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Joseph interprets Pharaoh's dreams

Two years after Joseph interpreted the dreams for the cupbearer and the baker, Pharaoh had a dream. He was standing by the Nile when out of the river comes seven beautiful, healthy cows that begin grazing among the reeds. After that, seven other cows, gaunt and mangy, come up out of the Nile and stand beside the healthy cows on the riverbank. And the seven cows that were gaunt and unhealthy ate up the seven healthy cows. Then Pharaoh woke up.

Joseph interprets Pharaoh's dreamsHe fell asleep again and had a second dream. Seven heads of grain, healthy and good, were growing on a single stalk. After them, seven other heads of grain sprouted, thin and scorched by the wind. The thin heads of grain swallowed up the seven healthy heads of grain. Then Pharaoh woke up again.

In the morning, he was troubled by the dreams, so he sent for all the magicians and wise men of Egypt to assist. Pharaoh told the men the dreams, but no one could interpret them for him. Then the cupbearer said to Pharaoh,

“Today I am reminded of my shortcomings. Pharaoh was once angry with his servants and he imprisoned me and the chief baker in the house of the captain of the guard. Each of us had a dream that same night and each dream had a meaning of its own. A young Hebrew man was with us, a servant of the captain of the guard. He interpreted our dreams for us. And things turned out exactly as he interpreted them. I was restored to my position and the chief baker was executed, just as the young Hebrew said.”

So Pharaoh sent for Joseph. He was brought from the dungeon, shaved, and given a fresh change of clothes. Then he came before Pharaoh. Pharaoh told Joseph, “I have heard it said that when you hear a dream you can interpret it.”

Joseph replied, “That I cannot do.” Then he added, “But God will give Pharaoh the answer he desires.”

Pharaoh told the dream of the healthy and unhealthy cows adding that he had never seen such ugly cows in all of Egypt and even after eating the healthy cows, they appeared just as ugly as before. Then Pharaoh told Joseph the dream of the seven heads of healthy grain swallowed up by the seven heads of unhealthy grains. He admitted that none of his magicians or wise men could explain the dream to him.

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Then Joseph explained.  He told Pharaoh,

“The dreams you had are one and the same. God has revealed to you what he is about to do. Both the seven good cows and the seven good heads of grain are seven good years. Each is one and the same dream. The seven starving, ugly cows that come up afterward are seven bad years as are the seven worthless heads of grain scorched by the wind. They represent seven years of famine.”

“God has shown you what he is about to do. Seven years of great abundance are coming to the land followed by seven years of famine. The famine will ravage the land and the seven years of abundance will quickly be forgotten. The dream was given to you in two forms to stress that the matter has been firmly decided by God – and God will do it soon.”

Pharoah dreams of seven health and seven unhealthy cowsPharaoh recognized Joseph was wise and put him in charge of the land of Egypt. Then Joseph proclaimed,

“Let Pharaoh appoint commissioners over the land to take a fifth of the harvest during the seven years of abundance. They should collect all the food from these good years and store them under the authority of Pharaoh. This food should be held in reserve, to be used during the seven years of famine that will come upon Egypt. This way, the country will not be ruined by the famine.”

Pharaoh approved of the plan and asked his officials, “Can we find anyone like this man, one in whom is the spirit of God?”

Then Pharaoh told Joseph,

“Since God has made all this known to you, there is no one so discerning and wise as you. You shall be in charge of my palace and all my people are to submit to your orders. Only with respect to the throne will I be greater than you.”

Pharaoh said to Joseph,

“I hereby put you in charge of the entire land of Egypt.”

Then Pharaoh took his signet ring from his finger and put it on Joseph’s finger. He dressed him in robes of fine linen and put a gold chain around his neck. He had Joseph ride around in a chariot as his second-in-command.

Then Pharaoh reiterated Joseph’s new stature and importance,

“I am Pharaoh, but without your word, no one will lift hand or foot in all of Egypt.”

Pharaoh gave Joseph the name Zaphenath-Paneah (ZAF-ee-nath-pan-EE-uh) and gave him Asenath (ASS-eh-nath), daughter of Potiphera (poh-TIH-fihr-uh), priest of On, to be his wife. Joseph was thirty years old when he began to serve with Pharaoh, king of Egypt.

