took possession of the land of the Hagarites.

Subsequently the “Hagarenes,” still residing in the land on the east of Jordan, entered into a conspiracy against Israel (comp. Ps. 83:6). They are distinguished from the Ishmaelites.

Haggai Festive, one of the twelve so-called minor prophets. He was the first of the three (Zechariah, his contemporary, and Malachi, who was about one hundred years later, being the other two) whose ministry belonged to the period of Jewish history which began after the return from captivity in Babylon. Scarcely anything is known of his personal history. He may have been one of the captives taken to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar. He began his ministry about sixteen years after the Return. The work of rebuilding the temple had been put a stop to through the intrigues of the Samaritans. After having been suspended for fifteen years, the work was resumed through the efforts of Haggai and Zechariah (Ezra 6:14), who by their exhortations roused the people from their lethargy, and induced them to take advantage of the favourable opportunity that had arisen in a change in the policy of the Persian government. (See [254]DARIUS [2].) Haggai’s prophecies have thus been characterized:, “There is a ponderous and simple dignity in the emphatic reiteration addressed alike to every class of the community, prince, priest, and people, Be strong, be strong, be strong’ (2:4). Cleave, stick fast, to the work you have to do;’ or again, Consider your ways, consider, consider, consider’ (1:5, 7;2:15, 18). It is the Hebrew phrase for the endeavour, characteristic of the gifted seers of all times, to compel their hearers to turn the inside of their hearts outwards to their own view, to take the mask from off their consciences, to see life steadily, and to see it wholly.'”, Stanley’s Jewish Church. (See [255]SIGNET.)

Haggai, Book of Consists of two brief, comprehensive chapters. The object of the prophet was generally to urge the people to proceed with the rebuilding of the temple.

Chapter first comprehends the first address (2-11) and its effects (12-15). Chapter second contains,

(1.) The second prophecy (1-9), which was delivered a month after the first.

(2.) The third prophecy (10-19), delivered two months and three days after the second; and

(3.) The fourth prophecy (20-23), delivered on the same day as the third.

These discourses are referred to in Ezra 5:1; 6:14; Heb. 12:26. (Comp. Hag. 2:7, 8, 22.)

Haggith Festive; the dancer, a wife of David and the mother of Adonijah (2 Sam. 3:4; 1 Kings 1:5, 11; 2:13; 1 Chr. 3:2), who, like Absalom, was famed for his beauty.

Hagiographa The holy writings, a term which came early into use in the Christian church to denote the third division of the Old Testament scriptures, called by the Jews Kethubim, i.e., “Writings.” It consisted of five books, viz., Job, Proverbs, and Psalms, and the two books of Chronicles. The ancient Jews classified their sacred books as the Law, the Prophets, and the Kethubim, or Writings. (See [256]BIBLE.)

In the New Testament (Luke 24:44) we find three corresponding divisions, viz., the Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms.

Hail! A salutation expressive of a wish for the welfare of the person addressed; the translation of the Greek Chaire, “Rejoice” (Luke 1:8). Used in mockery in Matt. 27:29.

Hail Frozen rain-drops; one of the plagues of Egypt (Ex. 9:23). It is mentioned by Haggai as a divine judgment (Hag. 2:17). A hail-storm destroyed the army of the Amorites when they fought against Joshua (Josh. 10:11). Ezekiel represents the wall daubed with untempered mortar as destroyed by great hail-stones (Ezek. 13:11). (See also 38:22; Rev. 8:7; 11:19; 16:21.)

Hair (1.) The Egyptians let the hair of their head and beard grow only when they were in mourning, shaving it off at other times. “So particular were they on this point that to have neglected it was a subject of reproach and ridicule; and whenever they intended to convey the idea of a man of low condition, or a slovenly person, the artists represented him with a beard.” Joseph shaved himself before going in to Pharoah (Gen. 41:14). The women of Egypt wore their hair long and plaited. Wigs were worn by priests and laymen to cover the shaven skull, and false beards were common. The great masses of hair seen in the portraits and statues of kings and priests are thus altogether artificial.

(2.) A precisely opposite practice, as regards men, prevailed among the Assyrians. In Assyrian sculptures the hair always appears long, and combed closely down upon the head. The beard also was allowed to grow to its full length.

(3.) Among the Greeks the custom in this respect varied at different times, as it did also among the Romans. In the time of the apostle, among the Greeks the men wore short hair, while that of the women was long (1 Cor. 11:14, 15). Paul reproves the Corinthians for falling in with a style of manners which so far confounded the distinction of the sexes and was hurtful to good morals. (See, however, 1 Tim. 2:9, and 1 Pet. 3:3, as regards women.)

(4.) Among the Hebrews the natural distinction between the sexes was preserved by the women wearing long hair (Luke 7:38; John 11:2; 1 Cor. 11:6), while the men preserved theirs as a rule at a moderate length by frequent clipping.

Baldness disqualified any one for the priest’s office (Lev. 21).

Elijah is called a “hairy man” (2 Kings 1:8) from his flowing locks, or more probably from the shaggy cloak of hair which he wore. His raiment was of camel’s hair.

Long hair is especially noticed in the description of Absalom’s person (2 Sam. 14:26); but the wearing of long hair was unusual, and was only practised as an act of religious observance by Nazarites (Num. 6:5; Judg. 13:5) and others in token of special mercies (Acts 18:18).

In times of affliction the hair was cut off (Isa. 3:17, 24; 15:2; 22:12; Jer. 7:29; Amos 8:10). Tearing the hair and letting it go dishevelled were also tokens of grief (Ezra 9:3). “Cutting off the hair” is a figure of the entire destruction of a people (Isa. 7:20). The Hebrews anointed the hair profusely with fragrant ointments (Ruth 3:3; 2 Sam. 14:2; Ps. 23:5; 45:7, etc.), especially in seasons of rejoicing (Matt. 6:17; Luke 7:46).

Hakkoz The thorn, the head of one of the courses of the priests (1 Chr. 24:10).

Halah A district of Media to which captive Israelites were transported by the Assyrian kings (2 Kings 17:6; 18:11; 1 Chr. 5:26). It lay along the banks of the upper Khabur, from its source to its junction with the Jerujer. Probably the district called by Ptolemy Chalcitis.

Halak Smooth; bald, a hill at the southern extremity of Canaan (Josh. 11:17). It is referred to as if it were a landmark in that direction, being prominent and conspicuous from a distance. It has by some been identified with the modern Jebel el-Madura, on the south frontier of Judah, between the south end of the Dead Sea and the Wady Gaian.

Halhul Full of hollows, a town in the highlands of Judah (Josh. 15:58). It is now a small village of the same name, and is situated about 5 miles north-east of Hebron on the way to Jerusalem. There is an old Jewish tradition that Gad, David’s seer (2 Sam. 24:11), was buried here.

Hall (Gr. aule, Luke 22:55; R.V., “court”), the open court or quadrangle belonging to the high priest’s house. In Matt. 26:69 and Mark 14:66 this word is incorrectly rendered “palace” in the Authorized Version, but correctly “court” in the Revised Version. In John 10:1, 16 it means a “sheep-fold.” In Matt. 27:27 and Mark 15:16 (A.V., “common hall;” R.V., “palace”) it refers to the proetorium or residence of the Roman governor at Jerusalem. The “porch” in Matt. 26:71 is the entrance-hall or passage leading into the central court, which is open to the sky.

Hallel Praise, the name given to the group of Psalms 113-118, which are preeminently psalms of praise. It is called “The Egyptian Hallel,” because it was chanted in the temple whilst the Passover lambs were being slain. It was chanted also on other festival occasions, as at Pentecost, the feast of Tabernacles, and the feast of Dedication. The Levites, standing before the altar, chanted it verse by verse, the people responding by repeating the verses or by intoned hallelujahs. It was also chanted in private families at the feast of Passover. This was probably the hymn which our Saviour and his disciples sung at the conclusion of the Passover supper kept by them in the upper room at Jerusalem (Matt. 26:30; Mark 14:26).

There is also another group called “The Great Hallel,” comprehending Psalms 118-136, which was recited on the first evening at the Passover supper and on occasions of great joy.

Hallelujah Praise ye Jehovah, frequently rendered “Praise ye the LORD,” stands at the beginning of ten of the psalms (106, 111-113, 135, 146-150), hence called “hallelujah psalms.” From its frequent occurrence it grew into a formula of praise. The Greek form of the word (alleluia) is found in Rev. 19:1, 3, 4, 6.

Hallow To render sacred, to consecrate (Ex. 28:38; 29:1). This word is from the Saxon, and properly means “to make holy.” The name of God is “hallowed”, i.e., is reverenced as holy (Matt. 6:9).

Halt Lame on the feet (Gen. 32:31; Ps. 38:17). To “halt between two opinions” (1 Kings 18:21) is supposed by some to be an expression used in “allusion to birds, which hop from spray to spray, forwards and backwards.” The LXX. render the expression “How long go ye lame on both knees?” The Hebrew verb rendered “halt” is used of the irregular dance (“leaped upon”) around the altar (ver. 26). It indicates a lame, uncertain gait, going now in one direction, now in another, in the frenzy of wild leaping.

Ham Warm, hot, and hence the south; also an Egyptian word meaning “black”, the youngest son of Noah (Gen. 5:32; comp. 9:22, 24). The curse pronounced by Noah against Ham, properly against Canaan his fourth son, was accomplished when the Jews subsequently exterminated the Canaanites.

One of the most important facts recorded in Gen. 10 is the foundation of the earliest monarchy in Babylonia by Nimrod the grandson of Ham (6, 8, 10). The primitive Babylonian empire was thus Hamitic, and of a cognate race with the primitive inhabitants of Arabia and of Ethiopia. (See [257]ACCAD.)

The race of Ham were the most energetic of all the descendants of Noah in the early times of the post-diluvian world.

Haman (of Persian origin), magnificent, the name of the vizier (i.e., the prime minister) of the Persian king Ahasuerus (Esther 3:1, etc.). He is called an “Agagite,” which seems to denote that he was descended from the royal family of the Amalekites, the bitterest enemies of the Jews, as Agag was one of the titles of the Amalekite kings. He or his parents were brought to Persia as captives taken in war. He was hanged on the gallows which he had erected for Mordecai the Jew (Esther 7:10). (See [258]ESTHER.)

Hamath Fortress, the capital of one of the kingdoms of Upper Syria of the same name, on the Orontes, in the valley of Lebanon, at the northern boundary of Palestine (Num. 13:21; 34:8), at the foot of Hermon (Josh. 13:5) towards Damascus (Zech. 9:2; Jer. 49:23). It is called “Hamath the great” in Amos 6:2, and “Hamath-zobah” in 2 Chr. 8:3.

Hamath, now Hamah, had an Aramaean population, but Hittite monuments discovered there show that it must have been at one time occupied by the Hittites. It was among the conquests of the Pharaoh Thothmes III. Its king, Tou or Toi, made alliance with David (2 Sam. 8:10), and in B.C. 740 Azariah formed a league with it against Assyria. It was, however, conquered by the Assyrians, and its nineteen districts placed under Assyrian governors. In B.C. 720 it revolted under a certain Yahu-bihdi, whose name, compounded with that of the God of Israel (Yahu), perhaps shows that he was of Jewish origin. But the revolt was suppressed, and the people of Hamath were transported to Samaria (2 Kings 17:24, 30), where they continued to worship their god Ashima. Hamah is beautifully situated on the Orontes, 32 miles north of Emesa, and 36 south of the ruins of Assamea.

The kingdom of Hamath comprehended the great plain lying on both banks of the Orontes from the fountain near Riblah to Assamea on the north, and from Lebanon on the west to the desert on the east. The “entrance of Hamath” (Num. 34:8), which was the north boundary of Palestine, led from the west between the north end of Lebanon and the Nusairiyeh mountains.

Hamath-zobah Fortress of Zobah, (2 Chr. 8:3) is supposed by some to be a different place from the foregoing; but this is quite uncertain.

Hammath Warm springs, one of the “fenced cities” of Naphtali (Josh. 19:35). It is identified with the warm baths (the heat of the water ranging from 136 degrees to 144 degrees) still found on the shore a little to the south of Tiberias under the name of Hummam Tabariyeh (“Bath of Tiberias”).

Hammedatha Father of Haman, designated usually “the Agagite” (Esther 3:1, 10; 8:5).

Hammelech The king’s, the father of Jerahmeel, mentioned in Jer. 36:26. Some take this word as a common noun, “the king”, and understand that Jerahmeel was Jehoiakim’s son. Probably, however, it is to be taken as a proper name.

Hammer (1.) Heb. pattish, used by gold-beaters (Isa. 41:7) and by quarry-men (Jer. 23:29). Metaphorically of Babylon (Jer. 50:23) or Nebuchadnezzar.

(2.) Heb. makabah, a stone-cutter’s mallet (1 Kings 6:7), or of any workman (Judg. 4:21; Isa. 44:12).

(3.) Heb. halmuth, a poetical word for a workman’s hammer, found only in Judg. 5:26, where it denotes the mallet with which the pins of the tent of the nomad are driven into the ground.

(4.) Heb. mappets, rendered “battle-axe” in Jer. 51:20. This was properly a “mace,” which is thus described by Rawlinson: “The Assyrian mace was a short, thin weapon, and must either have been made of a very tough wood or (and this is more probable) of metal. It had an ornamented head, which was sometimes very beautifully modelled, and generally a strap or string at the lower end by which it could be grasped with greater firmness.”

Hammoleketh The queen, the daughter of Machir and sister of Gilead (1 Chr. 7:17, 18). Abiezer was one of her three children.

Hammon Warm springs. (1.) A town in the tribe of Asher, near Zidon (Josh. 19:28), identified with Ain Hamul.

(2.) A Levitical city of Naphtali (1 Chr. 6:76).

Hammoth-dor Warm springs, a Levitical city of Naphtali (Josh. 21:32); probably Hammath in 19:35.

Hamon See [259]BAAL-HAMON.

Hamonah Multitude, a name figuratively assigned to the place in which the slaughter and burial of the forces of Gog were to take place (Ezek. 39:16).

Hamon-gog Multitude of Gog, the name of the valley in which the slaughtered forces of Gog are to be buried (Ezek. 39:11, 15), “the valley of the passengers on the east of the sea.”

Hamor He-ass, a Hivite from whom Jacob purchased the plot of ground in which Joseph was afterwards buried (Gen. 33:19). He is called “Emmor” in Acts 7:16. His son Shechem founded the city of that name which Simeon and Levi destroyed because of his crime in the matter of Dinah, Jacob’s daughter (Gen. 34:20). Hamor and Shechem were also slain (ver. 26).

Hamul Spared, one of the sons of Pharez, son of Judah (1 Chr. 2:5). His descendants are called Hamulites (Num. 26:21).

Hamutal Kinsman of the dew, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah, wife of king Josiah, and mother of king Jehoahaz (2 Kings 23:31), also of king Zedekiah (2 Kings 24:18).

Hanameel Whom God has graciously given, the cousin of Jeremiah, to whom he sold the field he possessed in Anathoth, before the siege of Jerusalem (Jer. 32:6-12).

Hanan Merciful. (1.) A Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:23). (2.) One of David’s heroes (1 Chr. 11:43). (3.) Jer. 35:4. (4.) A descendant of Saul (1 Chr. 8:38). (5.) One of the Nethinim (Ezra 2:46). (6.) One of the Levites who assisted Ezra (Neh. 8:7). (7.) One of the chiefs who subscribed the covenant (Neh. 10:22).

Hananeel God has graciously given, a tower in the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:1; 12:39). It is mentioned also in Jer. 31:38; Zech. 14:10.

Hanani God has gratified me, or is gracious. (1.) One of the sons of Heman (1 Chr. 25:4, 25). (2.) A prophet who was sent to rebuke king Asa for entering into a league with Benhadad I., king of Syria, against Judah (2 Chr. 16:1-10). He was probably the father of the prophet Jehu (1 Kings 16:7). (3.) Probably a brother of Nehemiah (Neh. 1:2; 7:2), who reported to him the melancholy condition of Jerusalem. Nehemiah afterwards appointed him to have charge of the city gates.

Hananiah Jehovah has given. (1.) A chief of the tribe of Benjamin (1 Chr. 8:24). (2.) One of the sons of Heman (1 Chr. 25:4, 23). (3.) One of Uzziah’s military officers (2 Chr. 26:11). (4.) Grandfather of the captain who arrested Jeremiah (Jer. 37:13). (5.) Jer. 36:12. (6.) Neh. 10:23. (7.) Shadrach, one of the “three Hebrew children” (Dan. 1; 6:7). (8.) Son of Zerubbabel (1 Chr. 3:19, 21). (9.) Ezra 10:28. (10.) The “ruler of the palace; he was a faithful man, and feared God above many” (Neh. 7:2). (11.) Neh. 3:8. (12.) Neh. 3:30 (13.) A priest, son of Jeremiah (Neh. 12:12). (14.) A false prophet contemporary with Jeremiah (28:3, 17).

Hand Called by Galen “the instrument of instruments.” It is the symbol of human action (Ps. 9:16; Job 9:30; Isa. 1:15; 1 Tim. 2:8). Washing the hands was a symbol of innocence (Ps. 26:6; 73:13; Matt. 27:24), also of sanctification (1 Cor. 6:11; Isa. 51:16; Ps. 24:3, 4). In Ps. 77:2 the correct rendering is, as in the Revised Version, “My hand was stretched out,” etc., instead of, as in the Authorized Version, “My sore ran in the night,” etc.

The right hand denoted the south, and the left the north (Job 23:9; 1 Sam. 23:19). To give the right hand was a pledge of fidelity (2 Kings 10:15; Ezra 10:19); also of submission to the victors (Ezek. 17:18; Jer. 50:15). The right hand was lifted up in taking an oath (Gen. 14:22, etc.). The hand is frequently mentioned, particularly the right hand, as a symbol of power and strength (Ps. 60:5; Isa. 28:2). To kiss the hand is an act of homage (1 Kings 19:18; Job 31:27), and to pour water on one’s hands is to serve him (2 Kings 3:11). The hand of God is the symbol of his power: its being upon one denotes favour (Ezra 7:6, 28; Isa. 1:25; Luke 1:66, etc.) or punishment (Ex. 9:3; Judg. 2:15; Acts 13:11, etc.). A position at the right hand was regarded as the chief place of honour and power (Ps. 45:9; 80:17; 110:1; Matt. 26:64).

Handbreadth A measure of four fingers, equal to about four inches (Ex. 25:25; 37:12; Ps. 39:5, etc.).

Handkerchief Only once in Authorized Version (Acts 19:12). The Greek word (sudarion) so rendered means properly “a sweat-cloth.” It is rendered “napkin” in John 11:44; 20:7; Luke 19:20.

Handmaid Servant (Gen. 16:1; Ruth 3:9; Luke 1:48). It is probable that Hagar was Sarah’s personal attendant while she was in the house of Pharaoh, and was among those maid-servants whom Abram had brought from Egypt.

Handwriting (Col. 2:14). The “blotting out the handwriting” is the removal by the grace of the gospel of the condemnation of the law which we had broken.

Hanes A place in Egypt mentioned only in Isa. 30:4 in connection with a reproof given to the Jews for trusting in Egypt. It was considered the same as Tahpanhes, a fortified town on the eastern frontier, but has been also identified as Ahnas-el-Medeeneh, 70 miles from Cairo.

Hanging (as a punishment), a mark of infamy inflicted on the dead bodies of criminals (Deut. 21:23) rather than our modern mode of punishment. Criminals were first strangled and then hanged (Nu. 25:4; Deut. 21:22). (See 2 Sam. 21:6 for the practice of the Gibeonites.)

Hanging (as a curtain). (1.) Heb. masak, (a) before the entrance to the court of the tabernacle (Ex. 35:17); (b) before the door of the tabernacle (26:36, 37); (c) before the entrance to the most holy place, called “the veil of the covering” (35:12; 39:34), as the word properly means.

(2.) Heb. kelaim, tapestry covering the walls of the tabernacle (Ex. 27:9; 35:17; Num. 3:26) to the half of the height of the wall (Ex. 27:18; comp. 26:16). These hangings were fastened to pillars.

(3.) Heb. bottim (2 Kings 23:7), “hangings for the grove” (R.V., “for the Asherah”); marg., instead of “hangings,” has “tents” or “houses.” Such curtained structures for idolatrous worship are also alluded to in Ezek. 16:16.