Joseph travelled throughout Egypt. During the seven years of abundance, the land yielded plenty of food. Joseph collected all the food produced in those seven years of abundance and stored it in the cities. In each city he stored huge quantities of grain, like the sands of the sea. There was so much stored, he stopped keeping records.

Before the years of the famine came, two sons were born to Joseph by Asenath. Joseph named the firstborn Manasseh (muh-NASS-uh) and said, “It is because God has made me forget all my trouble and all my father’s household.” The second son he named Ephraim (EE-frar-ihm) and said, “It is because God has made me fruitful in the land of my suffering.” Then the seven years of abundance in Egypt came to an end and the seven years of famine began, just as Joseph had predicted.

There was famine in all the lands but in all of Egypt, there was food available for the people. When the Egyptians began to feel the famine, they cried to Pharaoh for food. Pharaoh told the Egyptians, “Go to Joseph and do what he tells you.” When the famine had spread throughout the entire country, Joseph opened all the storehouses and sold grain to the Egyptians. And all the world came to Egypt to buy grain from Joseph because the famine was severe everywhere.

Seven thin cows coming out of the water about to swallow the seven healthy cows - Unknown artist

What the story means to us today

Good things happen when we humbly follow God’s guidance and adhere to his plan

We should recognize that God rules over everything and that random events may not be as random as they appear. The years of abundance and subsequent famine were almost certainly a part of God’s plan.

Secondly, notice that when requested, Joseph freely assists Pharaoh but takes no credit for his ability to interpret the dreams. Instead, he proclaims that only God can interpret Pharaoh’s dreams. And as a result of God’s gift, Joseph is rewarded beyond anything he could have ever imagined. Good things happen to us when we follow God’s plan and adhere to the guidance provided to us in the scriptures.

Additional thoughts and considerations

The cupbearer admits his shortcoming and presents Joseph to the king

Earlier verses showed that despite Joseph’s gracious interpretation of his dream, the cupbearer “forgot” about Joseph. In this story, the cupbearer comes clean and admits his shortcoming (i.e. making no attempt to have Joseph freed from prison as he had promised). His admission to Pharaoh came with risks – he could have been executed for withholding the information from the king.

But Joseph’s kindness must have greatly influenced the cupbearer. Despite the risk, the cupbearer admits his wrong and promotes Joseph to the king as he had originally promised. Unknown to cupbearer, his brave action triggers a series of events that will dramatically change the lives of Joseph, his family, and Hebrew history.

Joseph remains humble – all credit given to God

Joseph does not take credit for his ability to interpret Pharaoh’s dreams. Instead, he pointedly attributes his unique ability to God. It will become clear in later verses that God supplied the ability for Joseph to interpret dreams for a reason. Joseph had a gift – but he was humble and rightly attributed the gift to God. His honest, admirable, and humble personality helped Joseph serve as witness to the Egyptians which in turn, promoted God’s overall plan. We should follow Joseph’s lead and always ensure our behavior is proper in order to bear witness to others.

The significance of cows in Pharaoh’s dreams

Pharaoh dreams of two cows – an ugly, unhealthy cow devouring a stout, healthy one. There’s a bit of obscure symbolism regarding the cows. Cows in Egypt took on various religious meanings. For instance, the Egyptian god Isis (mother of Horus) was often depicted as a cow. The Egyptian magicians could have easily mistaken the confrontation between the healthy and unhealthy cows to indicate some sort of battle between gods or even the demise of a god and its underlying protectorate. However, the verses tell us they did not volunteer interpretations of Pharaoh’s dreams. Joseph however, with guidance from God, correctly sees the dream for what it truly is – a premonition of events that if left uncared for, would doom Egypt.

Whose god does Pharaoh refer to?

Joseph interprets Pharaoh's dreamsPharaoh asks his officials, “Can we find anyone like this man (Joseph), one in whom is the spirit of God?” It seems an odd statement coming from a leader of a culture who worships various Egyptian gods and should not recognize Joseph’s Hebrew god as valid. Was Joseph’s ability to interpret Pharaoh’s dream so significant that Pharaoh would search out other people with the power of the Hebrew god supporting them? Not necessarily.

Pharaoh’s question is ambiguous and can be translated in two ways – someone in whom is the “spirit of God” or someone in whom is the “spirit of the Gods”. In the second interpretation, “gods” would refer to the Egyptian pantheon of numerous deities. Indeed, Pharaoh may have thought Joseph’s ability came from Egyptian gods, nor out Lord. Or he may have been admitting that Joseph’s god had bested them.

Regardless, Pharaoh and the officials are forced to acknowledge that Joseph’s plan to save good harvest for the future famine is a good plan. We can’t help but presume that Pharaoh’s officials must have felt slighted when overlooked by Pharaoh for such a high political position – and must have felt even worse when Pharaoh asks them, “Can any of you do better?”

Joseph’s Egyptian-born sons, Manasseh and Ephraim, have a bright future ahead of them

The verses tell us that Joseph was 30-years-old when he entered into the Pharaoh’s service. He had been sold into slavery for 13 years before the tide finally turned his way. And when the tide turned, the ramifications for future generations was enormous.

At this time, Joseph was blessed with two sons through his wife Asenath (who had been “given” to him by Pharaoh). First born was Manasseh followed by the younger brother Ephraim (whose name will later become attached to the land called Ephraim). We can presume from later narrative (and supported by a book written around 50 AD entitled Joseph and Asenath) that Asenath converted to Joseph’s faith in the Hebrew God. It is also notable that the sons were given Hebrew names, not Egyptian names from the region they were born. These observations are important because later we will see Joseph’s two sons “adopted” by Jacob and taking the place of Joseph and Levi, incorporated into the 12 tribes of Israel.

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Similarities between Adam and Joseph

Some readers may notice parallels between Adam and Joseph. It may have been a conscious effort on the part of the writer to stress the similarities. Regardless of the similarities, ultimately, Adam’s story shows what happens to those that do not obey God while Joseph’s story shows what happens when we remain obedient to God’s laws and trust his guidance.

The science and history behind the story

Who was Pharaoh?

In this instance, we do not know the identity of Pharaoh, Egypt’s king. However we do know that in general, Egyptians viewed Pharaoh as an incarnation of the god Horus. Any irregularities in society, such as famines or floods, portrayed Pharaoh before the people as weak or incapable. Thus, it was important that Pharaoh performed his job well.

What is a signet ring?

Pharaoh gave Joseph a signet ring as part of his promotion to leadership over the people of Egypt. This is an astounding development. Owning the signet ring is equivalent to a blank check that allows Joseph complete power to do anything he wishes and have his actions treated as official acts of Pharaoh. This single verse shows us that Joseph rose immediately to an unfathomable level of power.

Comparing Joseph’s biblical record to Egypt’s recorded history

Hieroglyph inscriptions found near Aswan in Egypt known as the Famine Stela Egypt left behind a rich recorded history through inscriptions, papyrus documents, text, and artifacts, some of which survived the test of time. Unfortunately, Joseph’s true Egyptian name (Zaphenath-Paneah) is uncertain and unknown through translation. Additionally, the name for his position uses Hebrew terms, not Egyptian, so we cannot determine what position Pharaoh assigned to him. Thus, it would be difficult to correlate Joseph’s identity with persons in Egyptian recorded history since we don’t truly know his name nor his position.

However, the practices mentioned in the biblical narrative have been found in ancient Egyptian literature. For instance, ancient documents describe Asiatic slaves were most commonly assigned jobs as household servants – as seen with Joseph. Still, the idea of a Canaanite being assigned a position of authority in Egypt seems impossible. Surprising to some, ancient Egyptian texts provide several examples of Semitic high officials in the land of Egypt. It was not common – but it happened in more than one instance.

There are also numerous surviving Egyptian records which depict Pharaoh bestowing rewards on others. In the surviving texts, just as the Bible says happened with Joseph, Pharaoh was known to reward people with appointments to high positions, seals or insignias of authority, gold necklaces, fine robes, and chariot rides. The biblical account exactly matches Egyptian records of similar instances.

Most interesting of all are hieroglyph inscriptions found near Aswan in Egypt known as the Famine Stela (FAH-men STEE-luh). Although the date of the inscription is widely debated, it describes a seven-year famine, likely around 2700 BC.

Seven-year famines confirmed in other religious and historical texts

The seven-year famine predicted by Joseph appears in many other ancient religious texts. It is described outside of the bible in the Mesopotamian story known as Gilgamesh-Epos and in the Egyptian Book of the Temple. In fact, the story is common to nearly all histories of the Near East.