Hannah Favour, grace, one of the wives of Elkanah the Levite, and the mother of Samuel (1 Sam. 1; 2). Her home was at Ramathaim-zophim, whence she was wont every year to go to Shiloh, where the tabernacle had been pitched by Joshua, to attend the offering of sacrifices there according to the law (Ex. 23:15; 34:18; Deut. 16:16), probably at the feast of the Passover (comp. Ex. 13:10). On occasion of one of these “yearly” visits, being grieved by reason of Peninnah’s conduct toward her, she went forth alone, and kneeling before the Lord at the sanctuary she prayed inaudibly. Eli the high priest, who sat at the entrance to the holy place, observed her, and misunderstanding her character he harshly condemned her conduct (1 Sam. 1:14-16). After hearing her explanation he retracted his injurious charge and said to her, “Go in peace: and the God of Israel grant thee thy petition.” Perhaps the story of the wife of Manoah was not unknown to her. Thereafter Elkanah and his family retired to their quiet home, and there, before another Passover, Hannah gave birth to a son, whom, in grateful memory of the Lord’s goodness, she called Samuel, i.e., “heard of God.” After the child was weaned (probably in his third year) she brought him to Shiloh into the house of the Lord, and said to Eli the aged priest, “Oh my lord, I am the woman that stood by thee here, praying unto the Lord. For this child I prayed; and the Lord hath given me my petition which I asked of him: therefore I also have granted him to the Lord; as long as he liveth he is granted to the Lord” (1 Sam. 1:27, 28, R.V.). Her gladness of heart then found vent in that remarkable prophetic song (2:1-10; comp. Luke 1:46-55) which contains the first designation of the Messiah under that name (1 Sam. 2:10, “Annointed” = “Messiah”). And so Samuel and his parents parted. He was left at Shiloh to minister “before the Lord.” And each year, when they came up to Shiloh, Hannah brought to her absent child “a little coat” (Heb. meil, a term used to denote the “robe” of the ephod worn by the high priest, Ex. 28:31), a priestly robe, a long upper tunic (1 Chr. 15:27), in which to minister in the tabernacle (1 Sam. 2:19; 15:27; Job 2:12). “And the child Samuel grew before the Lord.” After Samuel, Hannah had three sons and two daughters.

Hanniel Grace of God. (1.) A chief of the tribe of Manasseh (Num. 34:23). (2.) A chief of the tribe of Asher (1 Chr. 7:39).

Hanun Graciously given. (1.) The son and successor of Nahash, king of Moab. David’s messengers, sent on an embassy of condolence to him to Rabbah Ammon, his capital, were so grossly insulted that he proclaimed war against Hanun. David’s army, under the command of Joab, forthwith crossed the Jordan, and gained a complete victory over the Moabites and their allies (2 Sam. 10:1-14) at Medeba (q.v.).

(2.) Neh. 3:13. (3.) 3:30.

Hara Mountainous land, a province of Assyria (1 Chr. 5:26), between the Tigris and the Euphrates, along the banks of the Khabur, to which some of the Israelite captives were carried. It has not been identified. Some think the word a variation of Haran.

Haradah Fright; fear, the twenty-fifth station of the Israelites in their wanderings (Num. 33:24).

Haran (1.) Heb. haran; i.e., “mountaineer.” The eldest son of Terah, brother of Abraham and Nahor, and father of Lot, Milcah, and Iscah. He died before his father (Gen. 11:27), in Ur of the Chaldees.

(2.) Heb. haran, i.e., “parched;” or probably from the Accadian charana, meaning “a road.” A celebrated city of Western Asia, now Harran, where Abram remained, after he left Ur of the Chaldees, till his father Terah died (Gen. 11:31, 32), when he continued his journey into the land of Canaan. It is called “Charran” in the LXX. and in Acts 7:2. It is called the “city of Nahor” (Gen. 24:10), and Jacob resided here with Laban (30:43). It stood on the river Belik, an affluent of the Euphrates, about 70 miles above where it joins that river in Upper Mesopotamia or Padan-aram, and about 600 miles northwest of Ur in a direct line. It was on the caravan route between the east and west. It is afterwards mentioned among the towns taken by the king of Assyria (2 Kings 19:12; Isa. 37:12). It was known to the Greeks and Romans under the name Carrhae.

(3.) The son of Caleb of Judah (1 Chr. 2:46) by his concubine Ephah.

Harbona (a Persian word meaning “ass-driver”), one of the seven eunuchs or chamberlains of king Ahasuerus (Esther 1:10; 7:9).

Hare (Heb. arnebeth) was prohibited as food according to the Mosaic law (Lev. 11:6; Deut. 14:7), “because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof.” The habit of this animal is to grind its teeth and move its jaw as if it actually chewed the cud. But, like the cony (q.v.), it is not a ruminant with four stomachs, but a rodent like the squirrel, rat, etc. Moses speaks of it according to appearance. It is interdicted because, though apparently chewing the cud, it did not divide the hoof.

There are two species in Syria, (1) the Lepus Syriacus or Syrian hare, which is like the English hare; and (2) the Lepus Sinaiticus, or hare of the desert. No rabbits are found in Syria.

Hareth Thicket, a wood in the mountains of Judah where David hid when pursued by Saul (1 Sam. 22:5). It was possibly while he was here that the memorable incident narrated in 2 Sam. 23:14-17, 1 Chr. 11:16-19 occurred. This place has not been identified, but perhaps it may be the modern Kharas, on the borders of the chain of mountains some 3 miles east of Keilah.

Harhaiah Zeal of Jehovah, (Neh. 3:8) “of the goldsmiths,” one whose son helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem.

Harhur Fever, one of the Nethinim (Ezra 2:51).

Harim Flat-nosed. (1.) The head of the second course of priests (1 Chr. 24:8). (2.) Ezra 2:32, 39; Neh. 7:35, 42. (3.) Neh. 3:11. (4.) 12:3. (5.) 10:5

Hariph Autumnal rain. (1.) Neh. 7:24. (2.) 10:19.

Harlot (1.) Heb. zonah (Gen. 34:31; 38:15). In verses 21, 22 the Hebrew word used in kedeshah, i.e., a woman consecrated or devoted to prostitution in connection with the abominable worship of Asherah or Astarte, the Syrian Venus. This word is also used in Deut. 23:17; Hos. 4:14. Thus Tamar sat by the wayside as a consecrated kedeshah.

It has been attempted to show that Rahab, usually called a “harlot” (Josh. 2:1; 6:17; Heb. 11:31; James 2:25), was only an innkeeper. This interpretation, however, cannot be maintained.

Jephthah’s mother is called a “strange woman” (Judg. 11:2). This, however, merely denotes that she was of foreign extraction.

In the time of Solomon harlots appeared openly in the streets, and he solemnly warns against association with them (Prov. 7:12; 9:14. See also Jer. 3:2; Ezek. 16:24, 25, 31). The Revised Version, following the LXX., has “and the harlots washed,” etc., instead of the rendering of the Authorized Version, “now they washed,” of 1 Kings 22:38.

To commit fornication is metaphorically used for to practice idolatry (Jer. 3:1; Ezek. 16:15; Hos. throughout); hence Jerusalem is spoken of as a harlot (Isa. 1:21).

(2.) Heb. nokriyah, the “strange woman” (1 Kings 11:1; Prov. 5:20; 7:5; 23:27). Those so designated were Canaanites and other Gentiles (Josh. 23:13). To the same class belonged the “foolish”, i.e., the sinful, “woman.”

In the New Testament the Greek pornai, plural, “harlots,” occurs in Matt. 21:31, 32, where they are classed with publicans; Luke 15:30; 1 Cor. 6:15, 16; Heb. 11:31; James 2:25. It is used symbolically in Rev. 17:1, 5, 15, 16; 19:2.

Harnepher A chief of the tribe of Asher (1 Chr. 7:36).

Harness (1.) Heb. asar, “to bind;” hence the act of fastening animals to a cart (1 Sam. 6:7, 10; Jer. 46:4, etc.).

(2.) An Old English word for “armour;” Heb. neshek (2 Chr. 9:24).

(3.) Heb. shiryan, a coat of mail (1 Kings 22:34; 2 Chr. 18:33; rendered “breastplate” in Isa. 59:17).

(4.) The children of Israel passed out of Egypt “harnessed” (Ex. 13:18), i.e., in an orderly manner, and as if to meet a foe. The word so rendered is probably a derivative from Hebrew hamesh (i.e., “five”), and may denote that they went up in five divisions, viz., the van, centre, two wings, and rear-guard.

Harod Palpitation, a fountain near which Gideon and his army encamped on the morning of the day when they encountered and routed the Midianites (Judg. 7). It was south of the hill Moreh. The present Ain Jalud (“Goliath’s Fountain”), south of Jezreel and nearly opposite Shunem, is probably the fountain here referred to (7:4, 5).

Harodite An epithet applied to two of David’s heroes (2 Sam. 23:25). (Comp. 1 Chr. 11:27.)

Harosheth of the Gentiles (Judg. 4:2) or nations, a city near Hazor in Galilee of the Gentiles, or Upper Galilee, in the north of Palestine. It was here that Jabin’s great army was marshalled before it went forth into the great battlefield of Esdraelon to encounter the army of Israel, by which it was routed and put to flight (Judg. 4). It was situated “at the entrance of the pass to Esdraelon from the plain of Acre” at the base of Carmel. The name in the Hebrew is Harosheth ha Gojim, i.e., “the smithy of the nations;” probably, as is supposed, so called because here Jabin’s iron war-chariots, armed with scythes, were made. It is identified with el-Harithiyeh.

Harp (Heb. kinnor), the national instrument of the Hebrews. It was invented by Jubal (Gen. 4:21). Some think the word kinnor denotes the whole class of stringed instruments. It was used as an accompaniment to songs of cheerfulness as well as of praise to God (Gen. 31:27; 1 Sam. 16:23; 2 Chr. 20:28; Ps. 33:2; 137:2).

In Solomon’s time harps were made of almug-trees (1 Kings 10:11, 12). In 1 Chr. 15:21 mention is made of “harps on the Sheminith;” Revised Version, “harps set to the Sheminith;” better perhaps “harps of eight strings.” The soothing effect of the music of the harp is referred to 1 Sam. 16:16, 23; 18:10; 19:9. The church in heaven is represented as celebrating the triumphs of the Redeemer “harping with their harps” (Rev. 14:2).

Harrow (Heb. harits), a tribulum or sharp threshing sledge; a frame armed on the under side with rollers or sharp spikes (2 Sam. 12:31; 1 Chr. 20:3).

Heb. verb sadad, to harrow a field, break its clods (Job 39:10; Isa. 28:4; Hos. 10: 11). Its form is unknown. It may have resembled the instrument still in use in Egypt.

Harsha Worker or enchanter, one of the Nethinim (Ezra 2:52; Neh. 7:54).

Hart (Heb. ayal), a stag or male deer. It is ranked among the clean animals (Deut. 12:15; 14:5; 15:22), and was commonly killed for food (1 Kings 4:23). The hart is frequently alluded to in the poetical and prophetical books (Isa. 35:6; Cant. 2:8, 9; Lam. 1:6; Ps. 42:1).

Harum Elevated, (1 Chr. 4:8), a descendant of Judah.

Haruphite A native of Hariph; an epithet given to Shephatiah, one of those who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:5).

Haruz Eager, the father of Meshullemeth, the wife of king Manasseh (2 Kings 21:19) and mother of king Amon.

Harvest The season for gathering grain or fruit. On the 16th day of Abib (or April) a handful of ripe ears of corn was offered as a first-fruit before the Lord, and immediately after this the harvest commenced (Lev. 23:9-14; 2 Sam. 21:9, 10; Ruth 2:23). It began with the feast of Passover and ended with Pentecost, thus lasting for seven weeks (Ex. 23:16). The harvest was a season of joy (Ps. 126:1-6; Isa. 9:3). This word is used figuratively Matt. 9:37; 13:30; Luke 10:2; John 4:35. (See [260]AGRICULTURE.)

Hasadiah Favoured by Jehovah, one of the sons of Pedaiah (1 Chr. 3:20), of the royal line of David.

Hasenuah Bristling or hated, a Benjamite (1 Chr. 9:7).

Hashabiah Regarded by Jehovah. (1.) Merarite Levite (1 Chr. 6:45; 9:14). (2.) A son of Jeduthun (25:3, 19). (3.) Son of Kemuel (26:30). (4.) One of the chief Levites (2 Chr. 35:9). (5.) A Levite (Neh. 11:22). (6.) One of the chief priests in the time of Ezra (Ezra 8:24). (7.) A chief of the Levites (Neh. 12:24). (8.) Ezra 8:19. (9.) Neh. 3:17.

Hashabniah (1.) Neh. 3:10. (2.) One of the Levites whom Ezra appointed to interpret the law to the people (Neh. 9:5).

Hashbadana Consideration in judging, stood at Ezra’s left hand when he read the law (Neh. 8:4).

Hashmonah Fatness, the thirtieth halting-place of the Israelites during their wanderings in the wilderness, not far from Mount Hor (Num. 33:29, 30).

Hashub Intelligent. (1.) A Levite of the family of Merari (Neh. 11:15; 1 Chr. 9:14). (2.) Neh. 3:23. 3:11.

Hashubah Ibid., a descendant of David (1 Chr. 3:20).

Hashum Opulent. (1.) Ezra 2:19; Neh. 7:22. (2.) Stood on Ezra’s left hand while he read the law (Neh. 8:4).

Hasrah Poverty, “keeper of the wardrobe,” i.e., of the sacerdotal vestments (2 Chr. 34:22); called Harhas 2 Kings 22:14. He was husband of the prophetess Huldah.

Hasupha Uncovered, one of the Nethinim (Ezra 2:43; Neh. 7:46).

Hat Chald. karb’ela, (Dan. 3:21), properly mantle or pallium. The Revised Version renders it “tunic.”

Hatach Verity, one of the eunuchs or chamberlains in the palace of Ahasuerus (Esther 4:5, 6, 9, 10).

Hathath Terror, son of Othniel (1 Chr. 4:13).

Hatipha Captured, one of the Nethinim (Ezra 2:54).

Hatita Exploration, one of the temple porters or janitors (Ezra 2:42). He returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel.

Hatred Among the works of the flesh (Gal. 5:20). Altogether different is the meaning of the word in Deut. 21:15; Matt. 6:24; Luke 14:26; Rom. 9:13, where it denotes only a less degree of love.

Hattush Assembled. (1.) A priest who returned with Zerubbabel (Neh. 12:2). (2.) Ezra 8:2. (3.) Neh. 3:10. (4.) Neh. 10:4. (5.) 1 Chr. 3:22.

Hauran Cave-land, mentioned only in Ezek. 47:16, 18. It was one of the ancient divisions of Bashan (q.v.), and lay on the south-east of Gaulanitis or the Jaulan, and on the south of Lejah, extending from the Arnon to the Hieromax. It was the most fertile region in Syria, and to this day abounds in the ruins of towns, many of which have stone doors and massive walls. It retains its ancient name. It was known by the Greeks and Romans as “Auranitis.”

Haven A harbour (Ps. 107:30; Acts 27: 12). The most famous on the coast of Palestine was that of Tyre (Ezek. 27:3). That of Crete, called “Fair Havens,” is mentioned Acts 27:8.

Havilah The sand region. (1.) A land mentioned in Gen. 2:11 rich in gold and bdellium and onyx stone. The question as to the locality of this region has given rise to a great diversity of opinion. It may perhaps be identified with the sandy tract which skirts Babylonia along the whole of its western border, stretching from the lower Euphrates to the mountains of Edom.

(2.) A district in Arabia-Felix. It is uncertain whether the tribe gave its name to this region or derived its name from it, and whether it was originally a Cushite (Gen. 10:7) or a Joktanite tribe (10:29; comp. 25:18), or whether there were both a Cushite and a Joktanite Havilah. It is the opinion of Kalisch, however, that Havilah “in both instances designates the same country, extending at least from the Persian to the Arabian Gulf, and on account of its vast extent easily divided into two distinct parts.” This opinion may be well vindicated.

(3.) One of the sons of Cush (Gen. 10:7).

(4.) A son of Joktan (Gen. 10:29; 1 Chr. 1:23).

Havoth-jair Hamlets of the enlightener a district in the east of Jordan. (1.) Jair, the son of Manasseh, took some villages of Gilead and called them by this name (Num. 32:41).

(2.) Again, it is said that Jair “took all the tract of Argob,” and called it Bashanhavoth-jair (Deut. 3:14). (See also Josh. 13:30; 1 Kings 4:13; 1 Chr. 2:22, 23.)

Hawk (Heb. netz, a word expressive of strong and rapid flight, and hence appropriate to the hawk). It is an unclean bird (Lev. 11:16; Deut. 14:15). It is common in Syria and surrounding countries. The Hebrew word includes various species of Falconidae, with special reference perhaps to the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), the hobby (Hypotriorchis subbuteo), and the lesser kestrel (Tin, Cenchris). The kestrel remains all the year in Palestine, but some ten or twelve other species are all migrants from the south. Of those summer visitors to Palestine special mention may be made of the Falco sacer and the Falco lanarius. (See [261]NIGHT-HAWK.)

Hay Properly so called, was not in use among the Hebrews; straw was used instead. They cut the grass green as it was needed. The word rendered “hay” in Prov. 27:25 means the first shoots of the grass. In Isa. 15:6 the Revised Version has correctly “grass,” where the Authorized Version has “hay.”

Hazael Whom God beholds, an officer of Ben-hadad II., king of Syria, who ultimately came to the throne, according to the word of the Lord to Elijah (1 Kings 19:15), after he had put the king to death (2 Kings 8:15). His interview with Elisha is mentioned in 2 Kings 8. The Assyrians soon after his accession to the throne came against him and defeated him with very great loss; and three years afterwards again invaded Syria, but on this occasion Hazael submitted to them. He then turned his arms against Israel, and ravaged “all the land of Gilead,” etc. (2 Kings 10:33), which he held in a degree of subjection to him (13:3-7, 22). He aimed at the subjugation also of the kingdom of Judah, when Joash obtained peace by giving him “all the gold that was found in the treasures of the house of the Lord, and in the king’s house” (2 Kings 12:18; 2 Chr. 24:24). He reigned about forty-six years (B.C. 886-840), and was succeeded on the throne by his son Ben-hadad (2 Kings 13:22-25), who on several occasions was defeated by Jehoash, the king of Israel, and compelled to restore all the land of Israel his father had taken.

Hazar-addar Village of Addar, a place in the southern boundary of Palestine (Num. 34:4), in the desert to the west of Kadesh-barnea. It is called Adar in Josh. 15:3.

Hazar-enan Village of fountains, a place on the north-east frontier of Palestine (Num. 34:9, 10). Some have identified it with Ayan ed-Dara in the heart of the central chain of Anti-Libanus. More probably, however, it has been identified with Kuryetein, about 60 miles east-north-east of Damascus. (Comp. Ezek. 47:17; 48:1.)

Hazar-gaddah Village of fortune, a city on the south border of Judah (Josh. 15:27), midway between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.

Hazar-hatticon Village of the midway, a place near Hamath in the confines of Hauran (Ezek. 47:16), probably on the north brow of Hermon.

Hazar-maveth Court of death, the third son of Joktan, and a region in Arabia-Felix settled by him (Gen. 10:26; 1 Chr. 1:20). It is probably the modern province of Hadramaut, situated on the Indian Ocean east of the modern Yemen.

Hazar-shual Village or enclosure of the jackal, a city on the south border of Judah (Josh. 15:28; Neh. 11:27). It has been identified with the ruins of Saweh, half-way between Beersheba and Moladah.

Hazar-susah Village of the horse, the same as Sansannah, one of Solomon’s “chariot cities” (Josh. 15:31; 2 Chr. 1:14), a depot in the south border of Judah.

Hazel Heb. luz, (Gen. 30:37), a nutbearing tree. The Hebrew word is rendered in the Vulgate by amygdalinus, “the almond-tree,” which is probably correct. That tree flourishes in Syria.

Hazerim Villages, probably the name of the temporary villages in which the nomad Avites resided (Deut. 2:23).

Hazeroth Fenced enclosures consisting of “a low wall of stones in which thick bundles of thorny acacia are inserted, the tangled branches and long needle-like spikes forming a perfectly impenetrable hedge around the encampment” of tents and cattle which they sheltered. Such like enclosures abound in the wilderness of Paran, which the Israelites entered after leaving Sinai (Num. 11:35; 12:16; 33:17, 18). This third encampment of the Israelites has been identified with the modern Ain el-Hudhera, some 40 miles north-east of Sinai. Here Miriam (q.v.), being displeased that Moses had married a Cushite wife (Num. 12:1), induced Aaron to join with her in rebelling against Moses. God vindicated the authority of his “servant Moses,” and Miriam was smitten with leprosy. Moses interceded for her, and she was healed (Num. 12:4-16). From this encampment the Israelites marched northward across the plateau of et-Tih, and at length reached KADESH.

Hazezon-tamar Pruning of the palm, the original name of the place afterwards called ENGEDI (q.v.), Gen. 14:7; called also HAZAZON-TAMAR (2 Chr. 20:2).

Hazo Vision, one of the sons of Nahor (Gen. 22:22).

Hazor Enclosed; fortified. (1.) A stronghold of the Canaanites in the mountains north of Lake Merom (Josh. 11:1-5). Jabin the king with his allied tribes here encountered Joshua in a great battle. Joshua gained a signal victory, which virtually completed his conquest of Canaan (11:10-13). This city was, however, afterwards rebuilt by the Canaanites, and was ruled by a king with the same hereditary name of Jabin. His army, under a noted leader of the name of Sisera, swept down upon the south, aiming at the complete subjugation of the country. This powerful army was met by the Israelites under Barak, who went forth by the advice of the prophetess Deborah. The result was one of the most remarkable victories for Israel recorded in the Old Testament (Josh. 19:36; Judg. 4:2; 1 Sam. 12:9). The city of Hazor was taken and occupied by the Israelites. It was fortified by Solomon to defend the entrance into the kingdom from Syria and Assyria. When Tiglath-pileser, the Assyrian king, invaded the land, this was one of the first cities he captured, carrying its inhabitants captive into Assyria (2 Kings 15:29). It has been identified with Khurbet Harrah, 2 1/2 miles south-east of Kedesh.