Egypt’s Imhotep – a story remarkably similar to Joseph’s surfaces

Bust of ImhotepOne figure in Egyptian historical records bears remarkable similarities to Joseph – Imhotep (em-HOH-tep), the Vizier of the 3rd Dynasty that served under Pharaoh Djoser (JOE-sir). In fact, his story is nearly identical to Joseph’s leading some to believe Imhotep is indeed Joseph, albeit with a slight change in perspective added to the Egyptian version of story.

Imhotep is mentioned in the Famine Stela inscription (see above) and in two inscriptions made during his lifetime – one on the base of one of a Djoser’s statue and one on an enclosure wall surrounding Sekhemkhet’s (Sek-kem-keht) unfinished step pyramid. Following his death, Imhotep is mentioned dozens of times with legendary status.

The timing between Joseph and Imhotep’s lifetimes was once considered problematic. Imhotep and Djoser lived sometime around 2700 BC while the Exodus from Egypt is estimated to have occurred sometime between 1300 and 2300 BC, a difference of 400 years at best. However, scholars are beginning to reconcile the estimated dates with new evidence which puts the timing of the two figures closer together.

Imhotep’s name is believed to mean “he comes in peace”, potentially signifying his peaceful arrival from a foreign land. He is credited with major advances in agriculture and medicine. Inscriptions indicate he is credited with the development of an irrigation system that routed water from the Nile to agricultural fields. He is also believed to be the designer of the first pyramid – the creative combination of stone to create the durable “step pyramid”. Given his status as an architect with ties to improvements in agriculture, it’s no stretch to imagine him designing innovative grain silos to store vast quantities of grain from a bountiful harvest.

Historical documents show Imhotep became the primary advisor to Pharaoh Djoser – his second in command. And there are indications that he had rivals in Egypt, those who were envious of someone of humble origin becoming the Pharaoh’s closest confidant and placed in such high office.

Most astonishingly, Egyptian legend says Imhotep saved Egypt from a seven-year famine caused by a lack of flooding of the Nile River. According to Egyptian history, Imhotep received a dream that allowed him to counsel Pharaoh Djoser on the best way to fix the problem.

Oddly, Egyptian history says Imhotep’s resolution to the famine problem was supernatural – he proposed relying on an Egyptian deity to fix the problem. Joseph’s solution however, provided to him by God, was scientific in nature – which is just the sort of solution we would have expected to see from the scientifically-minded genius Imhotep.  Which makes more sense – a scientifically-minded genius like Imhotep proposing a supernatural solution or a solution that requires innovative engineering to overcome the quandary?  The Bible’s version of the story is clearly more reasonable.

Imhotep’s legendary status does not appear to grow until about a thousand years after the events transpired. In fact, it’s fairly clear from dated historical documents that given the attribution for the discovery of everything from hieroglyphics to the Egyptian calendar, his legend grew over time until he reached the near-status of an Egyptian deity. It is quite possible that Imhotep’s history is the story of Joseph, twisted over time to accredit Egyptian gods rather than a lowly Hebrew slave.

Notes on Biblical translation

Modern translations present the story in a dramatically different manner than the original Hebrew version

Joseph interprets Pharaoh's dreamsModern translations attempt to make the original text more readable (and understandable) to modern-day readers. To do this, the text is sometimes altered in a dramatic manner. For instance, most translation paint a visual picture of the cows standing by the Nile river. The original Hebrew however, reads more like this: “And look! He was standing by the Nile. And look! From the Nile are coming seven cows!”

The intent of the original Hebrew text was to invite the reader to see the dream through Pharaoh’s eyes. However, a truer translation would have seemed odd to modern-day readers.

An excellent example of why modern-day translations sometimes take leeway in their rendering of scripture

The verse in Genesis 41:40 provides an excellent example of the leeway sometimes taken in translations. Most biblical translations read, “only with respect to the throne will I be greater than you.” The original Hebrew however, phrases this in a manner that would be near incomprehensible to modern-day readers. What was actually written was this: “And at your mouth all my people will kiss.” In this instance, “at your mouth” means “at your instruction” while “all my people will kiss” places Joseph’s stature in line with Pharaoh. It’s an excellent example of much leeway taken in the translation in order to render the text more legible to modern-day readers.

Magicians or wise men?

Most translations say Pharaoh sent for all the magicians and wise men of the kingdom to interpret his dreams. The original Hebrew word however, refers to a person who is close to the king and skilled in divination (considered imminently important in ancient Egypt).