(2.) A city in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:23). The name here should probably be connected with the word following, Ithnan, HAZOR-ITHNAN instead of “Hazor and Ithnan.”

(3.) A district in Arabia (Jer. 49:28-33), supposed by some to be Jetor, i.e., Ituraea.

(4.) “Kerioth and Hezron” (Josh. 15: 25) should be “Kerioth-hezron” (as in the R.V.), the two names being joined together as the name of one place (e.g., like Kirjath-jearim), “the same is Hazor” (R.V.). This place has been identified with el-Kuryetein, and has been supposed to be the home of Judas Iscariot. (See [262]KERIOTH.)

Hazor-hadattah New Hazor, a city in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:25). It is probably identified with the ruins of el-Hazzarah, near Beit Jebrin.

Head-bands (Heb. kishshurim), properly girdles or belts for the waist (Isa. 3:20, R.V., “sashes;” Jer. 2:32, rendered “attire”, i.e., a girdle round the waist).

Head-dress Not in common use among the Hebrews. It is first mentioned in Ex. 28:40 (A.V., “bonnets;” R.V., “head-tires”). It was used especially for purposes of ornament (Job 29:14; Isa. 3:23; 62:3). The Hebrew word here used, tsaniph, properly means a turban, folds of linen wound round the head. The Hebrew word peer, used in Isa. 61:3, there rendered “beauty” (A.V.) and “garland” (R.V.), is a head-dress or turban worn by females (Isa. 3: 20, “bonnets”), priests (Ex. 39:28), a bridegroom (Isa. 61:10, “ornament;” R.V., “garland”). Ezek. 16:10 and Jonah 2:5 are to be understood of the turban wrapped round the head. The Hebrew shebisim (Isa. 3:18), in the Authorized Version rendered “cauls,” and marg. “networks,” denotes probably a kind of netted head-dress. The “horn” (Heb. keren) mentioned in 1 Sam. 2:1 is the head-dress called by the Druses of Mount Lebanon the tantura.

Heap When Joshua took the city of Ai (Josh. 8), he burned it and “made it an heap [Heb. tel] for ever” (8:28). The ruins of this city were for a long time sought for in vain. It has been at length, however, identified with the mound which simply bears the name of “Tel.” “There are many Tels in modern Palestine, that land of Tels, each Tel with some other name attached to it to mark the former site. But the site of Ai has no other name ‘unto this day.’ It is simply et-Tel, the heap’ par excellence.”

Heart According to the Bible, the heart is the centre not only of spiritual activity, but of all the operations of human life. “Heart” and “soul” are often used interchangeably (Deut. 6:5; 26:16; comp. Matt. 22:37; Mark 12:30, 33), but this is not generally the case.

The heart is the “home of the personal life,” and hence a man is designated, according to his heart, wise (1 Kings 3:12, etc.), pure (Ps. 24:4; Matt. 5:8, etc.), upright and righteous (Gen. 20:5, 6; Ps. 11:2; 78:72), pious and good (Luke 8:15), etc. In these and such passages the word “soul” could not be substituted for “heart.”

The heart is also the seat of the conscience (Rom. 2:15). It is naturally wicked (Gen. 8:21), and hence it contaminates the whole life and character (Matt. 12:34; 15:18; comp. Eccl. 8:11; Ps. 73:7). Hence the heart must be changed, regenerated (Ezek. 36:26; 11:19; Ps. 51:10-14), before a man can willingly obey God.

The process of salvation begins in the heart by the believing reception of the testimony of God, while the rejection of that testimony hardens the heart (Ps. 95:8; Prov. 28:14; 2 Chr. 36:13). “Hardness of heart evidences itself by light views of sin; partial acknowledgment and confession of it; pride and conceit; ingratitude; unconcern about the word and ordinances of God; inattention to divine providences; stifling convictions of conscience; shunning reproof; presumption, and general ignorance of divine things.”

Hearth Heb. ah (Jer. 36:22, 23; R.V., “brazier”), meaning a large pot like a brazier, a portable furnace in which fire was kept in the king’s winter apartment.

Heb. kiyor (Zech. 12:6; R.V., “pan”), a fire-pan.

Heb. moqed (Ps. 102:3; R.V., “fire-brand”), properly a fagot.

Heb. yaqud (Isa. 30:14), a burning mass on a hearth.

He-ass Heb. hamor, (Gen. 12:16), the general designation of the donkey used for carrying burdens (Gen. 42:26) and for ploughing (Isa. 30:24). It is described in Gen. 49:14, 2 Sam. 19:26. (See [263]ASS.)

Heath Heb. arar, (Jer. 17:6; 48:6), a species of juniper called by the Arabs by the same name (arar), the Juniperus sabina or savin. “Its gloomy, stunted appearance, with its scale-like leaves pressed close to its gnarled stem, and cropped close by the wild goats, as it clings to the rocks about Petra, gives great force to the contrast suggested by the prophet, between him that trusteth in man, naked and destitute, and the man that trusteth in the Lord, flourishing as a tree planted by the waters” (Tristram, Natural History of the Bible).

Heathen (Heb. plural goyum). At first the word goyim denoted generally all the nations of the world (Gen. 18:18; comp. Gal. 3:8). The Jews afterwards became a people distinguished in a marked manner from the other goyim. They were a separate people (Lev. 20:23; 26:14-45; Deut. 28), and the other nations, the Amorites, Hittites, etc., were the goyim, the heathen, with whom the Jews were forbidden to be associated in any way (Josh. 23:7; 1 Kings 11:2). The practice of idolatry was the characteristic of these nations, and hence the word came to designate idolaters (Ps. 106:47; Jer. 46:28; Lam. 1:3; Isa. 36:18), the wicked (Ps. 9:5, 15, 17).

The corresponding Greek word in the New Testament, ethne, has similar shades of meaning. In Acts 22:21, Gal. 3:14, it denotes the people of the earth generally; and in Matt. 6:7, an idolater. In modern usage the word denotes all nations that are strangers to revealed religion.

Heaven (1.) Definitions. The phrase “heaven and earth” is used to indicate the whole universe (Gen. 1:1; Jer. 23:24; Acts 17:24). According to the Jewish notion there were three heavens,

(a) The firmament, as “fowls of the heaven” (Gen. 2:19; 7:3, 23; Ps. 8:8, etc.), “the eagles of heaven” (Lam. 4:19), etc.

(b) The starry heavens (Deut. 17:3; Jer. 8:2; Matt. 24:29).

(c) “The heaven of heavens,” or “the third heaven” (Deut. 10:14; 1 Kings 8:27; Ps. 115:16; 148:4; 2 Cor. 12:2).

(2.) Meaning of words in the original,

(a) The usual Hebrew word for “heavens” is shamayim, a plural form meaning “heights,” “elevations” (Gen. 1:1; 2:1).

(b) The Hebrew word marom is also used (Ps. 68:18; 93:4; 102:19, etc.) as equivalent to shamayim, “high places,” “heights.”

(c) Heb. galgal, literally a “wheel,” is rendered “heaven” in Ps. 77:18 (R.V., “whirlwind”).

(d) Heb. shahak, rendered “sky” (Deut. 33:26; Job 37:18; Ps. 18:11), plural “clouds” (Job 35:5; 36:28; Ps. 68:34, marg. “heavens”), means probably the firmament.

(e) Heb. rakia is closely connected with (d), and is rendered “firmamentum” in the Vulgate, whence our “firmament” (Gen. 1:6; Deut. 33:26, etc.), regarded as a solid expanse.

(3.) Metaphorical meaning of term. Isa. 14:13, 14; “doors of heaven” (Ps. 78:23); heaven “shut” (1 Kings 8:35); “opened” (Ezek. 1:1). (See 1 Chr. 21:16.)

(4.) Spiritual meaning. The place of the everlasting blessedness of the righteous; the abode of departed spirits.

(a) Christ calls it his “Father’s house” (John 14:2).

(b) It is called “paradise” (Luke 23:43; 2 Cor. 12:4; Rev. 2:7).

(c) “The heavenly Jerusalem” (Gal. 4: 26; Heb. 12:22; Rev. 3:12).

(d) The “kingdom of heaven” (Matt. 25:1; James 2:5).

(e) The “eternal kingdom” (2 Pet. 1:11).

(f) The “eternal inheritance” (1 Pet. 1:4; Heb. 9:15).

(g) The “better country” (Heb. 11:14, 16).

(h) The blessed are said to “sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob,” and to be “in Abraham’s bosom” (Luke 16:22; Matt. 8:11); to “reign with Christ” (2 Tim. 2:12); and to enjoy “rest” (Heb. 4:10, 11).

In heaven the blessedness of the righteous consists in the possession of “life everlasting,” “an eternal weight of glory” (2 Cor. 4:17), an exemption from all sufferings for ever, a deliverance from all evils (2 Cor. 5:1, 2) and from the society of the wicked (2 Tim. 4:18), bliss without termination, the “fulness of joy” for ever (Luke 20:36; 2 Cor. 4:16, 18; 1 Pet. 1:4; 5:10; 1 John 3:2). The believer’s heaven is not only a state of everlasting blessedness, but also a “place”, a place “prepared” for them (John 14:2).

Heave offering Heb. terumah, (Ex. 29:27) means simply an offering, a present, including all the offerings made by the Israelites as a present. This Hebrew word is frequently employed. Some of the rabbis attach to the word the meaning of elevation, and refer it to the heave offering, which consisted in presenting the offering by a motion up and down, distinguished from the wave offering, which consisted in a repeated movement in a horizontal direction, a “wave offering to the Lord as ruler of earth, a heave offering to the Lord as ruler of heaven.” The right shoulder, which fell to the priests in presenting thank offerings, was called the heave shoulder (Lev. 7:34; Num. 6:20). The first fruits offered in harvest-time (Num. 15:20, 21) were heave offerings.

Heber Passing over. (1.) Son of Beriah and grandson of Asher (Gen. 46:17; 1 Chr. 7:31, 32).

(2.) The Kenite (Judg. 4:11, 17; 5:24), a descendant of Hobab. His wife Jael received Sisera (q.v.) into her tent and then killed him.

(3.) 1 Chr. 4:18.

(4.) A Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:17).

(5.) A Gadite (5:13). (See [264]EBER.)

Hebrew A name applied to the Israelites in Scripture only by one who is a foreigner (Gen. 39:14, 17; 41:12, etc.), or by the Israelites when they speak of themselves to foreigners (40:15; Ex. 1:19), or when spoken of an contrasted with other peoples (Gen. 43:32; Ex. 1:3, 7, 15; Deut. 15:12). In the New Testament there is the same contrast between Hebrews and foreigners (Acts 6:1; Phil. 3:5).

Derivation. (1.) The name is derived, according to some, from Eber (Gen. 10:24), the ancestor of Abraham. The Hebrews are “sons of Eber” (10:21).

(2.) Others trace the name of a Hebrew root-word signifying “to pass over,” and hence regard it as meaning “the man who passed over,” viz., the Euphrates; or to the Hebrew word meaning “the region” or “country beyond,” viz., the land of Chaldea. This latter view is preferred. It is the more probable origin of the designation given to Abraham coming among the Canaanites as a man from beyond the Euphrates (Gen. 14:13).

(3.) A third derivation of the word has been suggested, viz., that it is from the Hebrew word ‘abhar, “to pass over,” whence ‘ebher, in the sense of a “sojourner” or “passer through” as distinct from a “settler” in the land, and thus applies to the condition of Abraham (Heb. 11:13).

Hebrew language The language of the Hebrew nation, and that in which the Old Testament is written, with the exception of a few portions in Chaldee. In the Old Testament it is only spoken of as “Jewish” (2 Kings 18:26, 28; Isa. 36:11, 13; 2 Chr 32:18). This name is first used by the Jews in times subsequent to the close of the Old Testament.

It is one of the class of languages called Semitic, because they were chiefly spoken among the descendants of Shem.

When Abraham entered Canaan it is obvious that he found the language of its inhabitants closely allied to his own. Isaiah (19:18) calls it “the language of Canaan.” Whether this language, as seen in the earliest books of the Old Testament, was the very dialect which Abraham brought with him into Canaan, or whether it was the common tongue of the Canaanitish nations which he only adopted, is uncertain; probably the latter opinion is the correct one. For the thousand years between Moses and the Babylonian exile the Hebrew language underwent little or no modification. It preserves all through a remarkable uniformity of structure. From the first it appears in its full maturity of development. But through intercourse with Damascus, Assyria, and Babylon, from the time of David, and more particularly from the period of the Exile, it comes under the influence of the Aramaic idiom, and this is seen in the writings which date from this period. It was never spoken in its purity by the Jews after their return from Babylon. They now spoke Hebrew with a large admixture of Aramaic or Chaldee, which latterly became the predominant element in the national language.

The Hebrew of the Old Testament has only about six thousand words, all derived from about five hundred roots. Hence the same word has sometimes a great variety of meanings. So long as it was a living language, and for ages after, only the consonants of the words were written. This also has been a source of difficulty in interpreting certain words, for the meaning varies according to the vowels which may be supplied. The Hebrew is one of the oldest languages of which we have any knowledge. It is essentially identical with the Phoenician language. (See MOABITE [265]STONE.) The Semitic languages, to which class the Hebrew and Phoenician belonged, were spoken over a very wide area: in Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine and Arabia, in all the countries from the Mediterranean to the borders of Assyria, and from the mountains of Armenia to the Indian Ocean. The rounded form of the letters, as seen in the Moabite stone, was probably that in which the ancient Hebrew was written down to the time of the Exile, when the present square or Chaldean form was adopted.

Hebrew of the Hebrews One whose parents are both Hebrews (Phil. 3:5; 2 Cor. 11:22); a genuine Hebrew.

Hebrews (Acts 6:1) were the Hebrew-speaking Jews, as distinguished from those who spoke Greek. (See [266]GREEKS.)

Hebrews, Epistle to (1.) Its canonicity. All the results of critical and historical research to which this epistle has been specially subjected abundantly vindicate its right to a place in the New Testament canon among the other inspired books.

(2.) Its authorship. A considerable variety of opinions on this subject has at different times been advanced. Some have maintained that its author was Silas, Paul’s companion. Others have attributed it to Clement of Rome, or Luke, or Barnabas, or some unknown Alexandrian Christian, or Apollos; but the conclusion which we think is best supported, both from internal and external evidence, is that Paul was its author. There are, no doubt, many difficulties in the way of accepting it as Paul’s; but we may at least argue with Calvin that there can be no difficulty in the way of “embracing it without controversy as one of the apostolical epistles.”

(3.) Date and place of writing. It was in all probability written at Rome, near the close of Paul’s two years’ imprisonment (Heb. 13:19, 24). It was certainly written before the destruction of Jerusalem (13:10).

(4.) To whom addressed. Plainly it was intended for Jewish converts to the faith of the gospel, probably for the church at Jerusalem. The subscription of this epistle is, of course, without authority. In this case it is incorrect, for obviously Timothy could not be the bearer of it (13:23).

(5.) Its design was to show the true end and meaning of the Mosaic system, and its symbolical and transient character. It proves that the Levitical priesthood was a “shadow” of that of Christ, and that the legal sacrifices prefigured the great and all-perfect sacrifice he offered for us. It explains that the gospel was designed, not to modify the law of Moses, but to supersede and abolish it. Its teaching was fitted, as it was designed, to check that tendency to apostatize from Christianity and to return to Judaism which now showed itself among certain Jewish Christians. The supreme authority and the transcendent glory of the gospel are clearly set forth, and in such a way as to strengthen and confirm their allegiance to Christ.

(6.) It consists of two parts: (a) doctrinal (1-10:18), (b) and practical (10:19-ch. 13). There are found in it many references to portions of the Old Testament. It may be regarded as a treatise supplementary to the Epistles to the Romans and Galatians, and as an inspired commentary on the book of Leviticus.

Hebron A community; alliance. (1.) A city in the south end of the valley of Eshcol, about midway between Jerusalem and Beersheba, from which it is distant about 20 miles in a straight line. It was built “seven years before Zoan in Egypt” (Gen. 13:18; Num. 13:22). It still exists under the same name, and is one of the most ancient cities in the world. Its earlier name was Kirjath-arba (Gen. 23:2; Josh. 14:15; 15:3). But “Hebron would appear to have been the original name of the city, and it was not till after Abraham’s stay there that it received the name Kirjath-arba, who [i.e., Arba] was not the founder but the conqueror of the city, having led thither the tribe of the Anakim, to which he belonged. It retained this name till it came into the possession of Caleb, when the Israelites restored the original name Hebron” (Keil, Com.). The name of this city does not occur in any of the prophets or in the New Testament. It is found about forty times in the Old. It was the favorite home of Abraham. Here he pitched his tent under the oaks of Mamre, by which name it came afterwards to be known; and here Sarah died, and was buried in the cave of Machpelah (Gen. 23:17-20), which he bought from Ephron the Hittite. From this place the patriarch departed for Egypt by way of Beersheba (37:14; 46:1). It was taken by Joshua and given to Caleb (Josh. 10:36, 37; 12:10; 14:13). It became a Levitical city and a city of refuge (20:7; 21:11). When David became king of Judah this was his royal residence, and he resided here for seven and a half years (2 Sam. 5:5); and here he was anointed as king over all Israel (2 Sam. 2:1-4, 11; 1 Kings 2:11). It became the residence also of the rebellious Absalom (2 Sam. 15:10), who probably expected to find his chief support in the tribe of Judah, now called el-Khulil.

In one part of the modern city is a great mosque, which is built over the grave of Machpelah. The first European who was permitted to enter this mosque was the Prince of Wales in 1862. It was also visited by the Marquis of Bute in 1866, and by the late Emperor Frederick of Germany (then Crown-Prince of Prussia) in 1869.

One of the largest oaks in Palestine is found in the valley of Eshcol, about 3 miles north of the town. It is supposed by some to be the tree under which Abraham pitched his tent, and is called “Abraham’s oak.” (See [267]OAK.)

(2.) The third son of Kohath the Levite (Ex. 6:18; 1 Chr. 6:2, 18).

(3.) 1 Chr. 2:42, 43.

(4.) A town in the north border of Asher (Josh. 19:28).

Hegai Eunuch, had charge of the harem of Ahasuerus (Esther 2:8).

Heifer Heb. eglah, (Deut. 21:4, 6; Jer. 46:20). Untrained to the yoke (Hos. 10:11); giving milk (Isa. 7:21); ploughing (Judg. 14:18); treading out grain (Jer. 50:11); unsubdued to the yoke an emblem of Judah (Isa. 15:5; Jer. 48:34).

Heb. parah (Gen. 41:2; Num. 19:2). Bearing the yoke (Hos. 4:16); “heifers of Bashan” (Amos 4:1), metaphorical for the voluptuous females of Samaria. The ordinance of sacrifice of the “red heifer” described in Num. 19:1-10; comp. Heb. 9:13.

Heir Under the patriarchs the property of a father was divided among the sons of his legitimate wives (Gen. 21:10; 24:36; 25:5), the eldest son getting a larger portion than the rest. The Mosaic law made specific regulations regarding the transmission of real property, which are given in detail in Deut. 21:17; Num. 27:8; 36:6; 27:9-11. Succession to property was a matter of right and not of favour. Christ is the “heir of all things” (Heb. 1:2; Col. 1:15). Believers are heirs of the “promise,” “of righteousness,” “of the kingdom,” “of the world,” “of God,” “joint heirs” with Christ (Gal 3:29; Heb. 6:17; 11:7; James 2:5; Rom. 4:13; 8:17).

Helah Rust, (1 Chr. 4:5, 7), one of the wives of Ashur.

Helam Place of abundance, a place on the east of Jordan and west of the Euphrates where David gained a great victory over the Syrian army (2 Sam. 10:16), which was under the command of Shobach. Some would identify it with Alamatta, near Nicephorium.

Helbah Fatness, a town of the tribe of Asher (Judg. 1:31), in the plain of Phoenicia.

Helbon Fat; i.e., “fertile”, (Ezek. 27: 18 only), a place whence wine was brought to the great market of Tyre. It has been usually identified with the modern Aleppo, called Haleb by the native Arabs, but is more probably to be found in one of the villages in the Wady Helbon, which is celebrated for its grapes, on the east slope of Anti-Lebanon, north of the river Barada (Abana).

Heldai Wordly. (1.) 1 Chr. 27:15; called also Heleb (2 Sam. 23:29); one of David’s captains.

(2.) Zech. 6:10, one who returned from Babylon.

Heleb Fatness, one of David’s warriors (2 Sam. 23:29).

Heled This world, (1 Chr. 11:30); called Heleb (2 Sam. 23:29).

Helek A portion, (Josh. 17:2), descended from Manasseh.

Helem A stroke, great-grandson of Asher (1 Chr. 7:35).

Heleph Exchange, a city on the north border of Naphtali (Josh. 19:33).

Helez Strong, or loin (?) (1.) One of Judah’s posterity (1 Chr. 2:39).

(2.) One of David’s warriors (2 Sam. 23:26).