“God will give Pharaoh what he desires”

The translation of “God will give Pharaoh what he desires” has proven difficult since the only known usage of the original Hebrew phrase is found here, in this biblical narrative. Most translations say God will give Pharaoh “what he desires”. In this instance, the “he” referred to could mean Pharaoh or God. Thus the sentence could mean either “God will give Pharaoh what God desires” or God will give Pharaoh what Pharaoh desires”. Other translation propose the statement means “God will speak concerning the welfare of Pharaoh” while others translate the phrase as “God will give Pharaoh an answer of peace”.’

Currently it is impossible to know the precise meaning but we can assume that when Joseph said “God will give Pharaoh what he desires”, Joseph is telling Pharaoh that he will interpret Pharaoh’s dreams, as requested by Pharaoh, with God’s help.

Bible Text

NIV

41 When two full years had passed, Pharaoh had a dream: He was standing by the Nile, 2 when out of the river there came up seven cows, sleek and fat, and they grazed among the reeds. 3 After them, seven other cows, ugly and gaunt, came up out of the Nile and stood beside those on the riverbank. 4 And the cows that were ugly and gaunt ate up the seven sleek, fat cows. Then Pharaoh woke up.

5 He fell asleep again and had a second dream: Seven heads of grain, healthy and good, were growing on a single stalk. 6 After them, seven other heads of grain sprouted—thin and scorched by the east wind. 7 The thin heads of grain swallowed up the seven healthy, full heads. Then Pharaoh woke up; it had been a dream.

8 In the morning his mind was troubled, so he sent for all the magicians and wise men of Egypt. Pharaoh told them his dreams, but no one could interpret them for him.

9 Then the chief cupbearer said to Pharaoh, “Today I am reminded of my shortcomings. 10 Pharaoh was once angry with his servants, and he imprisoned me and the chief baker in the house of the captain of the guard. 11 Each of us had a dream the same night, and each dream had a meaning of its own. 12 Now a young Hebrew was there with us, a servant of the captain of the guard. We told him our dreams, and he interpreted them for us, giving each man the interpretation of his dream. 13 And things turned out exactly as he interpreted them to us: I was restored to my position, and the other man was impaled.”

14 So Pharaoh sent for Joseph, and he was quickly brought from the dungeon. When he had shaved and changed his clothes, he came before Pharaoh.

15 Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I had a dream, and no one can interpret it. But I have heard it said of you that when you hear a dream you can interpret it.”

16 “I cannot do it,” Joseph replied to Pharaoh, “but God will give Pharaoh the answer he desires.”

17 Then Pharaoh said to Joseph, “In my dream I was standing on the bank of the Nile, 18 when out of the river there came up seven cows, fat and sleek, and they grazed among the reeds. 19 After them, seven other cows came up—scrawny and very ugly and lean. I had never seen such ugly cows in all the land of Egypt. 20 The lean, ugly cows ate up the seven fat cows that came up first. 21 But even after they ate them, no one could tell that they had done so; they looked just as ugly as before. Then I woke up.

22 “In my dream I saw seven heads of grain, full and good, growing on a single stalk. 23 After them, seven other heads sprouted—withered and thin and scorched by the east wind. 24 The thin heads of grain swallowed up the seven good heads. I told this to the magicians, but none of them could explain it to me.”

25 Then Joseph said to Pharaoh, “The dreams of Pharaoh are one and the same. God has revealed to Pharaoh what he is about to do. 26 The seven good cows are seven years, and the seven good heads of grain are seven years; it is one and the same dream. 27 The seven lean, ugly cows that came up afterward are seven years, and so are the seven worthless heads of grain scorched by the east wind: They are seven years of famine.

28 “It is just as I said to Pharaoh: God has shown Pharaoh what he is about to do. 29 Seven years of great abundance are coming throughout the land of Egypt, 30 but seven years of famine will follow them. Then all the abundance in Egypt will be forgotten, and the famine will ravage the land. 31 The abundance in the land will not be remembered, because the famine that follows it will be so severe. 32 The reason the dream was given to Pharaoh in two forms is that the matter has been firmly decided by God, and God will do it soon.

33 “And now let Pharaoh look for a discerning and wise man and put him in charge of the land of Egypt. 34 Let Pharaoh appoint commissioners over the land to take a fifth of the harvest of Egypt during the seven years of abundance. 35 They should collect all the food of these good years that are coming and store up the grain under the authority of Pharaoh, to be kept in the cities for food. 36 This food should be held in reserve for the country, to be used during the seven years of famine that will come upon Egypt, so that the country may not be ruined by the famine.”