Heli Elevation, father of Joseph in the line of our Lord’s ancestry (Luke 3:23).

Helkai Smooth-tongued, one of the chief priests in the time of Joiakim (Neh. 12:15).

Helkath Smoothness, a town of Asher, on the east border (Josh. 19:25; 21:31); called also Hukok (1 Chr. 6:75).

Helkath-hazzurim Plot of the sharp blades, or the field of heroes, (2 Sam. 2:16). After the battle of Gilboa, so fatal to Saul and his house, David, as divinely directed, took up his residence in Hebron, and was there anointed king over Judah. Among the fugitives from Gilboa was Ish-bosheth, the only surviving son of Saul, whom Abner, Saul’s uncle, took across the Jordan to Mahanaim, and there had him proclaimed king. Abner gathered all the forces at his command and marched to Gibeon, with the object of wresting Judah from David. Joab had the command of David’s army of trained men, who encamped on the south of the pool, which was on the east of the hill on which the town of Gibeon was built, while Abner’s army lay on the north of the pool. Abner proposed that the conflict should be decided by twelve young men engaging in personal combat on either side. So fiercely did they encounter each other that “they caught every man his fellow by the head, and thrust his sword in his fellow’s side; so they fell down together: wherefore that place was called Helkath-hazzurim.” The combat of the champions was thus indecisive, and there followed a severe general engagement between the two armies, ending in the total rout of the Israelites under Abner. The general result of this battle was that “David waxed stronger and stronger, and the house of Saul waxed weaker and weaker” (2 Sam. 3:1). (See [268]GIBEON.)

Hell Derived from the Saxon helan, to cover; hence the covered or the invisible place. In Scripture there are three words so rendered:

(1.) Sheol, occurring in the Old Testament sixty-five times. This word sheol is derived from a root-word meaning “to ask,” “demand;” hence insatiableness (Prov. 30:15, 16). It is rendered “grave” thirty-one times (Gen. 37:35; 42:38; 44:29, 31; 1 Sam. 2:6, etc.). The Revisers have retained this rendering in the historical books with the original word in the margin, while in the poetical books they have reversed this rule.

In thirty-one cases in the Authorized Version this word is rendered “hell,” the place of disembodied spirits. The inhabitants of sheol are “the congregation of the dead” (Prov. 21:16). It is (a) the abode of the wicked (Num. 16:33; Job 24:19; Ps. 9:17; 31:17, etc.); (b) of the good (Ps. 16:10; 30:3; 49:15; 86:13, etc.).

Sheol is described as deep (Job 11:8), dark (10:21, 22), with bars (17:16). The dead “go down” to it (Num. 16:30, 33; Ezek. 31:15, 16, 17).

(2.) The Greek word hades of the New Testament has the same scope of signification as sheol of the Old Testament. It is a prison (1 Pet. 3:19), with gates and bars and locks (Matt. 16:18; Rev. 1:18), and it is downward (Matt. 11:23; Luke 10:15).

The righteous and the wicked are separated. The blessed dead are in that part of hades called paradise (Luke 23:43). They are also said to be in Abraham’s bosom (Luke 16:22).

(3.) Gehenna, in most of its occurrences in the Greek New Testament, designates the place of the lost (Matt. 23:33). The fearful nature of their condition there is described in various figurative expressions (Matt. 8:12; 13:42; 22:13; 25:30; Luke 16:24, etc.). (See [269]HINNOM.)

Helmet (Heb. kob’a), a cap for the defence of the head (1 Sam. 17:5, 38). In the New Testament the Greek equivalent is used (Eph. 6:17; 1 Thess. 5:8). (See [270]ARMS.)

Helon Strong, father of Eliab, who was “captain of the children of Zebulun” (Num. 1:9; 2:7).

Help-meet (Heb. ezer ke-negdo; i.e., “a help as his counterpart” = a help suitable to him), a wife (Gen. 2:18-20).

Helps (1 Cor. 12:28) may refer to help (i.e., by interpretation) given to him who speaks with tongues, or more probably simply help which Christians can render to one another, such as caring for the poor and needy, etc.

Hem Of a garment, the fringe of a garment. The Jews attached much importance to these, because of the regulations in Num. 15:38, 39. These borders or fringes were in process of time enlarged so as to attract special notice (Matt. 23:5). The hem of Christ’s garment touched (9:20; 14:36; Luke 8:44).

Heman Faithful. (1.) 1 Kings 4:31; 1 Chr. 2:6, a son of Zerah, noted for his wisdom. (2.) Grandson of Samuel (1 Chr. 6:33; 15:17), to whom the 88th Psalm probably was inscribed. He was one of the “seers” named in 2 Chr. 29:14, 30, and took a leading part in the administration of the sacred services.

Hemath A Kenite (1 Chr. 2:55), the father of the house of Rechab.

Hemlock (1.) Heb. rosh (Hos. 10:4; rendered “gall” in Deut. 29:18; 32:32; Ps. 69:21; Jer. 9:15; 23:15; “poison,” Job 20:16; “venom,” Deut. 32:33). “Rosh is the name of some poisonous plant which grows quickly and luxuriantly; of a bitter taste, and therefore coupled with wormwood (Deut. 29:18; Lam. 3:19). Hence it would seem to be not the hemlock cicuta, nor the colocynth or wild gourd, nor lolium darnel, but the poppy so called from its heads” (Gesenius, Lex.).

(2.) Heb. la’anah, generally rendered “wormwood” (q.v.), Deut. 29:18, Text 17; Prov. 5:4; Jer. 9:15; 23:15. Once it is rendered “hemlock” (Amos 6:12; R.V., “wormwood”). This Hebrew word is from a root meaning “to curse,” hence the accursed.

Hen Common in later times among the Jews in Palestine (Matt. 23:37; Luke 13:34). It is noticeable that this familiar bird is only mentioned in these passages in connection with our Lord’s lamentation over the impenitence of Jerusalem.

Hena One of the cities of Mesopotamia destroyed by sennacherib (2 Kings 18:34; 19:13). It is identified with the modern Anah, lying on the right bank of the Euphrates, not far from Sepharvaim.

Henadad Favour of Hadad, the name of a Levite after the Captivity (Ezra 3:9).

Henoch See [271]ENOCH.

Hepher A well or stream. (1.) A royal city of the Canaanites taken by Joshua (12:17).

(2.) The youngest son of Gilead (Num. 26:32; 27:1).

(3.) The second son of Asher (1 Chr. 4:6).

(4.) One of David’s heroes (1 Chr. 11:36).

Hephzibah My delight is in her. (1.) The wife of Hezekiah and mother of king Manasseh (2 Kings 21:1).

(2.) A symbolical name of Zion, as representing the Lord’s favour toward her (Isa. 62:4).

Herb (1.) Heb. eseb, any green plant; herbage (Gen. 1:11, 12, 29, 30; 2:5; 3:18, etc.); comprehending vegetables and all green herbage (Amos 7:1, 2).

(2.) Yarak, green; any green thing; foliage of trees (2 Kings 19:26; Ps. 37:2); a plant; herb (Deut. 11:10).

(3.) Or, meaning “light” In Isa. 26:19 it means “green herbs;” in 2 Kings 4:39 probably the fruit of some plant.

(4.) Merorim, plural, “bitter herbs,” eaten by the Israelites at the Passover (Ex. 12:8; Num. 9:11). They were bitter plants of various sorts, and referred symbolically to the oppression in Egypt.

Herd Gen. 13:5; Deut. 7:14. (See [272]CATTLE.)

Herdsman In Egypt herdsmen were probably of the lowest caste. Some of Joseph’s brethren were made rulers over Pharaoh’s cattle (Gen. 47:6, 17). The Israelites were known in Egypt as “keepers of cattle;” and when they left it they took their flocks and herds with them (Ex. 12:38). Both David and Saul came from “following the herd” to occupy the throne (1 Sam. 9; 11:5; Ps. 78:70). David’s herd-masters were among his chief officers of state. The daughters also of wealthy chiefs were wont to tend the flocks of the family (Gen. 29:9; Ex. 2:16). The “chief of the herdsmen” was in the time of the monarchy an officer of high rank (1 Sam. 21:7; comp. 1 Chr. 27:29). The herdsmen lived in tents (Isa. 38:12; Jer. 6:3); and there were folds for the cattle (Num. 32:16), and watch-towers for the herdsmen, that he might therefrom observe any coming danger (Micah 4:8; Nah. 3:8).

Heres Sun. (1.) “Mount Heres” (Judg. 1:35), Heb. Har-heres, i.e., “sun-mountain;” probably identical with Irshemesh in Josh. 19:41.

(2.) Isa. 19:18, marg. (See [273]ON.)

Heresy From a Greek word signifying (1) a choice, (2) the opinion chosen, and (3) the sect holding the opinion. In the Acts of the Apostles (5:17; 15:5; 24:5, 14; 26:5) it denotes a sect, without reference to its character. Elsewhere, however, in the New Testament it has a different meaning attached to it. Paul ranks “heresies” with crimes and seditions (Gal. 5:20). This word also denotes divisions or schisms in the church (1 Cor. 11:19). In Titus 3:10 a “heretical person” is one who follows his own self-willed “questions,” and who is to be avoided. Heresies thus came to signify self-chosen doctrines not emanating from God (2 Pet. 2:1).

Hermas Mercury, a Roman Christian to whom Paul sends greetings (Rom. 16: 14). Some suppose him to have been the author of the celebrated religious romance called The Shepherd, but it is very probable that that work is the production of a later generation.

Hermes Mercury, a Roman Christian (Rom. 16:14).

Hermogenes Mercury-born, at one time Paul’s fellow-labourer in Asia Minor, who, however, afterwards abandoned him, along with one Phygellus, probably on account of the perils by which they were beset (2 Tim. 1:15).

Hermon A peak, the eastern prolongation of the Anti-Lebanon range, reaching to the height of about 9,200 feet above the Mediterranean. It marks the north boundary of Palestine (Deut. 3:8, 4:48; Josh. 11:3, 17; 13:11; 12:1), and is seen from a great distance. It is about 40 miles north of the Sea of Galilee. It is called “the Hermonites” (Ps. 42:6) because it has more than one summit. The Sidonians called it Sirion, and the Amorites Shenir (Deut. 3:9; Cant. 4:8). It is also called Baal-hermon (Judg. 3:3; 1 Chr. 5:23) and Sion (Deut. 4:48). There is every probability that one of its three summits was the scene of the transfiguration (q.v.). The “dew of Hermon” is referred to (Ps. 89: 12). Its modern name is Jebel-esh-Sheikh, “the chief mountain.” It is one of the most conspicuous mountains in Palestine or Syria. “In whatever part of Palestine the Israelite turned his eye northward, Hermon was there, terminating the view. From the plain along the coast, from the Jordan valley, from the heights of Moab and Gilead, from the plateau of Bashan, the pale, blue, snow-capped cone forms the one feature in the northern horizon.”

Our Lord and his disciples climbed this “high mountain apart” one day, and remained on its summit all night, “weary after their long and toilsome ascent.” During the night “he was transfigured before them; and his face did shine as the sun.” The next day they descended to Caesarea Philippi.

Hermonites, the (Ps. 42:6, 7) = “the Hermons”, i.e., the three peaks or summits of Hermon, which are about a quarter of a mile apart.

Herod Agrippa I. Son of Aristobulus and Bernice, and grandson of Herod the Great. He was made tetrarch of the provinces formerly held by Lysanias II., and ultimately possessed the entire kingdom of his grandfather, Herod the Great, with the title of king. He put the apostle James the elder to death, and cast Peter into prison (Luke 3:1; Acts 12:1-19). On the second day of a festival held in honour of the emperor Claudius, he appeared in the great theatre of Caesarea. “The king came in clothed in magnificent robes, of which silver was the costly brilliant material. It was early in the day, and the sun’s rays fell on the king, so that the eyes of the beholders were dazzled with the brightness which surrounded him. Voices here and there from the crowd exclaimed that it was the apparition of something divine. And when he spoke and made an oration to them, they gave a shout, saying, ‘It is the voice of a god, and not of a man.’ But in the midst of this idolatrous ostentation an angel of God suddenly smote him. He was carried out of the theatre a dying man.” He died (A.D. 44) of the same loathsome malady which slew his grandfather (Acts. 12:21-23), in the fifty-fourth year of his age, having reigned four years as tetrarch and three as king over the whole of Palestine. After his death his kingdom came under the control of the prefect of Syria, and Palestine was now fully incorporated with the empire.

Herod Antipas Herod’s son by Malthace (Matt. 14:1; Luke 3:1, 19; 9:7; Acts 13:1). (See [274]ANTIPAS.)

Herod Archelaus (Matt. 2:22), the brother of Antipas (q.v.).

Herod Arippa II. The son of Herod Agrippa I. and Cypros. The emperor Claudius made him tetrarch of the provinces of Philip and Lysanias, with the title of king (Acts 25:13; 26:2, 7). He enlarged the city of Caesarea Philippi, and called it Neronias, in honour of Nero. It was before him and his sister that Paul made his defence at Caesarea (Acts 25:12-27). He died at Rome A.D. 100, in the third year of the emperor Trajan.

Herodians A Jewish political party who sympathized with (Mark 3:6; 12:13; Matt, 22:16; Luke 20:20) the Herodian rulers in their general policy of government, and in the social customs which they introduced from Rome. They were at one with the Sadducees in holding the duty of submission to Rome, and of supporting the Herods on the throne. (Comp. Mark 8:15; Matt. 16:6.)

Herodias (Matt. 14:3-11; Mark 6:17-28; Luke 3:19), the daughter of Aristobulus and Bernice. While residing at Rome with her husband Herod Philip I. and her daughter, Herod Antipas fell in with her during one of his journeys to that city. She consented to leave her husband and become his wife. Some time after, Herod met John the Baptist, who boldly declared the marriage to be unlawful. For this he was “cast into prison,” in the castle probably of Machaerus (q.v.), and was there subsequently beheaded.

Herodion A Christian at Rome whom Paul salutes and calls his “kinsman” (Rom. 16:11).

Herod Philip I. (Mark 6:17), the son of Herod the Great by Mariamne, the daughter of Simon, the high priest. He is distinguished from another Philip called “the tetrarch.” He lived at Rome as a private person with his wife Herodias and his daughter Salome.

Herod Philip II. The son of Herod the Great and Cleopatra of Jerusalem. He was “tetrarch” of Batanea, Iturea, Trachonitis, and Auranitis. He rebuilt the city of Caesarea Philippi, calling it by his own name to distinguish it from the Caesarea on the sea-coast which was the seat of the Roman government. He married Salome, the daughter of Herodias (Matt. 16:13; Mark 8:27; Luke 3:1).

Herod the Great (Matt. 2:1-22; Luke 1:5; Acts 23:35), the son of Antipater, an Idumaean, and Cypros, an Arabian of noble descent. In the year B.C. 47 Julius Caesar made Antipater, a “wily Idumaean,” procurator of Judea, who divided his territories between his four sons, Galilee falling to the lot of Herod, who was afterwards appointed tetrarch of Judea by Mark Antony (B.C. 40), and also king of Judea by the Roman senate.

He was of a stern and cruel disposition. “He was brutish and a stranger to all humanity.” Alarmed by the tidings of one “born King of the Jews,” he sent forth and “slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under” (Matt. 2:16). He was fond of splendour, and lavished great sums in rebuilding and adorning the cities of his empire. He rebuilt the city of Caesarea (q.v.) on the coast, and also the city of Samaria (q.v.), which he called Sebaste, in honour of Augustus. He restored the ruined temple of Jerusalem, a work which was begun B.C. 20, but was not finished till after Herod’s death, probably not till about A.D. 50 (John 2:20). After a troubled reign of thirty-seven years, he died at Jericho amid great agonies both of body and mind, B.C. 4, i.e., according to the common chronology, in the year in which Jesus was born.

After his death his kingdom was divided among three of his sons. Of these, Philip had the land east of Jordan, between Caesarea Philippi and Bethabara, Antipas had Galilee and Peraea, while Archelaus had Judea and Samaria.

Heron (Lev. 11:19; Deut. 14:18), ranked among the unclean birds. The Hebrew name is ‘anaphah, and indicates that the bird so named is remarkable for its angry disposition. “The herons are wading-birds, peculiarly irritable, remarkable for their voracity, frequenting marshes and oozy rivers, and spread over the regions of the East.” The Ardea russeta, or little golden egret, is the commonest species in Asia.

Heshbon Intelligence, a city ruled over by Sihon, king of the Amorites (Josh. 3:10; 13:17). It was taken by Moses (Num. 21:23-26), and became afterwards a Levitical city (Josh. 21:39) in the tribe of Reuben (Num. 32:37). After the Exile it was taken possession of by the Moabites (Isa. 15:4; Jer. 48:2, 34, 45). The ruins of this town are still seen about 20 miles east of Jordan from the north end of the Dead Sea. There are reservoirs in this district, which are probably the “fishpools” referred to in Cant. 7:4.

Heshmon Fatness, a town in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:27).

Heth Dread, a descendant of Canaan, and the ancestor of the Hittites (Gen. 10:18; Deut. 7:1), who dwelt in the vicinity of Hebron (Gen. 23:3, 7). The Hittites were a Hamitic race. They are called “the sons of Heth” (Gen. 23:3, 5, 7, 10, 16, 18, 20).

Hethlon Wrapped up, a place on the north border of Palestine. The “way of Hethlon” (Ezek. 47:15; 48:1) is probably the pass at the end of Lebanon from the Mediterranean to the great plain of Hamath (q.v.), or the “entrance of Hamath.”

Hezekiah Whom Jehovah has strengthened. (1.) Son of Ahaz (2 Kings 18:1; 2 Chr. 29:1), whom he succeeded on the throne of the kingdom of Judah. He reigned twenty-nine years (B.C. 726-697). The history of this king is contained in 2 Kings 18:20, Isa. 36-39, and 2 Chr. 29-32. He is spoken of as a great and good king. In public life he followed the example of his great-granfather Uzziah. He set himself to abolish idolatry from his kingdom, and among other things which he did for this end, he destroyed the “brazen serpent,” which had been removed to Jerusalem, and had become an object of idolatrous worship (Num. 21:9). A great reformation was wrought in the kingdom of Judah in his day (2 Kings 18:4; 2 Chr. 29:3-36).

On the death of Sargon and the accession of his son Sennacherib to the throne of Assyria, Hezekiah refused to pay the tribute which his father had paid, and “rebelled against the king of Assyria, and served him not,” but entered into a league with Egypt (Isa. 30; 31; 36:6-9). This led to the invasion of Judah by Sennacherib (2 Kings 18:13-16), who took forty cities, and besieged Jerusalem with mounds. Hezekiah yielded to the demands of the Assyrian king, and agreed to pay him three hundred talents of silver and thirty of gold (18:14).

But Sennacherib dealt treacherously with Hezekiah (Isa. 33:1), and a second time within two years invaded his kingdom (2 Kings 18:17; 2 Chr. 32:9; Isa. 36). This invasion issued in the destruction of Sennacherib’s army. Hezekiah prayed to God, and “that night the angel of the Lord went out, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians 185,000 men.” Sennacherib fled with the shattered remnant of his forces to Nineveh, where, seventeen years after, he was assassinated by his sons Adrammelech and Sharezer (2 Kings 19:37). (See [275]SENNACHERIB.)

The narrative of Hezekiah’s sickness and miraculous recovery is found in 2 Kings 20:1, 2 Chr. 32:24, Isa. 38:1. Various ambassadors came to congratulate him on his recovery, and among them Merodach-baladan, the viceroy of Babylon (2 Chr. 32:23; 2 Kings 20:12). He closed his days in peace and prosperity, and was succeeded by his son Manasseh. He was buried in the “chiefest of the sepulchres of the sons of David” (2 Chr. 32:27-33). He had “after him none like him among all the kings of Judah, nor any that were before him” (2 Kings 18:5). (See [276]ISAIAH.)

Hezion Vision, the father of Tabrimon, and grandfather of Ben-hadad, king of Syria (1 Kings 15:18).

Hezir Swine or strong. (1.) The head of the seventeenth course of the priests (1 Chr. 24:15). (2.) Neh. 10:20, one who sealed Nehemiah’s covenant.

Hezro A Carmelite, one of David’s warriors (1 Chr. 11:37).

Hezron Enclosed. (1.) One of the sons of Reuben (Gen. 46:9; Ex. 6:14). (2.) The older of the two sons of Pharez (Gen. 46:12). (3.) A plain in the south of Judah, west of Kadesh-barnea (Josh. 15:3).

Hiddai Rejoicing of Jehovah, one of David’s thirty-seven guards (2 Sam. 23:30).

Hiddekel Called by the Accadians id Idikla; i.e., “the river of Idikla”, the third of the four rivers of Paradise (Gen. 2:14). Gesenius interprets the word as meaning “the rapid Tigris.” The Tigris rises in the mountains of Armenia, 15 miles south of the source of the Euphrates, which, after pursuing a south-east course, it joins at Kurnah, about 50 miles above Bassorah. Its whole length is about 1,150 miles.

Hiel Life of (i.e., from) God, a native of Bethel, who built (i.e., fortified) Jericho some seven hundred years after its destruction by the Israelites. There fell on him for such an act the imprecation of Joshua (6:26). He laid the foundation in his first-born, and set up the gates in his youngest son (1 Kings 16:34), i.e., during the progress of the work all his children died.

Hierapolis Sacred city, a city of Phrygia, where was a Christian church under the care of Epaphras (Col. 4:12, 13). This church was founded at the same time as that of Colosse. It now bears the name of Pambuk-Kalek, i.e., “Cotton Castle”, from the white appearance of the cliffs at the base of which the ruins are found.

Higgaion In Ps. 92:3 means the murmuring tone of the harp. In Ps. 9:16 it is a musical sign, denoting probably a pause in the instrumental interlude. In Ps. 19:14 the word is rendered “meditation;” and in Lam. 3:62, “device” (R.V., “imagination”).

High place An eminence, natural or artificial, where worship by sacrifice or offerings was made (1 Kings 13:32; 2 Kings 17:29). The first altar after the Flood was built on a mountain (Gen. 8:20). Abraham also built an altar on a mountain (12:7, 8). It was on a mountain in Gilead that Laban and Jacob offered sacrifices (31:54). After the Israelites entered the Promised Land they were strictly enjoined to overthrow the high places of the Canaanites (Ex. 34:13; Deut. 7:5; 12:2, 3), and they were forbidden to worship the Lord on high places (Deut. 12:11-14), and were enjoined to use but one altar for sacrifices (Lev. 17:3, 4; Deut. 12; 16:21). The injunction against high places was, however, very imperfectly obeyed, and we find again and again mention made of them (2 Kings 14:4; 15:4, 35:2 Chr. 15:17, etc.).

High priest Aaron was the first who was solemnly set apart to this office (Ex. 29:7; 30:23; Lev. 8:12). He wore a peculiar dress, which on his death passed to his successor in office (Ex. 29:29, 30). Besides those garments which he wore in common with all priests, there were four that were peculiar to himself as high priest:

(1.) The “robe” of the ephod, all of blue, of “woven work,” worn immediately under the ephod. It was without seam or sleeves. The hem or skirt was ornamented with pomegranates and golden bells, seventy-two of each in alternate order. The sounding of the bells intimated to the people in the outer court the time when the high priest entered into the holy place to burn incense before the Lord (Ex. 28).

(2.) The “ephod” consisted of two parts, one of which covered the back and the other the breast, which were united by the “curious girdle.” It was made of fine twined linen, and ornamented with gold and purple. Each of the shoulder-straps was adorned with a precious stone, on which the names of the twelve tribes were engraved. This was the high priest’s distinctive vestment (1 Sam. 2:28; 14:3; 21:9; 23:6, 9; 30:7).

(3.) The “breastplate of judgment” (Ex. 28:6-12, 25-28; 39:2-7) of “cunning work.” It was a piece of cloth doubled, of one span square. It bore twelve precious stones, set in four rows of three in a row, which constituted the Urim and Thummim (q.v.). These stones had the names of the twelve tribes engraved on them. When the high priest, clothed with the ephod and the breastplate, inquired of the Lord, answers were given in some mysterious way by the Urim and Thummim (1 Sam. 14:3, 18, 19; 23:2, 4, 9, 11, 12; 28:6; 2 Sam. 5:23).

(4.) The “mitre,” or upper turban, a twisted band of eight yards of fine linen coiled into a cap, with a gold plate in front, engraved with “Holiness to the Lord,” fastened to it by a ribbon of blue.

To the high priest alone it was permitted to enter the holy of holies, which he did only once a year, on the great Day of Atonement, for “the way into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest” (Heb. 9; 10). Wearing his gorgeous priestly vestments, he entered the temple before all the people, and then, laying them aside and assuming only his linen garments in secret, he entered the holy of holies alone, and made expiation, sprinkling the blood of the sin offering on the mercy seat, and offering up incense. Then resuming his splendid robes, he reappeared before the people (Lev. 16). Thus the wearing of these robes came to be identified with the Day of Atonement.

The office, dress, and ministration of the high priest were typical of the priesthood of our Lord (Heb. 4:14; 7:25; 9:12, etc.).

It is supposed that there were in all eighty-three high priests, beginning with Aaron (B.C. 1657) and ending with Phannias (A.D. 70). At its first institution the office of high priest was held for life (but comp. 1 Kings 2:27), and was hereditary in the family of Aaron (Num. 3:10). The office continued in the line of Eleazar, Aaron’s eldest son, for two hundred and ninety-six years, when it passed to Eli, the first of the line of Ithamar, who was the fourth son of Aaron. In this line it continued to Abiathar, whom Solomon deposed, and appointed Zadok, of the family of Eleazar, in his stead (1 Kings 2:35), in which it remained till the time of the Captivity. After the Return, Joshua, the son of Josedek, of the family of Eleazar, was appointed to this office. After him the succession was changed from time to time under priestly or political influences.

Highway A raised road for public use. Such roads were not found in Palestine; hence the force of the language used to describe the return of the captives and the advent of the Messiah (Isa. 11:16; 35:8; 40:3; 62:10) under the figure of the preparation of a grand thoroughfare for their march.

During their possession of Palestine the Romans constructed several important highways, as they did in all countries which they ruled.

Hilkiah Portion of Jehovah. (1.) 1 Chr. 6:54. (2.) 1 Chr. 26:11. (3.) The father of Eliakim (2 Kings 18:18, 26, 37). (4.) The father of Gemariah (Jer. 29:3). (5.) The father of the prophet Jeremiah (1:1).

(6.) The high priest in the reign of Josiah (1 Chr. 6:13; Ezra 7:1). To him and his deputy (2 Kings 23:5), along with the ordinary priests and the Levites who had charge of the gates, was entrusted the purification of the temple in Jerusalem. While this was in progress, he discovered in some hidden corner of the building a book called the “book of the law” (2 Kings 22:8) and the “book of the covenant” (23:2). Some have supposed that this “book” was nothing else than the original autograph copy of the Pentateuch written by Moses (Deut. 31:9-26). This remarkable discovery occurred in the eighteenth year of Josiah’s reign (B.C. 624), a discovery which permanently affected the whole subsequent history of Israel. (See [277]JOSIAH; [278]SHAPHAN.)

(7.) Neh. 12:7. (8.) Neh. 8:4.

Hill (1.) Heb. gib’eah, a curved or rounded hill, such as are common to Palestine (Ps. 65:12; 72:3; 114:4, 6).

(2.) Heb. har, properly a mountain range rather than an individual eminence (Ex. 24:4, 12, 13, 18; Num. 14:40, 44, 45). In Deut. 1:7, Josh. 9:1; 10:40; 11:16, it denotes the elevated district of Judah, Benjamin, and Ephraim, which forms the watershed between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.

(3.) Heb. ma’aleh in 1 Sam. 9:11. Authorized Version “hill” is correctly rendered in the Revised Version “ascent.”

(4.) In Luke 9:37 the “hill” is the Mount of Transfiguration.

Hillel Praising, a Pirathonite, father of the judge Abdon (Judg. 12:13, 15).

Hill of Evil Counsel On the south of the Valley of Hinnom. It is so called from a tradition that the house of the high priest Caiaphas, when the rulers of the Jews resolved to put Christ to death, stood here.

Hind Heb. ayalah (2 Sam. 22:34; Ps. 18:33, etc.) and ayeleth (Ps. 22, title), the female of the hart or stag. It is referred to as an emblem of activity (Gen. 49:21), gentleness (Prov. 5:19), feminine modesty (Cant. 2:7; 3:5), earnest longing (Ps. 42:1), timidity (Ps. 29:9). In the title of Ps. 22, the word probably refers to some tune bearing that name.

Hinge (Heb. tsir), that on which a door revolves. “Doors in the East turn rather on pivots than on what we term hinges. In Syria, and especially in the Hauran, there are many ancient doors, consisting of stone slabs with pivots carved out of the same piece inserted in sockets above and below, and fixed during the building of the house” (Prov. 26:14).

Hinnom A deep, narrow ravine separating Mount Zion from the so-called “Hill of Evil Counsel.” It took its name from “some ancient hero, the son of Hinnom.” It is first mentioned in Josh. 15:8. It had been the place where the idolatrous Jews burned their children alive to Moloch and Baal. A particular part of the valley was called Tophet, or the “fire-stove,” where the children were burned. After the Exile, in order to show their abhorrence of the locality, the Jews made this valley the receptacle of the offal of the city, for the destruction of which a fire was, as is supposed, kept constantly burning there.

The Jews associated with this valley these two ideas, (1) that of the sufferings of the victims that had there been sacrificed; and (2) that of filth and corruption. It became thus to the popular mind a symbol of the abode of the wicked hereafter. It came to signify hell as the place of the wicked. “It might be shown by infinite examples that the Jews expressed hell, or the place of the damned, by this word. The word Gehenna [the Greek contraction of Hinnom] was never used in the time of Christ in any other sense than to denote the place of future punishment.” About this fact there can be no question. In this sense the word is used eleven times in our Lord’s discourses (Matt. 23:33; Luke 12:5; Matt. 5:22, etc.).

Hiram High-born. (1.) Generally “Huram,” one of the sons of Bela (1 Chr. 8:5).

(2.) Also “Huram” and “Horam,” king of Tyre. He entered into an alliance with David, and assisted him in building his palace by sending him able workmen, and also cedar-trees and fir-trees from Lebanon (2 Sam. 5:11; 1 Chr. 14:1). After the death of David he entered into a similar alliance with Solomon, and assisted him greatly in building the temple (1 Kings 5:1; 9:11; 2 Chr. 2:3). He also took part in Solomon’s traffic to the Eastern Seas (1 Kings 9:27; 10:11; 2 Chr. 8:18; 9:10).

(3.) The “master workman” whom Hiram sent to Solomon. He was the son of a widow of Dan, and of a Tyrian father. In 2 Chr. 2:13 “Huram my father” should be Huram Abi, the word “Abi” (rendered here “my father”) being regarded as a proper name, or it may perhaps be a title of distinction given to Huram, and equivalent to “master.” (Comp. 1 Kings 7:14; 2 Chr. 4:16.) He cast the magnificent brazen works for Solomon’s temple in clay-beds in the valley of Jordan, between Succoth and Zarthan.

Hireling A labourer employed on hire for a limited time (Job 7:1; 14:6; Mark 1:20). His wages were paid as soon as his work was over (Lev. 19:13). In the time of our Lord a day’s wage was a “penny” (q.v.) i.e., a Roman denarius (Matt. 20:1-14).

Hiss To express contempt (Job 27:23). The destruction of the temple is thus spoken of (1 Kings 9:8). Zechariah (10:8) speaks of the Lord gathering the house of Judah as it were with a hiss: “I will hiss for them.” This expression may be “derived from the noise made to attract bees in hiving, or from the sound naturally made to attract a person’s attention.”

Hittites Palestine and Syria appear to have been originally inhabited by three different tribes. (1.) The Semites, living on the east of the isthmus of Suez. They were nomadic and pastoral tribes. (2.) The Phoenicians, who were merchants and traders; and (3.) the Hittites, who were the warlike element of this confederation of tribes. They inhabited the whole region between the Euphrates and Damascus, their chief cities being Carchemish on the Euphrates, and Kadesh, now Tell Neby Mendeh, in the Orontes valley, about six miles south of the Lake of Homs. These Hittites seem to have risen to great power as a nation, as for a long time they were formidable rivals of the Egyptian and Assyrian empires. In the book of Joshua they always appear as the dominant race to the north of Galilee.

Somewhere about the twenty-third century B.C. the Syrian confederation, led probably by the Hittites, arched against Lower Egypt, which they took possession of, making Zoan their capital. Their rulers were the Hyksos, or shepherd kings. They were at length finally driven out of Egypt. Rameses II. sought vengeance against the “vile Kheta,” as he called them, and encountered and defeated them in the great battle of Kadesh, four centuries after Abraham. (See [279]JOSHUA.)

They are first referred to in Scripture in the history of Abraham, who bought from Ephron the Hittite the field and the cave of Machpelah (Gen. 15:20: 23:3-18). They were then settled at Kirjath-arba. From this tribe Esau took his first two wives (26:34; 36:2).

They are afterwards mentioned in the usual way among the inhabitants of the Promised Land (Ex. 23:28). They were closely allied to the Amorites, and are frequently mentioned along with them as inhabiting the mountains of Palestine. When the spies entered the land they seem to have occupied with the Amorites the mountain region of Judah (Num. 13:29). They took part with the other Canaanites against the Israelites (Josh. 9:1; 11:3).

After this there are few references to them in Scripture. Mention is made of “Ahimelech the Hittite” (1 Sam. 26:6), and of “Uriah the Hittite,” one of David’s chief officers (2 Sam. 23:39; 1 Chr. 11:41). In the days of Solomon they were a powerful confederation in the north of Syria, and were ruled by “kings.” They are met with after the Exile still a distinct people (Ezra 9:1; comp. Neh. 13:23-28).

The Hebrew merchants exported horses from Egypt not only for the kings of Israel, but also for the Hittites (1 Kings 10:28, 29). From the Egyptian monuments we learn that “the Hittites were a people with yellow skins and Mongoloid’ features, whose receding foreheads, oblique eyes, and protruding upper jaws are represented as faithfully on their own monuments as they are on those of Egypt, so that we cannot accuse the Egyptian artists of caricaturing their enemies. The Amorites, on the contrary, were a tall and handsome people. They are depicted with white skins, blue eyes, and reddish hair, all the characteristics, in fact, of the white race” (Sayce’s The Hittites). The original seat of the Hittite tribes was the mountain ranges of Taurus. They belonged to Asia Minor, and not to Syria.

Hivites One of the original tribes scattered over Palestine, from Hermon to Gibeon in the south. The name is interpreted as “midlanders” or “villagers” (Gen. 10:17; 1 Chr. 1:15). They were probably a branch of the Hittites. At the time of Jacob’s return to Canaan, Hamor the Hivite was the “prince of the land” (Gen. 24:2-28).

They are next mentioned during the Conquest (Josh. 9:7; 11:19). They principally inhabited the northern confines of Western Palestine (Josh. 11:3; Judg. 3:3). A remnant of them still existed in the time of Solomon (1 Kings 9:20).

Hizkiah An ancestor of the prophet Zephaniah (1:1).

Hizkijah (Neh. 10:17), one who sealed the covenant.

Hobab Beloved, the Kenite, has been usually identified with Jethro (q.v.), Ex. 18:5, 27; comp. Num. 10:29, 30. In Judg. 4:11, the word rendered “father-in-law” means properly any male relative by marriage (comp. Gen. 19:14, “son-in-law,” A.V.), and should be rendered “brother-in-law,” as in the R.V. His descendants followed Israel to Canaan (Num. 10:29), and at first pitched their tents near Jericho, but afterwards settled in the south in the borders of Arad (Judg. 1:8-11, 16).

Hobah Hiding-place, a place to the north of Damascus, to which Abraham pursued Chedorlaomer and his confederates (Gen. 14:15).

Hodijah Majesty of Jehovah. (1.) One of the Levites who assisted Ezra in expounding the law (Neh. 8:7; 9:5). (2.) Neh. 10:18, a Levite who sealed the covenant.

Hoglah Partridge, one of the daughters of Zelophehad the Gileadite, to whom portions were assigned by Moses (Num. 26:33; 27:1; 36:11).

Hoham Jehovah impels, the king of Hebron who joined the league against Gibeon. He and his allies were defeated (Josh. 10:3, 5, 16-27).

Hold A fortress, the name given to David’s lurking-places (1 Sam. 22:4, 5; 24:22).

Holiness In the highest sense belongs to God (Isa. 6:3; Rev. 15:4), and to Christians as consecrated to God’s service, and in so far as they are conformed in all things to the will of God (Rom. 6:19, 22; Eph. 1:4; Titus 1:8; 1 Pet. 1:15). Personal holiness is a work of gradual development. It is carried on under many hindrances, hence the frequent admonitions to watchfulness, prayer, and perseverance (1 Cor. 1:30; 2 Cor. 7:1; Eph. 4:23, 24). (See [280]SANCTIFICATION.)

Holy Ghost The third Person of the adorable Trinity.

His personality is proved (1) from the fact that the attributes of personality, as intelligence and volition, are ascribed to him (John 14:17, 26; 15:26; 1 Cor. 2:10, 11; 12:11). He reproves, helps, glorifies, intercedes (John 16:7-13; Rom. 8:26). (2) He executes the offices peculiar only to a person. The very nature of these offices involves personal distinction (Luke 12:12; Acts 5:32; 15:28; 16:6; 28:25; 1 Cor. 2:13; Heb. 2:4; 3:7; 2 Pet. 1:21).

His divinity is established (1) from the fact that the names of God are ascribed to him (Ex. 17:7; Ps. 95:7; comp. Heb. 3:7-11); and (2) that divine attributes are also ascribed to him, omnipresence (Ps. 139:7; Eph. 2:17, 18; 1 Cor. 12:13); omniscience (1 Cor. 2:10, 11); omnipotence (Luke 1:35; Rom. 8:11); eternity (Heb. 9:4). (3) Creation is ascribed to him (Gen. 1:2; Job 26:13; Ps. 104:30), and the working of miracles (Matt. 12:28; 1 Cor. 12:9-11). (4) Worship is required and ascribed to him (Isa. 6:3; Acts 28:25; Rom. 9:1; Rev. 1:4; Matt. 28:19).

Holy of holies The second or interior portion of the tabernacle. It was left in total darkness. No one was permitted to enter it except the high priest, and that only once a year. It contained the ark of the covenant only (Ex. 25:10-16). It was in the form of a perfect cube of 20 cubits. (See [281]TABERNACLE.)

Holy place One of the two portions into which the tabernacle was divided (Ex. 26:31; 37:17-25; Heb. 9:2). It was 20 cubits long and 10 in height and breadth. It was illuminated by the golden candlestick, as it had no opening to admit the light. It contained the table of showbread (Ex. 25:23-29) and the golden altar of incense (30:1-11). It was divided from the holy of holies by a veil of the most costly materials and the brightest colours.

The arrangement of the temple (q.v.) was the same in this respect. In it the walls of hewn stone were wainscotted with cedar and overlaid with gold, and adorned with beautiful carvings. It was entered from the porch by folding doors overlaid with gold and richly embossed. Outside the holy place stood the great tank or “sea” of molten brass, supported by twelve oxen, three turned each way, capable of containing two thousand baths of water. Besides this there were ten lavers and the brazen altar of burnt sacrifice.

Homer Heap, the largest of dry measures, containing about 8 bushels or 1 quarter English = 10 ephahs (Lev. 27:16; Num. 11:32) = a COR. (See [282]OMER.)

“Half a homer,” a grain measure mentioned only in Hos. 3:2.

Honey (1.) Heb. ya’ar, occurs only 1 Sam. 14:25, 27, 29; Cant. 5:1, where it denotes the honey of bees. Properly the word signifies a forest or copse, and refers to honey found in woods.

(2.) Nopheth, honey that drops (Ps. 19:10; Prov. 5:3; Cant. 4:11).

(3.) Debash denotes bee-honey (Judg. 14:8); but also frequently a vegetable honey distilled from trees (Gen. 43:11; Ezek. 27:17). In these passages it may probably mean “dibs,” or syrup of grapes, i.e., the juice of ripe grapes boiled down to one-third of its bulk.

(4.) Tsuph, the cells of the honey-comb full of honey (Prov. 16:24; Ps. 19:10).

(5.) “Wild honey” (Matt. 3:4) may have been the vegetable honey distilled from trees, but rather was honey stored by bees in rocks or in trees (Deut. 32:13; Ps. 81:16; 1 Sam. 14:25-29).

Canaan was a “land flowing with milk and honey” (Ex. 3:8). Milk and honey were among the chief dainties in the earlier ages, as they are now among the Bedawin; and butter and honey are also mentioned among articles of food (Isa. 7:15). The ancients used honey instead of sugar (Ps. 119:103; Prov. 24:13); but when taken in great quantities it caused nausea, a fact referred to in Prov. 25:16, 17 to inculcate moderation in pleasures. Honey and milk also are put for sweet discourse (Cant. 4:11).

Hood (Heb. tsaniph) a tiara round the head (Isa. 3:23; R.V., pl., “turbans”). Rendered “diadem,” Job 29:14; high priest’s “mitre,” Zech. 3:5; “royal diadem,” Isa. 62:3.

Hoof A cleft hoof as of neat cattle (Ex. 10:26; Ezek. 32:13); hence also of the horse, though not cloven (Isa. 5:28). The “parting of the hoof” is one of the distinctions between clean and unclean animals (Lev. 11:3; Deut. 14:7).

Hook (1.) Heb. hah, a “ring” inserted in the nostrils of animals to which a cord was fastened for the purpose of restraining them (2 Kings 19:28; Isa. 37:28, 29; Ezek. 29:4; 38:4). “The Orientals make use of this contrivance for curbing their work-beasts…When a beast becomes unruly they have only to draw the cord on one side, which, by stopping his breath, punishes him so effectually that after a few repetitions he fails not to become quite tractable whenever he begins to feel it” (Michaelis). So God’s agents are never beyond his control.

(2.) Hakkah, a fish “hook” (Job 41:2, Heb. Text, 40:25; Isa. 19:8; Hab. 1:15).