37 The plan seemed good to Pharaoh and to all his officials. 38 So Pharaoh asked them, “Can we find anyone like this man, one in whom is the spirit of God?”

39 Then Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Since God has made all this known to you, there is no one so discerning and wise as you. 40 You shall be in charge of my palace, and all my people are to submit to your orders. Only with respect to the throne will I be greater than you.”

41 So Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I hereby put you in charge of the whole land of Egypt.” 42 Then Pharaoh took his signet ring from his finger and put it on Joseph’s finger. He dressed him in robes of fine linen and put a gold chain around his neck. 43 He had him ride in a chariot as his second-in-command, and people shouted before him, “Make way!” Thus he put him in charge of the whole land of Egypt.

44 Then Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I am Pharaoh, but without your word no one will lift hand or foot in all Egypt.” 45 Pharaoh gave Joseph the name Zaphenath-Paneah and gave him Asenath daughter of Potiphera, priest of On, to be his wife. And Joseph went throughout the land of Egypt.

46 Joseph was thirty years old when he entered the service of Pharaoh king of Egypt. And Joseph went out from Pharaoh’s presence and traveled throughout Egypt. 47 During the seven years of abundance the land produced plentifully. 48 Joseph collected all the food produced in those seven years of abundance in Egypt and stored it in the cities. In each city he put the food grown in the fields surrounding it. 49 Joseph stored up huge quantities of grain, like the sand of the sea; it was so much that he stopped keeping records because it was beyond measure.

50 Before the years of famine came, two sons were born to Joseph by Asenath daughter of Potiphera, priest of On. 51 Joseph named his firstborn Manasseh and said, “It is because God has made me forget all my trouble and all my father’s household.” 52 The second son he named Ephraim and said, “It is because God has made me fruitful in the land of my suffering.”

53 The seven years of abundance in Egypt came to an end, 54 and the seven years of famine began, just as Joseph had said. There was famine in all the other lands, but in the whole land of Egypt there was food. 55 When all Egypt began to feel the famine, the people cried to Pharaoh for food. Then Pharaoh told all the Egyptians, “Go to Joseph and do what he tells you.”

56 When the famine had spread over the whole country, Joseph opened all the storehouses and sold grain to the Egyptians, for the famine was severe throughout Egypt. 57 And all the world came to Egypt to buy grain from Joseph, because the famine was severe everywhere.

Joseph rides amongst the people during Egypt's famine - Unknown artistThe New International Version. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2011. Print.

The NET Bible

41:1 At the end of two full years Pharaoh had a dream. As he was standing by the Nile, 41:2 seven fine-looking, fat cows were coming up out of the Nile, and they grazed in the reeds. 41:3 Then seven bad-looking, thin cows were coming up after them from the Nile, and they stood beside the other cows at the edge of the river. 41:4 The bad-looking, thin cows ate the seven fine-looking, fat cows. Then Pharaoh woke up.

41:5 Then he fell asleep again and had a second dream: There were seven heads of grain growing on one stalk, healthy and good. 41:6 Then seven heads of grain, thin and burned by the east wind, were sprouting up after them. 41:7 The thin heads swallowed up the seven healthy and full heads. Then Pharaoh woke up and realized it was a dream.

41:8 In the morning he was troubled, so he called for all the diviner-priests of Egypt and all its wise men. Pharaoh told them his dreams, but no one could interpret them for him. 41:9 Then the chief cupbearer said to Pharaoh, “Today I recall my failures. 41:10 Pharaoh was enraged with his servants, and he put me in prison in the house of the captain of the guards—me and the chief baker. 41:11 We each had a dream one night; each of us had a dream with its own meaning. 41:12 Now a young man, a Hebrew, a servant of the captain of the guards, was with us there. We told him our dreams, and he interpreted the meaning of each of our respective dreams for us. 41:13 It happened just as he had said to us—Pharaoh restored me to my office, but he impaled the baker.”

41:14 Then Pharaoh summoned Joseph. So they brought him quickly out of the dungeon; he shaved himself, changed his clothes, and came before Pharaoh. 41:15 Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I had a dream, and there is no one who can interpret it. But I have heard about you, that you can interpret dreams.” 41:16 Joseph replied to Pharaoh, “It is not within my power, but God will speak concerning the welfare of Pharaoh.”

41:17 Then Pharaoh said to Joseph, “In my dream I was standing by the edge of the Nile. 41:18 Then seven fat and fine-looking cows were coming up out of the Nile, and they grazed in the reeds. 41:19 Then seven other cows came up after them; they were scrawny, very bad-looking, and lean. I had never seen such bad-looking cows as these in all the land of Egypt! 41:20 The lean, bad-looking cows ate up the seven fat cows. 41:21 When they had eaten them, no one would have known that they had done so, for they were just as bad-looking as before. Then I woke up. 41:22 I also saw in my dream seven heads of grain growing on one stalk, full and good. 41:23 Then seven heads of grain, withered and thin and burned with the east wind, were sprouting up after them. 41:24 The thin heads of grain swallowed up the seven good heads of grain. So I told all this to the diviner-priests, but no one could tell me its meaning.”

41:25 Then Joseph said to Pharaoh, “Both dreams of Pharaoh have the same meaning. God has revealed to Pharaoh what he is about to do. 41:26 The seven good cows represent seven years, and the seven good heads of grain represent seven years. Both dreams have the same meaning. 41:27 The seven lean, bad-looking cows that came up after them represent seven years, as do the seven empty heads of grain burned with the east wind. They represent seven years of famine. 41:28 This is just what I told Pharaoh: God has shown Pharaoh what he is about to do. 41:29 Seven years of great abundance are coming throughout the whole land of Egypt. 41:30 But seven years of famine will occur after them, and all the abundance will be forgotten in the land of Egypt. The famine will devastate the land. 41:31 The previous abundance of the land will not be remembered because of the famine that follows, for the famine will be very severe. 41:32 The dream was repeated to Pharaoh because the matter has been decreed by God, and God will make it happen soon.

41:33 “So now Pharaoh should look for a wise and discerning man and give him authority over all the land of Egypt. 41:34 Pharaoh should do this—he should appoint officials throughout the land to collect one-fifth of the produce of the land of Egypt during the seven years of abundance. 41:35 They should gather all the excess food during these good years that are coming. By Pharaoh’s authority they should store up grain so the cities will have food, and they should preserve it. 41:36 This food should be held in storage for the land in preparation for the seven years of famine that will occur throughout the land of Egypt. In this way the land will survive the famine.”

41:37 This advice made sense to Pharaoh and all his officials. 41:38 So Pharaoh asked his officials, “Can we find a man like Joseph, one in whom the Spirit of God is present?” 41:39 So Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Because God has enabled you to know all this, there is no one as wise and discerning as you are! 41:40 You will oversee my household, and all my people will submit to your commands. Only I, the king, will be greater than you.

41:41 “See here,” Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I place you in authority over all the land of Egypt.” 41:42 Then Pharaoh took his signet ring from his own hand and put it on Joseph’s. He clothed him with fine linen clothes and put a gold chain around his neck. 41:43 Pharaoh had him ride in the chariot used by his second-in-command, and they cried out before him, “Kneel down!” So he placed him over all the land of Egypt. 41:44 Pharaoh also said to Joseph, “I am Pharaoh, but without your permission no one will move his hand or his foot in all the land of Egypt.” 41:45 Pharaoh gave Joseph the name Zaphenath-Paneah. He also gave him Asenath daughter of Potiphera, priest of On, to be his wife. So Joseph took charge of all the land of Egypt.

41:46 Now Joseph was 30 years old when he began serving Pharaoh king of Egypt. Joseph was commissioned by Pharaoh and was in charge of all the land of Egypt. 41:47 During the seven years of abundance the land produced large, bountiful harvests. 41:48 Joseph collected all the excess food in the land of Egypt during the seven years and stored it in the cities. In every city he put the food gathered from the fields around it. 41:49 Joseph stored up a vast amount of grain, like the sand of the sea, until he stopped measuring it because it was impossible to measure.

41:50 Two sons were born to Joseph before the famine came. Asenath daughter of Potiphera, priest of On, was their mother. 41:51 Joseph named the firstborn Manasseh, saying, “Certainly God has made me forget all my trouble and all my father’s house.” 41:52 He named the second child Ephraim, saying, “Certainly God has made me fruitful in the land of my suffering.”