(3.) Vav, a “peg” on which the curtains of the tabernacle were hung (Ex. 26:32).

(4.) Tsinnah, a fish-hooks (Amos 4:2).

(5.) Mazleg, flesh-hooks (1 Sam. 2:13, 14), a kind of fork with three teeth for turning the sacrifices on the fire, etc.

(6.) Mazmeroth, pruning-hooks (Isa. 2:4; Joel 3:10).

(7.) Agmon (Job 41:2, Heb. Text 40:26), incorrectly rendered in the Authorized Version. Properly a rush-rope for binding animals, as in Revised Version margin.

Hope One of the three main elements of Christian character (1 Cor. 13:13). It is joined to faith and love, and is opposed to seeing or possessing (Rom. 8:24; 1 John 3:2). “Hope is an essential and fundamental element of Christian life, so essential indeed, that, like faith and love, it can itself designate the essence of Christianity (1 Pet. 3:15; Heb. 10:23). In it the whole glory of the Christian vocation is centred (Eph. 1:18; 4:4).” Unbelievers are without this hope (Eph. 2:12; 1 Thess. 4:13). Christ is the actual object of the believer’s hope, because it is in his second coming that the hope of glory will be fulfilled (1 Tim. 1:1; Col. 1:27; Titus 2:13). It is spoken of as “lively”, i.e., a living, hope, a hope not frail and perishable, but having a perennial life (1 Pet. 1:3). In Rom. 5:2 the “hope” spoken of is probably objective, i.e., “the hope set before us,” namely, eternal life (comp. 12:12). In 1 John 3:3 the expression “hope in him” ought rather to be, as in the Revised Version, “hope on him,” i.e., a hope based on God.

Hophni Pugilist or client, one of the two sons of Eli, the high priest (1 Sam. 1:3; 2:34), who, because he was “very old,” resigned to them the active duties of his office. By their scandalous conduct they brought down a curse on their father’s house (2:22, 12-27, 27-36; 3:11-14). For their wickedness they were called “sons of Belial,” i.e., worthless men (2:12). They both perished in the disastrous battle with the Philistines at Aphek (4:11). (See [283]PHINEHAS.)

Hophra I.e., PHARAOH-HOPHRA (called Apries by the Greek historian Herodotus) king of Egypt (B.C. 591-572) in the time of Zedekiah, king of Judah (Jer. 37:5 44:30; Ezek. 29:6, 7).

Hor Mountain. (1.) One of the mountains of the chain of Seir or Edom, on the confines of Idumea (Num. 20:22-29; 33:37). It was one of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness (33:37), which they reached in the circuitous route they were obliged to take because the Edomites refused them a passage through their territory. It was during the encampment here that Aaron died (Num. 33:37-41). (See [284]AARON.) The Israelites passed this mountain several times in their wanderings. It bears the modern name of Jebel Harun, and is the highest and most conspicious of the whole range. It stands about midway between the Dead Sea and the Elanitic gulf. It has two summits, in the hallow between which it is supposed that Aaron died. Others, however, suppose that this mountain is the modern Jebel Madurah, on the opposite, i.e., the western, side of the Arabah.

(2.) One of the marks of the northern boundary of Palestine (Num. 34:7, 8). Nowhere else mentioned. Perhaps it is one of the peaks of Lebanon.

Horeb Desert or mountain of the dried-up ground, a general name for the whole mountain range of which Sinai was one of the summits (Ex. 3:1; 17:6; 33:6; Ps. 106:19, etc.). The modern name of the whole range is Jebel Musa. It is a huge mountain block, about 2 miles long by about 1 in breadth, with a very spacious plain at its north-east end, called the Er Rahah, in which the Israelites encamped for nearly a whole year. (See [285]SINAI.)

Horem Consecrated, one of the fenced cities of Naphtali (Josh. 19:38).

Horites Cave-men, a race of Troglodytes who dwelt in the limestone caves which abounded in Edom. Their ancestor was “Seir,” who probably gave his name to the district where he lived. They were a branch of the Hivites (Gen. 14:6; 36:20-30; 1 Chr. 1:38, 39). They were dispossessed by the descendants of Esau, and as a people gradually became extinct (Deut. 2:12-22).

Hormah Banning; i.e., placing under a “ban,” or devoting to utter destruction. After the manifestation of God’s anger against the Israelites, on account of their rebellion and their murmurings when the spies returned to the camp at Kadesh, in the wilderness of Paran, with an evil report of the land, they quickly repented of their conduct, and presumed to go up “to the head of the mountain,” seeking to enter the Promised Land, but without the presence of the Lord, without the ark of the convenant, and without Moses. The Amalekites and the Canaanites came down and “smote and discomfited them even unto Hormah” (Num. 14:45). This place, or perhaps the watch-tower commanding it, was originally called Zephath (Judg. 1:17), the modern Sebaiteh. Afterwards (Num. 21:1-3) Arad, the king of the Canaanites, at the close of the wanderings, when the Israelites were a second time encamped at Kadesh, “fought against them, and took some of them prisoners.” But Israel vowed a vow unto the Lord utterly to destroy the cities of the Canaanites; they “banned” them, and hence the place was now called Hormah. But this “ban” was not fully executed till the time of Joshua, who finally conquered the king of this district, so that the ancient name Zephath became “Hormah” (Josh. 12:14; Judg. 1:17).

Horn Trumpets were at first horns perforated at the tip, used for various purposes (Josh. 6:4, 5).

Flasks or vessels were made of horn (1 Sam. 16:1, 13; 1 Kings 1:39).

But the word is used also metaphorically to denote the projecting corners of the altar of burnt offerings (Ex. 27:2) and of incense (30:2). The horns of the altar of burnt offerings were to be smeared with the blood of the slain bullock (29:12; Lev. 4:7-18). The criminal, when his crime was accidental, found an asylum by laying hold of the horns of the altar (1 Kings 1:50; 2:28).

The word also denotes the peak or summit of a hill (Isa. 5:1, where the word “hill” is the rendering of the same Hebrew word).

This word is used metaphorically also for strength (Deut. 33:17) and honour (Job 16:15; Lam. 2:3). Horns are emblems of power, dominion, glory, and fierceness, as they are the chief means of attack and defence with the animals endowed with them (Dan. 8:5, 9; 1 Sam. 2:1; 16:1, 13; 1 Kings 1:39; 22:11; Josh. 6:4, 5; Ps. 75:5, 10; 132:17; Luke 1:69, etc.). The expression “horn of salvation,” applied to Christ, means a salvation of strength, or a strong Saviour (Luke 1:69). To have the horn “exalted” denotes prosperity and triumph (Ps. 89:17, 24). To “lift up” the horn is to act proudly (Zech. 1:21).

Horns are also the symbol of royal dignity and power (Jer. 48:25; Zech. 1:18; Dan. 8:24).

Hornet Heb. tsir’ah, “stinging”, (Ex. 23:28; Deut. 7:20; Josh. 24:12). The word is used in these passages as referring to some means by which the Canaanites were to be driven out from before the Israelites. Some have supposed that the word is used in a metaphorical sense as the symbol of some panic which would seize the people as a “terror of God” (Gen. 35:5), the consternation with which God would inspire the Canaanites. In Palestine there are four species of hornets, differing from our hornets, being larger in size, and they are very abundant. They “attack human beings in a very furious manner.” “The furious attack of a swarm of hornets drives cattle and horses to madness, and has even caused the death of the animals.”

Horonaim Two caverns, a city of Moab to the south of the Arnon, built, apparently, upon an eminence, and a place of some importance (Isa. 15:5; Jer. 48:3, 5, 34).

Horonite The designation of Sanballat (Neh. 2:10, 19), a native of Horonaim, or of one of the two Beth-horons, the “upper” or the “nether,” mentioned in Josh. 16:3, 5.

Horse Always referred to in the Bible in connection with warlike operations, except Isa. 28:28. The war-horse is described Job 39:19-25. For a long period after their settlement in Canaan the Israelites made no use of horses, according to the prohibition, Deut. 17:16. David was the first to form a force of cavalry (2 Sam. 8:4). But Solomon, from his connection with Egypt, greatly multiplied their number (1 Kings 4:26; 10:26, 29). After this, horses were freely used in Israel (1 Kings 22:4; 2 Kings 3:7; 9:21, 33; 11:16). The furniture of the horse consisted simply of a bridle (Isa. 30:28) and a curb (Ps. 32:9).

Horse-gate A gate in the wall of Jerusalem, at the west end of the bridge, leading from Zion to the temple (Neh. 3:28; Jer. 31:40).

Horse-leech Occurs only in Prov. 30:15 (Heb. alukah); the generic name for any blood-sucking annelid. There are various species in the marshes and pools of Palestine. That here referred to, the Hoemopis, is remarkable for the coarseness of its bite, and is therefore not used for medical purposes. They are spoken of in the East with feelings of aversion and horror, because of their propensity to fasten on the tongue and nostrils of horses when they come to drink out of the pools. The medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis), besides other species of leeches, are common in the waters of Syria.

Horseman Heb. ba’al parash, “master of a horse.” The “horsemen” mentioned Ex. 14:9 were “mounted men”, i.e., men who rode in chariots. The army of Pharaoh consisted of a chariot and infantry force. We find that at a later period, however, the Egyptians had cavalry (2 Chr. 12:3). (See [286]HORSE.)

Hosah Refuge. (1.) A place on the border of the tribe of Asher (Josh. 19:29), a little to the south of Zidon.

(2.) A Levite of the family of Merari (1 Chr. 16:38).

Hosanna Save now! or Save, we beseech, (Matt. 21:9). This was a customary form of acclamation at the feast of Tabernacles. (Comp. Ps. 118:25.)

Hose (Dan. 3:21), a tunic or undergarment.

Hosea Salvation, the son of Beeri, and author of the book of prophecies bearing his name. He belonged to the kingdom of Israel. “His Israelitish origin is attested by the peculiar, rough, Aramaizing diction, pointing to the northern part of Palestine; by the intimate acquaintance he evinces with the localities of Ephraim (5:1; 6:8, 9; 12:12; 14:6, etc.); by passages like 1:2, where the kingdom is styled the land’, and 7:5, where the Israelitish king is designated as our’ king.” The period of his ministry (extending to some sixty years) is indicated in the superscription (Hos. 1:1, 2). He is the only prophet of Israel who has left any written prophecy.

Hosea, Prophecies of This book stands first in order among the “Minor Prophets.” “The probable cause of the location of Hosea may be the thoroughly national character of his oracles, their length, their earnest tone, and vivid representations.” This was the longest of the prophetic books written before the Captivity. Hosea prophesied in a dark and melancholy period of Israel’s history, the period of Israel’s decline and fall. Their sins had brought upon them great national disasters. “Their homicides and fornication, their perjury and theft, their idolatry and impiety, are censured and satirized with a faithful severity.” He was a contemporary of Isaiah. The book may be divided into two parts, the first containing chapters 1-3, and symbolically representing the idolatry of Israel under imagery borrowed from the matrimonial relation. The figures of marriage and adultery are common in the Old Testament writings to represent the spiritual relations between Jehovah and the people of Israel. Here we see the apostasy of Israel and their punishment, with their future repentance, forgiveness, and restoration.

The second part, containing 4-14, is a summary of Hosea’s discourses, filled with denunciations, threatenings, exhortations, promises, and revelations of mercy.

Quotations from Hosea are found in Matt. 2:15; 9:15; 12:7; Rom. 9:25, 26. There are, in addition, various allusions to it in other places (Luke 23:30; Rev. 6:16, comp. Hos. 10:8; Rom. 9:25, 26; 1 Pet. 2:10, comp. Hos. 1:10, etc.).

As regards the style of this writer, it has been said that “each verse forms a whole for itself, like one heavy toll in a funeral knell.” “Inversions (7:8; 9:11, 13; 12: 8), anacolutha (9:6; 12:8, etc.), ellipses (9:4; 13:9, etc.), paranomasias, and plays upon words, are very characteristic of Hosea (8:7; 9:15; 10:5; 11:5; 12:11).”

Hoshea Salvation. (1.) The original name of the son of Nun, afterwards called Joshua (Num. 13:8, 16; Deut. 32:44).

(2.) 1 Chr. 27:20. The ruler of Ephraim in David’s time.

(3.) The last king of Israel. He conspired against and slew his predecessor, Pekah (Isa. 7:16), but did not ascend the throne till after an interregnum of warfare of eight years (2 Kings 17:1, 2). Soon after this he submitted to Shalmaneser, the Assyrian king, who a second time invaded the land to punish Hoshea, because of his withholding tribute which he had promised to pay. A second revolt brought back the Assyrian king Sargon, who besieged Samaria, and carried the ten tribes away beyond the Euphrates, B.C. 720 (2 Kings 17:5, 6; 18:9-12). No more is heard of Hoshea. He disappeared like “foam upon the water” (Hos. 10:7; 13:11).

Host An entertainer (Rom. 16:23); a tavern-keeper, the keeper of a caravansary (Luke 10:35).

In warfare, a troop or military force. This consisted at first only of infantry. Solomon afterwards added cavalry (1 Kings 4:26; 10:26). Every male Israelite from twenty to fifty years of age was bound by the law to bear arms when necessary (Num. 1:3; 26:2; 2 Chr. 25:5).

Saul was the first to form a standing army (1 Sam. 13:2; 24:2). This example was followed by David (1 Chr. 27:1), and Solomon (1 Kings 4:26), and by the kings of Israel and Judah (2 Chr. 17:14; 26:11; 2 Kings 11:4, etc.).

Hostage A person delivered into the hands of another as a security for the performance of some promise, etc. (2 Kings 14:14; 2 Chr. 25:24).

Host of heaven The sun, moon, and stars are so designated (Gen. 2:1). When the Jews fell into idolatry they worshipped these (Deut. 4:19; 2 Kings 17:16; 21:3, 5; 23:5; Jer. 19:13; Zeph. 1:5; Acts 7:42).

Hough To hamstring, i.e., sever the “tendon of Achilles” of the hinder legs of captured horses (Josh. 11:6; 2 Sam. 8:4; 1 Chr. 18:4), so as to render them useless.

Hour First found in Dan. 3:6; 4:19, 33;5:5. It is the rendering of the Chaldee shaah, meaning a “moment,” a “look.” It is used in the New Testament frequently to denote some determinate season (Matt. 8:13; Luke 12:39).

With the ancient Hebrews the divisions of the day were “morning, evening, and noon-day” (Ps. 55:17, etc.). The Greeks, following the Babylonians, divided the day into twelve hours. The Jews, during the Captivity, learned also from the Babylonians this method of dividing time. When Judea became subject to the Romans, the Jews adopted the Roman mode of reckoning time. The night was divided into four watches (Luke 12:38; Matt. 14:25; 13:25). Frequent allusion is also made to hours (Matt. 25:13; 26:40, etc.). (See [287]DAY.)

An hour was the twelfth part of the day, reckoning from sunrise to sunset, and consequently it perpetually varied in length.

House Till their sojourn in Egypt the Hebrews dwelt in tents. They then for the first time inhabited cities (Gen. 47:3; Ex. 12:7; Heb. 11:9). From the earliest times the Assyrians and the Canaanites were builders of cities. The Hebrews after the Conquest took possession of the captured cities, and seem to have followed the methods of building that had been pursued by the Canaanites. Reference is made to the stone (1 Kings 7:9; Isa. 9:10) and marble (1 Chr. 29:2) used in building, and to the internal wood-work of the houses (1 Kings 6:15; 7:2; 10:11, 12; 2 Chr. 3:5; Jer. 22:14). “Ceiled houses” were such as had beams inlaid in the walls to which wainscotting was fastened (Ezra 6:4; Jer. 22:14; Hag. 1:4). “Ivory houses” had the upper parts of the walls adorned with figures in stucco with gold and ivory (1 Kings 22:39; 2 Chr. 3:6; Ps. 45:8).

The roofs of the dwelling-houses were flat, and are often alluded to in Scripture (2 Sam. 11:2; Isa. 22:1; Matt. 24:17). Sometimes tents or booths were erected on them (2 Sam. 16:22). They were protected by parapets or low walls (Deut. 22:8). On the house-tops grass sometimes grew (Prov. 19:13; 27:15; Ps. 129:6, 7). They were used, not only as places of recreation in the evening, but also sometimes as sleeping-places at night (1 Sam. 9:25, 26; 2 Sam. 11:2; 16:22; Dan. 4:29; Job 27:18; Prov. 21:9), and as places of devotion (Jer. 32:29; 19:13).

Hukkok Decreed, a town near Zebulun, not far from Jordan, on the border of Naphtali (Josh. 19:34). (See [288]HELKATH.)

Hul Circle, the second son of Aram (Gen. 10:23), and grandson of Shem.

Huldah Weasel, a prophetess; the wife of Shallum. She was consulted regarding the “book of the law” discovered by the high priest Hilkiah (2 Kings 22:14-20; 2 Chr. 34:22-28). She resided in that part of Jerusalem called the Mishneh (A.V., “the college;” R.V., “the second quarter”), supposed by some to be the suburb between the inner and the outer wall, the second or lower city, Akra. Miriam (Ex. 15:20) and Deborah (Judg. 4:4) are the only others who bear the title of “prophetess,” for the word in Isa. 8:3 means only the prophet’s wife.

Humiliation of Christ (Phil. 2:8), seen in (1) his birth (Gal. 4:4; Luke 2:7; John 1:46; Heb. 2:9), (2) his circumstances, (3) his reputation (Isa. 53; Matt. 26:59, 67; Ps. 22:6; Matt. 26:68), (4) his soul (Ps. 22:1; Matt. 4:1-11; Luke 22:44; Heb. 2:17, 18; 4:15), (5) his death (Luke 23; John 19; Mark 15:24, 25), (6) and his burial (Isa. 53:9; Matt. 27:57, 58, 60).

His humiliation was necessary (1) to execute the purpose of God (Acts 2:23, 24; Ps. 40:6-8), (2) fulfil the Old Testament types and prophecies, (3) satisfy the law in the room of the guilty (Isa. 53; Heb. 9:12, 15), procure for them eternal redemption, (4) and to show us an example.

Humility A prominent Christian grace (Rom. 12:3; 15:17, 18; 1 Cor. 3:5-7; 2 Cor. 3:5; Phil. 4:11-13). It is a state of mind well pleasing to God (1 Pet. 3:4); it preserves the soul in tranquillity (Ps. 69:32, 33), and makes us patient under trials (Job 1:22).

Christ has set us an example of humility (Phil. 2:6-8). We should be led thereto by a remembrance of our sins (Lam. 3:39), and by the thought that it is the way to honour (Prov. 16:18), and that the greatest promises are made to the humble (Ps. 147:6; Isa. 57:15; 66:2; 1 Pet. 5:5). It is a “great paradox in Christianity that it makes humility the avenue to glory.”

Hunting Mentioned first in Gen. 10:9 in connection with Nimrod. Esau was “a cunning hunter” (Gen. 25:27). Hunting was practised by the Hebrews after their settlement in the “Land of Promise” (Lev. 17:15; Prov. 12:27). The lion and other ravenous beasts were found in Palestine (1 Sam. 17:34; 2 Sam. 23:20; 1 Kings 13:24; Ezek. 19:3-8), and it must have been necessary to hunt and destroy them. Various snares and gins were used in hunting (Ps. 91:3; Amos 3:5; 2 Sam. 23:20).

War is referred to under the idea of hunting (Jer. 16:16; Ezek. 32:30).

Hur A hole, as of a viper, etc. (1.) A son of Caleb (1 Chr. 2:19, 50; 4:1, 4; comp. 2 Chr. 1:5).

(2.) The husband of Miriam, Moses’ sister (Ex. 17:10-12). He was associated with Aaron in charge of the people when Moses was absent on Sinai (Ex. 24:14). He was probably of the tribe of Judah, and grandfather of Bezaleel (Ex. 31:2; 35:30; 1 Chr. 2:19).

(3.) One of the five princes of Midian who were defeated and slain by the Israelites under the command of Phinehas (Num. 31:8).

Hurai Linen-worker, one of David’s heroes, a native of the valley of Mount Gaash (1 Chr. 11:32).

Husband I.e., the “house-band,” connecting and keeping together the whole family. A man when betrothed was esteemed from that time a husband (Matt. 1:16, 20; Luke 2:5). A recently married man was exempt from going to war for “one year” (Deut. 20:7; 24:5).

Husbandman One whose business it is to cultivate the ground. It was one of the first occupations, and was esteemed most honourable (Gen. 9:20; 26:12, 14; 37:7, etc.). All the Hebrews, except those engaged in religious services, were husbandmen. (See [289]AGRICULTURE.)

Hushai Quick, “the Archite,” “the king’s friend” (1 Chr. 27:33). When David fled from Jerusalem, on account of the rebellion of Absalom, and had reached the summit of Olivet, he there met Hushai, whom he sent back to Jerusalem for the purpose of counteracting the influence of Ahithophel, who had joined the ranks of Absalom (2 Sam. 15:32, 37; 16:16-18). It was by his advice that Absalom refrained from immediately pursuing after David. By this delay the cause of Absalom was ruined, for it gave David time to muster his forces.

Husk In Num. 6:4 (Heb. zag) it means the “skin” of a grape. In 2 Kings 4:42 (Heb. tsiqlon) it means a “sack” for grain, as rendered in the Revised Version. In Luke 15:16, in the parable of the Prodigal Son, it designates the beans of the carob tree, or Ceratonia siliqua. From the supposition, mistaken, however, that it was on the husks of this tree that John the Baptist fed, it is called “St. John’s bread” and “locust tree.” This tree is in “February covered with innumerable purple-red pendent blossoms, which ripen in April and May into large crops of pods from 6 to 10 inches long, flat, brown, narrow, and bent like a horn (whence the Greek name keratia, meaning little horns’), with a sweetish taste when still unripe. Enormous quantities of these are gathered for sale in various towns and for exportation.” “They were eaten as food, though only by the poorest of the poor, in the time of our Lord.” The bean is called a “gerah,” which is used as the name of the smallest Hebrew weight, twenty of these making a shekel.

Hymn Occurs only Eph. 5:19 and Col. 3:16. The verb to “sing an hymn” occurs Matt. 26:30 and Mark 14:26. The same Greek word is rendered to “sing praises” Acts 16:25 (R.V., “sing hymns”) and Heb. 2:12. The “hymn” which our Lord sang with his disciples at the last Supper is generally supposed to have been the latter part of the Hallel, comprehending Ps. 113-118. It was thus a name given to a number of psalms taken together and forming a devotional exercise.

The noun hymn is used only with reference to the services of the Greeks, and was distinguished from the psalm. The Greek tunes required Greek hymns. Our information regarding the hymnology of the early Christians is very limited.

Hypocrite One who puts on a mask and feigns himself to be what he is not; a dissembler in religion. Our Lord severely rebuked the scribes and Pharisees for their hypocrisy (Matt. 6:2, 5, 16). “The hypocrite’s hope shall perish” (Job 8:13). The Hebrew word here rendered “hypocrite” rather means the “godless” or “profane,” as it is rendered in Jer. 23:11, i.e., polluted with crimes.

Hyssop (Heb. ezob; LXX. hyssopos), first mentioned in Ex. 12:22 in connection with the institution of the Passover. We find it afterwards mentioned in Lev. 14:4, 6, 52; Num. 19:6, 18; Heb. 9:19. It is spoken of as a plant “springing out of the wall” (1 Kings 4:33). Many conjectures have been formed as to what this plant really was. Some contend that it was a species of marjoram (origanum), six species of which are found in Palestine. Others with more probability think that it was the caper plant, the Capparis spinosa of Linnaeus. This plant grew in Egypt, in the desert of Sinai, and in Palestine. It was capable of producing a stem three or four feet in length (Matt. 27:48; Mark 15:36. Comp. John 19:29). __________________________________________________________________

Ibhar Chosen, one of David’s sons (1 Chr. 3:6; 2 Sam. 5:15).

Ibleam People-waster, a city assigned to Manasseh (Josh. 17:11), from which the Israelites, however, could not expel the Canaanites (Judg. 1:27). It is also called Bileam (1 Chr. 6:70). It was probably the modern Jelamah, a village 2 1/2 miles north of Jenin.

Ibzan Illustrious, the tenth judge of Israel (Judg. 12:8-10). He ruled seven years.

Ice Frequently mentioned (Job 6:16; 38:29; Ps. 147:17, etc.). (See [290]CRYSTAL.)

Ichabod When the tidings of the disastrous defeat of the Israelites in the battle against the Philistines near to Mizpeh were carried to Shiloh, the wife of Phinehas “was near to be delivered. And when she heard the tidings that the ark of God was taken, and that her father-in-law and her husband were dead, she bowed herself and travailed” (1 Sam. 4:19-22). In her great distress she regarded not “the women that stood by her,” but named the child that was born “Ichabod” i.e., no glory, saying, “The glory is departed from Isreal;” and with that word on her lips she expired.

Iconium The capital of ancient Lycaonia. It was first visited by Paul and Barnabas from Antioch-in-Pisidia during the apostle’s first missionary journey (Acts 13:50, 51). Here they were persecuted by the Jews, and being driven from the city, they fled to Lystra. They afterwards returned to Iconium, and encouraged the church which had been founded there (14:21, 22). It was probably again visited by Paul during his third missionary journey along with Silas (18:23). It is the modern Konieh, at the foot of Mount Taurus, about 120 miles inland from the Mediterranean.

Idalah Snares(?), a city near the west border of Zebulun (Josh. 19:15). It has been identified with the modern Jeida, in the valley of Kishon.

Iddo (1.) Timely (1 Chr. 6:21). A Gershonite Levite.

(2.) Lovely. The son of Zechariah (1 Chr. 27:21), the ruler of Manasseh in David’s time.

(3.) Timely. The father of Ahinadab, who was one of Solomon’s purveyors (1 Kings 4:14).

(4.) Lovely. A prophet of Judah who wrote the history of Rehoboam and Abijah (2 Chr. 12:15). He has been identified with Oded (2 Chr. 15:1).

(5.) Lovely. The father of Berachiah, and grandfather of the prophet Zechariah (Zech. 1:1, 7). He returned from Babylon (Neh. 12:4).

Idol (1.) Heb. aven, “nothingness;” “vanity” (Isa. 66:3; 41:29; Deut. 32:21; 1 Kings 16:13; Ps. 31:6; Jer. 8:19, etc.).

(2.) Elil, “a thing of naught” (Ps. 97:7; Isa. 19:3); a word of contempt, used of the gods of Noph (Ezek. 30:13).

(3.) Emah, “terror,” in allusion to the hideous form of idols (Jer. 50:38).

(4.) Miphletzeth, “a fright;” “horror” (1 Kings 15:13; 2 Chr. 15:16).

(5.) Bosheth, “shame;” “shameful thing” (Jer. 11:13; Hos. 9:10); as characterizing the obscenity of the worship of Baal.

(6.) Gillulim, also a word of contempt, “dung;” “refuse” (Ezek. 16:36; 20:8; Deut. 29:17, marg.).

(7.) Shikkuts, “filth;” “impurity” (Ezek. 37:23; Nah. 3:6).

(8.) Semel, “likeness;” “a carved image” (Deut. 4:16).

(9.) Tselem, “a shadow” (Dan. 3:1; 1 Sam. 6:5), as distinguished from the “likeness,” or the exact counterpart.

(10.) Temunah, “similitude” (Deut. 4:12-19). Here Moses forbids the several forms of Gentile idolatry.

(11.) Atsab, “a figure;” from the root “to fashion,” “to labour;” denoting that idols are the result of man’s labour (Isa. 48:5; Ps. 139:24, “wicked way;” literally, as some translate, “way of an idol”).

(12.) Tsir, “a form;” “shape” (Isa. 45:16).

(13.) Matztzebah, a “statue” set up (Jer. 43:13); a memorial stone like that erected by Jacob (Gen. 28:18; 31:45; 35:14, 20), by Joshua (4:9), and by Samuel (1 Sam. 7:12). It is the name given to the statues of Baal (2 Kings 3:2; 10:27).

(14.) Hammanim, “sun-images.” Hamman is a synonym of Baal, the sun-god of the Phoenicians (2 Chr. 34:4, 7; 14:3, 5; Isa. 17:8).

(15.) Maskith, “device” (Lev. 26:1; Num. 33:52). In Lev. 26:1, the words “image of stone” (A.V.) denote “a stone or cippus with the image of an idol, as Baal, Astarte, etc.” In Ezek. 8:12, “chambers of imagery” (maskith), are “chambers of which the walls are painted with the figures of idols;” comp. ver. 10, 11.

(16.) Pesel, “a graven” or “carved image” (Isa. 44:10-20). It denotes also a figure cast in metal (Deut. 7:25; 27:15; Isa. 40:19; 44:10).

(17.) Massekah, “a molten image” (Deut. 9:12; Judg. 17:3, 4).

(18.) Teraphim, pl., “images,” family gods (penates) worshipped by Abram’s kindred (Josh. 24:14). Put by Michal in David’s bed (Judg. 17:5; 18:14, 17, 18, 20; 1 Sam. 19:13).

“Nothing can be more instructive and significant than this multiplicity and variety of words designating the instruments and inventions of idolatry.”

Idolatry Image-worship or divine honour paid to any created object. Paul describes the origin of idolatry in Rom. 1:21-25: men forsook God, and sank into ignorance and moral corruption (1:28).

The forms of idolatry are, (1.) Fetishism, or the worship of trees, rivers, hills, stones, etc.

(2.) Nature worship, the worship of the sun, moon, and stars, as the supposed powers of nature.

(3.) Hero worship, the worship of deceased ancestors, or of heroes.

In Scripture, idolatry is regarded as of heathen origin, and as being imported among the Hebrews through contact with heathen nations. The first allusion to idolatry is in the account of Rachel stealing her father’s teraphim (Gen. 31:19), which were the relics of the worship of other gods by Laban’s progenitors “on the other side of the river in old time” (Josh. 24:2). During their long residence in Egypt the Hebrews fell into idolatry, and it was long before they were delivered from it (Josh. 24:14; Ezek. 20:7). Many a token of God’s displeasure fell upon them because of this sin.

The idolatry learned in Egypt was probably rooted out from among the people during the forty years’ wanderings; but when the Jews entered Palestine, they came into contact with the monuments and associations of the idolatry of the old Canaanitish races, and showed a constant tendency to depart from the living God and follow the idolatrous practices of those heathen nations. It was their great national sin, which was only effectually rebuked by the Babylonian exile. That exile finally purified the Jews of all idolatrous tendencies.

The first and second commandments are directed against idolatry of every form. Individuals and communities were equally amenable to the rigorous code. The individual offender was devoted to destruction (Ex. 22:20). His nearest relatives were not only bound to denounce him and deliver him up to punishment (Deut. 13:20-10), but their hands were to strike the first blow when, on the evidence of two witnesses at least, he was stoned (Deut. 17:2-7). To attempt to seduce others to false worship was a crime of equal enormity (13:6-10). An idolatrous nation shared the same fate. No facts are more strongly declared in the Old Testament than that the extermination of the Canaanites was the punishment of their idolatry (Ex. 34:15, 16; Deut. 7; 12:29-31; 20:17), and that the calamities of the Israelites were due to the same cause (Jer. 2:17). “A city guilty of idolatry was looked upon as a cancer in the state; it was considered to be in rebellion, and treated according to the laws of war. Its inhabitants and all their cattle were put to death.” Jehovah was the theocratic King of Israel, the civil Head of the commonwealth, and therefore to an Israelite idolatry was a state offence (1 Sam. 15:23), high treason. On taking possession of the land, the Jews were commanded to destroy all traces of every kind of the existing idolatry of the Canaanites (Ex. 23:24, 32; 34:13; Deut. 7:5, 25; 12:1-3).

In the New Testament the term idolatry is used to designate covetousness (Matt. 6:24; Luke 16:13; Col. 3:5; Eph. 5:5).

Idumaea The Greek form of Edom (Isa. 34:5, 6; Ezek. 35:15; 36:5, but in R.V. “Edom”). (See [291]EDOM).

Igal Avengers. (1.) Num. 13:7, one of the spies of the tribe of Issachar. (2.) Son of Nathan of Zobah, and one of David’s warriors (2 Sam. 23:36). (3.) 1 Chr. 3:22.

Iim Ruins. (1.) A city in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:29).

(2.) One of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness (Num. 33:45).

Ije-abarim Ruins of Abarim, the forty-seventh station of the Israelites in the wilderness, “in the border of Moab” (Num. 33:44).

Ijon A ruin, a city of Naphtali, captured by Ben-hadad of Syria at the instance of Asa (1 Kings 15:20), and afterwards by Tiglath-pileser of Assyria (2 Kings 15:29) in the reign of Pekah; now el-Khiam.

Ilai An Ahohite, one of David’s chief warriors (1 Chr. 11:29); called also Zalmon (2 Sam. 23:28).

Illyricum A country to the north-west of Macedonia, on the eastern shores of the Adriatic, now almost wholly comprehended in Dalmatia, a name formerly given to the southern part of Illyricum (2 Tim. 4:10). It was traversed by Paul in his third missionary journey (Rom. 15:19). It was the farthest district he had reached in preaching the gospel of Christ. This reference to Illyricum is in harmony with Acts 20:2, inasmuch as the apostle’s journey over the parts of Macedonia would bring him to the borders of Illyricum.

Imagery Only in the phrase “chambers of his imagery” (Ezek. 8:12). (See [292]CHAMBER.)

Imla Replenisher, the father of Micaiah the prophet (2 Chr. 18:7, 8).

Immanuel God with us. In the Old Testament it occurs only in Isa. 7:14 and 8:8. Most Christian interpreters have regarded these words as directly and exclusively a prophecy of our Saviour, an interpretation borne out by the words of the evangelist Matthew (1:23).

Immer Talkative. (1.) The head of the sixteenth priestly order (1 Chr. 24:14). (2.) Jer. 20:1. (3.) Ezra 2:37; Neh. 7:40. (4.) Ezra 2:59; Neh. 7:61. (5.) The father of Zadok (Neh. 3:29).

Immortality Perpetuity of existence. The doctrine of immortality is taught in the Old Testament. It is plainly implied in the writings of Moses (Gen. 5:22, 24; 25:8; 37:35; 47:9; 49:29, comp. Heb. 11:13-16; Ex. 3:6, comp. Matt. 22:23). It is more clearly and fully taught in the later books (Isa. 14:9; Ps. 17:15; 49:15; 73:24). It was thus a doctrine obviously well known to the Jews.

With the full revelation of the gospel this doctrine was “brought to light” (2 Tim. 1:10; 1 Cor. 15; 2 Cor. 5:1-6; 1 Thess. 4:13-18).

Imputation Is used to designate any action or word or thing as reckoned to a person. Thus in doctrinal language (1) the sin of Adam is imputed to all his descendants, i.e., it is reckoned as theirs, and they are dealt with therefore as guilty; (2) the righteousness of Christ is imputed to them that believe in him, or so attributed to them as to be considered their own; and (3) our sins are imputed to Christ, i.e., he assumed our “law-place,” undertook to answer the demands of justice for our sins. In all these cases the nature of imputation is the same (Rom. 5:12-19; comp. Philemon 1:18, 19).

Incarnation That act of grace whereby Christ took our human nature into union with his Divine Person, became man. Christ is both God and man. Human attributes and actions are predicated of him, and he of whom they are predicated is God. A Divine Person was united to a human nature (Acts 20:28; Rom. 8:32; 1 Cor. 2:8; Heb. 2:11-14; 1 Tim. 3:16; Gal. 4:4, etc.). The union is hypostatical, i.e., is personal; the two natures are not mixed or confounded, and it is perpetual.

Incense A fragrant composition prepared by the “art of the apothecary.” It consisted of four ingredients “beaten small” (Ex. 30:34-36). That which was not thus prepared was called “strange incense” (30:9). It was offered along with every meat-offering; and besides was daily offered on the golden altar in the holy place, and on the great day of atonement was burnt by the high priest in the holy of holies (30:7, 8). It was the symbol of prayer (Ps. 141:1, 2; Rev. 5:8; 8:3, 4).

India Occurs only in Esther 1:1 and 8:9, where the extent of the dominion of the Persian king is described. The country so designated here is not the peninsula of Hindustan, but the country surrounding the Indus, the Punjab. The people and the products of India were well known to the Jews, who seem to have carried on an active trade with that country (Ezek. 27:15, 24).

Inkhorn The Hebrew word so rendered means simply a round vessel or cup for containing ink, which was generally worn by writers in the girdle (Ezek. 9:2, 3, 11). The word “inkhorn” was used by the translators, because in former times in this country horns were used for containing ink.

Inn In the modern sense, unknown in the East. The khans or caravanserais, which correspond to the European inn, are not alluded to in the Old Testament. The “inn” mentioned in Ex. 4:24 was just the halting-place of the caravan. In later times khans were erected for the accommodation of travellers. In Luke 2:7 the word there so rendered denotes a place for loosing the beasts of their burdens. It is rendered “guest-chamber” in Mark 14:14 and Luke 22:11. In Luke 10:34 the word so rendered is different. That inn had an “inn-keeper,” who attended to the wants of travellers.

Inspiration That extraordinary or supernatural divine influence vouchsafed to those who wrote the Holy Scriptures, rendering their writings infallible. “All scripture is given by inspiration of God” (R.V., “Every scripture inspired of God”), 2 Tim. 3:16. This is true of all the “sacred writings,” not in the sense of their being works of genius or of supernatural insight, but as “theopneustic,” i.e., “breathed into by God” in such a sense that the writers were supernaturally guided to express exactly what God intended them to express as a revelation of his mind and will. The testimony of the sacred writers themselves abundantly demonstrates this truth; and if they are infallible as teachers of doctrine, then the doctrine of plenary inspiration must be accepted. There are no errors in the Bible as it came from God, none have been proved to exist. Difficulties and phenomena we cannot explain are not errors. All these books of the Old and New Testaments are inspired. We do not say that they contain, but that they are, the Word of God. The gift of inspiration rendered the writers the organs of God, for the infallible communication of his mind and will, in the very manner and words in which it was originally given.

As to the nature of inspiration we have no information. This only we know, it rendered the writers infallible. They were all equally inspired, and are all equally infallible. The inspiration of the sacred writers did not change their characters. They retained all their individual peculiarities as thinkers or writers. (See [293]BIBLE; WORD OF [294]GOD.)

Intercession of Christ Christ’s priestly office consists of these two parts, (1) the offering up of himself as a sacrifice, and (2) making continual intercession for us.

When on earth he made intercession for his people (Luke 23:34; John 17:20; Heb. 5:7); but now he exercises this function of his priesthood in heaven, where he is said to appear in the presence of God for us (Heb. 9:12, 24).

His advocacy with the Father for his people rests on the basis of his own all-perfect sacrifice. Thus he pleads for and obtains the fulfilment of all the promises of the everlasting covenant (1 John 2:1; John 17:24; Heb. 7:25). He can be “touched with the feeling of our infirmities,” and is both a merciful and a faithful high priest (Heb. 2:17, 18; 4:15, 16). This intercession is an essential part of his mediatorial work. Through him we have “access” to the Father (John 14:6; Eph. 2:18; 3:12). “The communion of his people with the Father will ever be sustained through him as mediatorial Priest” (Ps. 110:4; Rev. 7:17).

Intercession of the Spirit (Rom. 8:26, 27; John 14:26). “Christ is a royal Priest (Zech. 6:13). From the same throne, as King, he dispenses his Spirit to all the objects of his care, while as Priest he intercedes for them. The Spirit acts for him, taking only of his things. They both act with one consent, Christ as principal, the Spirit as his agent. Christ intercedes for us, without us, as our advocate in heaven, according to the provisions of the everlasting covenant. The Holy Spirit works upon our minds and hearts, enlightening and quickening, and thus determining our desires ‘according to the will of God,’ as our advocate within us. The work of the one is complementary to that of the other, and together they form a complete whole.”, Hodge’s Outlines of Theology.

Iphedeiah Set free by Jehovah, a chief of the tribe of Benjamin (1 Chr. 8:25).

Ira Citizen; wakeful. (1.) A Tekoite, one of David’s thirty warriors (2 Sam. 23:26).

(2.) An Ithrite, also one of David’s heroes (2 Sam. 23:38).

(3.) A Jairite and priest, a royal chaplain (2 Sam. 20:26) or confidential adviser (comp. 2 Sam. 8:18; 1 Chr. 18:17).

Irad Runner; wild ass, one of the antediluvian patriarchs, the father of Mehujael (Gen. 4:18), and grandson of Cain.

Iram Citizen, chief of an Edomite tribe in Mount Seir (Gen. 36:43).

Irha-heres According to some MSS., meaning “city of destruction.” Other MSS. read ‘Irhahares; rendered “city of the sun”, Isa. 19:18, where alone the word occurs. This name may probably refer to Heliopolis. The prophecy here points to a time when the Jews would so increase in number there as that the city would fall under their influence. This might be in the time of the Ptolemies. (See [295]ON.)

Iron Tubal-Cain is the first-mentioned worker in iron (Gen. 4:22). The Egyptians wrought it at Sinai before the Exodus. David prepared it in great abundance for the temple (1 Chr. 22:3: 29:7). The merchants of Dan and Javan brought it to the market of Tyre (Ezek. 27:19). Various instruments are mentioned as made of iron (Deut. 27:5; 19:5; Josh. 17:16, 18; 1 Sam. 17:7; 2 Sam. 12:31; 2 Kings 6:5, 6; 1 Chr. 22:3; Isa. 10:34).

Figuratively, a yoke of iron (Deut. 28:48) denotes hard service; a rod of iron (Ps. 2:9), a stern government; a pillar of iron (Jer. 1:18), a strong support; a furnace of iron (Deut. 4:20), severe labour; a bar of iron (Job 40:18), strength; fetters of iron (Ps. 107:10), affliction; giving silver for iron (Isa. 60:17), prosperity.

Irrigation As streams were few in Palestine, water was generally stored up in winter in reservoirs, and distributed through gardens in numerous rills, which could easily be turned or diverted by the foot (Deut. 11:10).

For purposes of irrigation, water was raised from streams or pools by water-wheels, or by a shaduf, commonly used on the banks of the Nile to the present day.

Isaac Laughter. (1) Israel, or the kingdom of the ten tribes (Amos 7:9, 16).

(2.) The only son of Abraham by Sarah. He was the longest lived of the three patriarchs (Gen. 21:1-3). He was circumcised when eight days old (4-7); and when he was probably two years old a great feast was held in connection with his being weaned.

The next memorable event in his life is that connected with the command of God given to Abraham to offer him up as a sacrifice on a mountain in the land of Moriah (Gen. 22). (See [296]ABRAHAM.) When he was forty years of age Rebekah was chosen for his wife (Gen. 24). After the death and burial of his father he took up his residence at Beer-lahai-roi (25:7-11), where his two sons, Esau and Jacob, were born (21-26), the former of whom seems to have been his favourite son (27, 28).

In consequence of a famine (Gen. 26:1) Isaac went to Gerar, where he practised deception as to his relation to Rebekah, imitating the conduct of his father in Egypt (12:12-20) and in Gerar (20:2). The Philistine king rebuked him for his prevarication.

After sojourning for some time in the land of the Philistines, he returned to Beersheba, where God gave him fresh assurance of covenant blessing, and where Abimelech entered into a covenant of peace with him.

The next chief event in his life was the blessing of his sons (Gen. 27:1). He died at Mamre, “being old and full of days” (35:27-29), one hundred and eighty years old, and was buried in the cave of Machpelah.

In the New Testament reference is made to his having been “offered up” by his father (Heb. 11:17; James 2:21), and to his blessing his sons (Heb. 11:20). As the child of promise, he is contrasted with Ishmael (Rom. 9:7, 10; Gal. 4:28; Heb. 11:18).

Isaac is “at once a counterpart of his father in simple devoutness and purity of life, and a contrast in his passive weakness of character, which in part, at least, may have sprung from his relations to his mother and wife. After the expulsion of Ishmael and Hagar, Isaac had no competitor, and grew up in the shade of Sarah’s tent, moulded into feminine softness by habitual submission to her strong, loving will.” His life was so quiet and uneventful that it was spent “within the circle of a few miles; so guileless that he let Jacob overreach him rather than disbelieve his assurance; so tender that his mother’s death was the poignant sorrow of years; so patient and gentle that peace with his neighbours was dearer than even such a coveted possession as a well of living water dug by his own men; so grandly obedient that he put his life at his father’s disposal; so firm in his reliance on God that his greatest concern through life was to honour the divine promise given to his race.”, Geikie’s Hours, etc.

Isaiah (Heb. Yesh’yahu, i.e., “the salvation of Jehovah”). (1.) The son of Amoz (Isa. 1:1; 2:1), who was apparently a man of humble rank. His wife was called “the prophetess” (8:3), either because she was endowed with the prophetic gift, like Deborah (Judg. 4:4) and Huldah (2 Kings 22:14-20), or simply because she was the wife of “the prophet” (Isa. 38:1). He had two sons, who bore symbolical names.

He exercised the functions of his office during the reigns of Uzziah (or Azariah), Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah (1:1). Uzziah reigned fifty-two years (B.C. 810-759), and Isaiah must have begun his career a few years before Uzziah’s death, probably B.C. 762. He lived till the fourteenth year of Hezekiah, and in all likelihood outlived that monarch (who died B.C. 698), and may have been contemporary for some years with Manasseh. Thus Isaiah may have prophesied for the long period of at least sixty-four years.

His first call to the prophetical office is not recorded. A second call came to him “in the year that King Uzziah died” (Isa. 6:1). He exercised his ministry in a spirit of uncompromising firmness and boldness in regard to all that bore on the interests of religion. He conceals nothing and keeps nothing back from fear of man. He was also noted for his spirituality and for his deep-toned reverence toward “the holy One of Israel.”

In early youth Isaiah must have been moved by the invasion of Israel by the Assyrian monarch Pul (q.v.), 2 Kings 15:19; and again, twenty years later, when he had already entered on his office, by the invasion of Tiglath-pileser and his career of conquest. Ahaz, king of Judah, at this crisis refused to co-operate with the kings of Israel and Syria in opposition to the Assyrians, and was on that account attacked and defeated by Rezin of Damascus and Pekah of Samaria (2 Kings 16:5; 2 Chr. 28:5, 6). Ahaz, thus humbled, sided with Assyria, and sought the aid of Tiglath-pileser against Israel and Syria. The consequence was that Rezin and Pekah were conquered and many of the people carried captive to Assyria (2 Kings 15:29; 16:9; 1 Chr. 5:26). Soon after this Shalmaneser determined wholly to subdue the kingdom of Israel. Samaria was taken and destroyed (B.C. 722). So long as Ahaz reigned, the kingdom of Judah was unmolested by the Assyrian power; but on his accession to the throne, Hezekiah (B.C. 726), who “rebelled against the king of Assyria” (2 Kings 18:7), in which he was encouraged by Isaiah, who exhorted the people to place all their dependence on Jehovah (Isa. 10:24; 37:6), entered into an alliance with the king of Egypt (Isa. 30:2-4). This led the king of Assyria to threaten the king of Judah, and at length to invade the land. Sennacherib (B.C. 701) led a powerful army into Palestine. Hezekiah was reduced to despair, and submitted to the Assyrians (2 Kings 18:14-16). But after a brief interval war broke out again, and again Sennacherib (q.v.) led an army into Palestine, one detachment of which threatened Jerusalem (Isa. 36:2-22; 37:8). Isaiah on that occasion encouraged Hezekiah to resist the Assyrians (37:1-7), whereupon Sennacherib sent a threatening letter to Hezekiah, which he “spread before the Lord” (37:14). The judgement of God now fell on the Assyrian host. “Like Xerxes in Greece, Sennacherib never recovered from the shock of the disaster in Judah. He made no more expeditions against either Southern Palestine or Egypt.” The remaining years of Hezekiah’s reign were peaceful (2 Chr. 32:23, 27-29). Isaiah probably lived to its close, and possibly into the reign of Manasseh, but the time and manner of his death are unknown. There is a tradition that he suffered martyrdom in the heathen reaction in the time of Manasseh (q.v.).

(2.) One of the heads of the singers in the time of David (1 Chr. 25:3, 15, “Jeshaiah”).

(3.) A Levite (1 Chr. 26:25). (4.) Ezra 8:7. (5.) Neh. 11:7.

Isaiah, The Book of Consists of prophecies delivered (Isa. 1) in the reign of Uzziah (1-5), (2) of Jotham (6), (3) Ahaz (7-14:28), (4) the first half of Hezekiah’s reign (14:28-35), (5) the second half of Hezekiah’s reign (36-66). Thus, counting from the fourth year before Uzziah’s death (B.C. 762) to the last year of Hezekiah (B.C. 698), Isaiah’s ministry extended over a period of sixty-four years. He may, however, have survived Hezekiah, and may have perished in the way indicated above.

The book, as a whole, has been divided into three main parts: (1.) The first thirty-five chapters, almost wholly prophetic, Israel’s enemy Assyria, present the Messiah as a mighty Ruler and King. (2.) Four chapters are historical (36-39), relating to the times of Hezekiah. (3.) Prophetical (40-66), Israel’s enemy Babylon, describing the Messiah as a suffering victim, meek and lowly.

The genuineness of the section Isa. 40-66 has been keenly opposed by able critics. They assert that it must be the production of a deutero-Isaiah, who lived toward the close of the Babylonian captivity. This theory was originated by Koppe, a German writer at the close of the last century. There are other portions of the book also (e.g., ch. 13; 24-27; and certain verses in ch. 14 and 21) which they attribute to some other prophet than Isaiah. Thus they say that some five or seven, or even more, unknown prophets had a hand in the production of this book. The considerations which have led to such a result are various: (1.) They cannot, as some say, conceive it possible that Isaiah, living in B.C. 700, could foretell the appearance and the exploits of a prince called Cyrus, who would set the Jews free from captivity one hundred and seventy years after. (2.) It is alleged that the prophet takes the time of the Captivity as his standpoint, and speaks of it as then present; and (3) that there is such a difference between the style and language of the closing section (40-66) and those of the preceding chapters as to necessitate a different authorship, and lead to the conclusion that there were at least two Isaiahs. But even granting the fact of a great diversity of style and language, this will not necessitate the conclusion attempted to be drawn from it. The diversity of subjects treated of and the peculiarities of the prophet’s position at the time the prophecies were uttered will sufficiently account for this.

The arguments in favour of the unity of the book are quite conclusive. When the LXX. version was made (about B.C. 250) the entire contents of the book were ascribed to Isaiah, the son of Amoz. It is not called in question, moreover, that in the time of our Lord the book existed in the form in which we now have it. Many prophecies in the disputed portions are quoted in the New Testament as the words of Isaiah (Matt. 3:3; Luke 3:4-6; 4:16-41; John 12:38; Acts 8:28; Rom. 10:16-21). Universal and persistent tradition has ascribed the whole book to one author.

Besides this, the internal evidence, the similarity in the language and style, in the thoughts and images and rhetorical ornaments, all points to the same conclusion; and its local colouring and allusions show that it is obviously of Palestinian origin. The theory therefore of a double authorship of the book, much less of a manifold authorship, cannot be maintained. The book, with all the diversity of its contents, is one, and is, we believe, the production of the great prophet whose name it bears.

Iscah Spy, the daughter of Haran and sister of Milcah and Lot (Gen. 11:29, 31).

Iscariot (See [297]JUDAS.)

Ishbak Leaving, one of Abraham’s sons by Keturah (Gen. 25:2).

Ishbi-benob My seat at Nob, one of the Rephaim, whose spear was three hundred shekels in weight. He was slain by Abishai (2 Sam. 21:16, 17).

Ish-bosheth Man of shame or humiliation, the youngest of Saul’s four sons, and the only one who survived him (2 Sam. 2-4). His name was originally Eshbaal (1 Chr. 8:33; 9:39). He was about forty years of age when his father and three brothers fell at the battle of Gilboa. Through the influence of Abner, Saul’s cousin, he was acknowledged as successor to the throne of Saul, and ruled over all Israel, except the tribe of Judah (over whom David was king), for two years, having Mahanaim, on the east of Jordan, as his capital (2 Sam. 2:9). After a troubled and uncertain reign he was murdered by his guard, who stabbed him while he was asleep on his couch at mid-day (2 Sam. 4:5-7); and having cut off his head, presented it to David, who sternly rebuked them for this cold-blooded murder, and ordered them to be immediately executed (9-12).

Ishi My husband, a symbolical name used in Hos. 2:16 (See [298]BAALI.)

Ishmael God hears. (1.) Abraham’s eldest son, by Hagar the concubine (Gen. 16:15; 17:23). He was born at Mamre, when Abraham was eighty-six years of age, eleven years after his arrival in Canaan (16:3; 21:5). At the age of thirteen he was circumcised (17:25). He grew up a true child of the desert, wild and wayward. On the occasion of the weaning of Isaac his rude and wayward spirit broke out in expressions of insult and mockery (21:9, 10); and Sarah, discovering this, said to Abraham, “Expel this slave and her son.” Influenced by a divine admonition, Abraham dismissed Hagar and her son with no more than a skin of water and some bread. The narrative describing this act is one of the most beautiful and touching incidents of patriarchal life (Gen. 21:14-16). (See [299]HAGAR.)

Ishmael settled in the land of Paran, a region lying between Canaan and the mountains of Sinai; and “God was with him, and he became a great archer” (Gen. 21:9-21). He became a great desert chief, but of his history little is recorded. He was about ninety years of age when his father Abraham died, in connection with whose burial he once more for a moment reappears. On this occasion the two brothers met after being long separated. “Isaac with his hundreds of household slaves, Ishmael with his troops of wild retainers and half-savage allies, in all the state of a Bedouin prince, gathered before the cave of Machpelah, in the midst of the men of Heth, to pay the last duties to the father of the faithful,’ would make a notable subject for an artist” (Gen. 25:9). Of the after events of his life but little is known. He died at the age of one hundred and thirty-seven years, but where and when are unknown (25:17). He had twelve sons, who became the founders of so many Arab tribes or colonies, the Ishmaelites, who spread over the wide desert spaces of Northern Arabia from the Red Sea to the Euphrates (Gen. 37:25, 27, 28; 39:1), “their hand against every man, and every man’s hand against them.”

(2.) The son of Nethaniah, “of the seed royal” (Jer. 40:8, 15). He plotted against Gedaliah, and treacherously put him and others to death. He carried off many captives, “and departed to go over to the Ammonites.”

Ishmaiah Heard by Jehovah. (1.) A Gibeonite who joined David at Ziklag, “a hero among the thirty and over the thirty” (1 Chr. 12:4).

(2.) Son of Obadiah, and viceroy of Zebulun under David and Solomon (1 Chr. 27:19).

Ishmeelites (Gen. 37:28; 39:1, A.V.) should be “Ishmaelites,” as in the Revised Version.

Ishtob Man of Tob, one of the small Syrian kingdoms which together constituted Aram (2 Sam. 10:6, 8).

Island (Heb. i, “dry land,” as opposed to water) occurs in its usual signification (Isa. 42:4, 10, 12, 15, comp. Jer. 47:4), but more frequently simply denotes a maritime region or sea-coast (Isa. 20:6, R.V.,” coastland;” 23:2, 6; Jer. 2:10; Ezek. 27:6, 7). (See [300]CHITTIM.) The shores of the Mediterranean are called the “islands of the sea” (Isa. 11:11), or the “isles of the Gentiles” (Gen. 10:5), and sometimes simply “isles” (Ps. 72:10); Ezek. 26:15, 18; 27:3, 35; Dan. 11:18).

Israel The name conferred on Jacob after the great prayer-struggle at Peniel (Gen. 32:28), because “as a prince he had power with God and prevailed.” (See [301]JACOB.) This is the common name given to Jacob’s descendants. The whole people of the twelve tribes are called “Israelites,” the “children of Israel” (Josh. 3:17; 7:25; Judg. 8:27; Jer. 3:21), and the “house of Israel” (Ex. 16:31; 40:38).

This name Israel is sometimes used emphatically for the true Israel (Ps. 73:1: Isa. 45:17; 49:3; John 1:47; Rom. 9:6; 11:26).

After the death of Saul the ten tribes arrogated to themselves this name, as if they were the whole nation (2 Sam. 2:9, 10, 17, 28; 3:10, 17; 19:40-43), and the kings of the ten tribes were called “kings of Israel,” while the kings of the two tribes were called “kings of Judah.”

After the Exile the name Israel was assumed as designating the entire nation.

Israel, Kingdom of (B.C. 975-B.C. 722). Soon after the death of Solomon, Ahijah’s prophecy (1 Kings 11:31-35) was fulfilled, and the kingdom was rent in twain. Rehoboam, the son and successor of Solomon, was scarcely seated on his throne when the old jealousies between Judah and the other tribes broke out anew, and Jeroboam was sent for from Egypt by the malcontents (12:2, 3). Rehoboam insolently refused to lighten the burdensome taxation and services which his father had imposed on his subjects (12:4), and the rebellion became complete. Ephraim and all Israel raised the old cry, “Every man to his tents, O Israel” (2 Sam. 20:1). Rehoboam fled to Jerusalem (1 Kings 12:1-18; 2 Chr. 10), and Jeroboam was proclaimed king over all Israel at Shechem, Judah and Benjamin remaining faithful to Solomon’s son. War, with varying success, was carried on between the two kingdoms for about sixty years, till Jehoshaphat entered into an alliance with the house of Ahab.

Extent of the kingdom. In the time of Solomon the area of Palestine, excluding the Phoenician territories on the shore of the Mediterranean, did not much exceed 13,000 square miles. The kingdom of Israel comprehended about 9,375 square miles. Shechem was the first capital of this kingdom (1 Kings 12:25), afterwards Tirza (14:17). Samaria was subsequently chosen as the capital (16:24), and continued to be so till the destruction of the kingdom by the Assyrians (2 Kings 17:5). During the siege of Samaria (which lasted for three years) by the Assyrians, Shalmaneser died and was succeeded by Sargon, who himself thus records the capture of that city: “Samaria I looked at, I captured; 27,280 men who dwelt in it I carried away” (2 Kings 17:6) into Assyria. Thus after a duration of two hundred and fifty-three years the kingdom of the ten tribes came to an end. They were scattered throughout the East. (See [302]CAPTIVITY.)

“Judah held its ground against Assyria for yet one hundred and twenty-three years, and became the rallying-point of the dispersed of every tribe, and eventually gave its name to the whole race. Those of the people who in the last struggle escaped into the territories of Judah or other neighbouring countries naturally looked to Judah as the head and home of their race. And when Judah itself was carried off to Babylon, many of the exiled Israelites joined them from Assyria, and swelled that immense population which made Babylonia a second Palestine.”

After the deportation of the ten tribes, the deserted land was colonized by various eastern tribes, whom the king of Assyria sent thither (Ezra 4:2, 10; 2 Kings 17:24-29). (See [303]KINGS.)

In contrast with the kingdom of Judah is that of Israel. (1.) “There was no fixed capital and no religious centre. (2.) The army was often insubordinate. (3.) The succession was constantly interrupted, so that out of nineteen kings there were no less than nine dynasties, each ushered in by a revolution. (4.) The authorized priests left the kingdom in a body, and the priesthood established by Jeroboam had no divine sanction and no promise; it was corrupt at its very source.” (Maclean’s O. T. Hist.)

Issachar Hired (Gen. 30:18). “God hath given me,” said Leah, “my hire (Heb. sekhari)…and she called his name Issachar.” He was Jacob’s ninth son, and was born in Padan-aram (comp. 28:2). He had four sons at the going down into Egypt (46:13; Num. 26:23, 25).

Issachar, Tribe of, during the journey through the wilderness, along with Judah and Zebulun (Num. 2:5), marched on the east of the tabernacle. This tribe contained 54,400 fighting men when the census was taken at Sinai. After the entrance into the Promised Land, this tribe was one of the six which stood on Gerizim during the ceremony of the blessing and cursing (Deut. 27:12). The allotment of Issachar is described in Josh. 19:17-23. It included the plain of Esdraelon (=Jezreel), which was and still is the richest portion of Palestine (Deut. 33:18, 19; 1 Chr. 12:40).

The prophetic blessing pronounced by Jacob on Issachar corresponds with that of Moses (Gen. 49:14, 15; comp. Deut. 33:18, 19).

Italian band The name of the Roman cohort to which Cornelius belonged (Acts 10:1), so called probably because it consisted of men recruited in Italy.

Italy Acts 18:2; 27:1, 6; Heb. 13:24), like most geographical names, was differently used at different periods of history. As the power of Rome advanced, nations were successively conquered and added to it till it came to designate the whole country to the south of the Alps. There was constant intercourse between Palestine and Italy in the time of the Romans.

Ithamar Palm isle, the fourth and youngest son of Aaron (1 Chr. 6:3). He was consecrated to the priesthood along with his brothers (Ex. 6:23); and after the death of Nadab and Abihu, he and Eleazar alone discharged the functions of that office (Lev. 10:6, 12; Num. 3:4). He and his family occupied the position of common priest till the high priesthood passed into his family in the person of Eli (1 Kings 2:27), the reasons for which are not recorded. (See [304]ZADOK.)

Ithrite Two of David’s warriors so designated (2 Sam. 23:38; 1 Chr. 11:40).

Ittai Near; timely; or, with the Lord. (1.) A Benjamite, one of David’s thirty heroes (2 Sam. 23:29).

(2.) A native of Gath, a Philistine, who had apparently the command of the six hundred heroes who formed David’s band during his wanderings (2 Sam. 15:19-22; comp. 1 Sam. 23:13; 27:2; 30:9, 10). He is afterwards with David at Mahanaim, holding in the army equal rank with Joab and Abishai (2 Sam. 18:2, 5, 12). He then passes from view.

Ituraea A district in the north-east of Palestine, forming, along with the adjacent territory of Trachonitis, the tetrarchy of Philip (Luke 3:1). The present Jedur comprehends the chief part of Ituraea. It is bounded on the east by Trachonitis, on the south by Gaulanitis, on the west by Hermon, and on the north by the plain of Damascus.

Ivah Overturning, a city of the Assyrians, whence colonists were brought to Samaria (2 Kings 18:34; 19:13). It lay on the Euphrates, between Sepharvaim and Henah, and is supposed by some to have been the Ahava of Ezra (8:15).

Ivory (Heb. pl. shenhabbim, the “tusks of elephants”) was early used in decorations by the Egyptians, and a great trade in it was carried on by the Assyrians (Ezek. 27:6; Rev. 18:12). It was used by the Phoenicians to ornament the box-wood rowing-benches of their galleys, and Hiram’s skilled workmen made Solomon’s throne of ivory (1 Kings 10:18). It was brought by the caravans of Dedan (Isa. 21:13), and from the East Indies by the navy of Tarshish (1 Kings 10:22). Many specimens of ancient Egyptian and Assyrian ivory-work have been preserved. The word habbim is derived from the Sanscrit ibhas, meaning “elephant,” preceded by the Hebrew article (ha); and hence it is argued that Ophir, from which it and the other articles mentioned in 1 Kings 10:22 were brought, was in India.

Izhar Oil, one of the sons of Kohath, and grandson of Levi (Ex. 6:18, 21; Num. 16:1).

Izrahite The designation of one of David’s officers (1 Chr. 27:8).

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