41:53 The seven years of abundance in the land of Egypt came to an end. 41:54 Then the seven years of famine began, just as Joseph had predicted. There was famine in all the other lands, but throughout the land of Egypt there was food. 41:55 When all the land of Egypt experienced the famine, the people cried out to Pharaoh for food. Pharaoh said to all the people of Egypt, “Go to Joseph and do whatever he tells you.”

41:56 While the famine was over all the earth, Joseph opened the storehouses and sold grain to the Egyptians. The famine was severe throughout the land of Egypt. 41:57 People from every country came to Joseph in Egypt to buy grain because the famine was severe throughout the earth.

Biblical Studies Press. The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press, 2006. Print.

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New King James Version

41 Then it came to pass, at the end of two full years, that Pharaoh had a dream; and behold, he stood by the river. 2 Suddenly there came up out of the river seven cows, fine looking and fat; and they fed in the meadow. 3 Then behold, seven other cows came up after them out of the river, ugly and gaunt, and stood by the other cows on the bank of the river. 4 And the ugly and gaunt cows ate up the seven fine looking and fat cows. So Pharaoh awoke. 5 He slept and dreamed a second time; and suddenly seven heads of grain came up on one stalk, plump and good. 6 Then behold, seven thin heads, blighted by the east wind, sprang up after them. 7 And the seven thin heads devoured the seven plump and full heads. So Pharaoh awoke, and indeed, it was a dream. 8 Now it came to pass in the morning that his spirit was troubled, and he sent and called for all the magicians of Egypt and all its wise men. And Pharaoh told them his dreams, but there was no one who could interpret them for Pharaoh.

9 Then the chief butler spoke to Pharaoh, saying: “I remember my faults this day. 10 When Pharaoh was angry with his servants, and put me in custody in the house of the captain of the guard, both me and the chief baker, 11 we each had a dream in one night, he and I. Each of us dreamed according to the interpretation of his own dream. 12 Now there was a young Hebrew man with us there, a servant of the captain of the guard. And we told him, and he interpreted our dreams for us; to each man he interpreted according to his own dream. 13 And it came to pass, just as he interpreted for us, so it happened. He restored me to my office, and he hanged him.”

14 Then Pharaoh sent and called Joseph, and they brought him quickly out of the dungeon; and he shaved, changed his clothing, and came to Pharaoh. 15 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I have had a dream, and there is no one who can interpret it. But I have heard it said of you that you can understand a dream, to interpret it.”

16 So Joseph answered Pharaoh, saying, “It is not in me; God will give Pharaoh an answer of peace.”

17 Then Pharaoh said to Joseph: “Behold, in my dream I stood on the bank of the river. 18 Suddenly seven cows came up out of the river, fine looking and fat; and they fed in the meadow. 19 Then behold, seven other cows came up after them, poor and very ugly and gaunt, such ugliness as I have never seen in all the land of Egypt. 20 And the gaunt and ugly cows ate up the first seven, the fat cows. 21 When they had eaten them up, no one would have known that they had eaten them, for they were just as ugly as at the beginning. So I awoke. 22 Also I saw in my dream, and suddenly seven heads came up on one stalk, full and good. 23 Then behold, seven heads, withered, thin, and blighted by the east wind, sprang up after them. 24 And the thin heads devoured the seven good heads. So I told this to the magicians, but there was no one who could explain it to me.”

25 Then Joseph said to Pharaoh, “The dreams of Pharaoh are one; God has shown Pharaoh what He is about to do: 26 The seven good cows are seven years, and the seven good heads are seven years; the dreams are one. 27 And the seven thin and ugly cows which came up after them are seven years, and the seven empty heads blighted by the east wind are seven years of famine. 28 This is the thing which I have spoken to Pharaoh. God has shown Pharaoh what He is about to do. 29 Indeed seven years of great plenty will come throughout all the land of Egypt; 30 but after them seven years of famine will arise, and all the plenty will be forgotten in the land of Egypt; and the famine will deplete the land. 31 So the plenty will not be known in the land because of the famine following, for it will be very severe. 32 And the dream was repeated to Pharaoh twice because the thing is established by God, and God will shortly bring it to pass.

33 “Now therefore, let Pharaoh select a discerning and wise man, and set him over the land of Egypt. 34 Let Pharaoh do this, and let him appoint officers over the land, to collect one-fifth of the produce of the land of Egypt in the seven plentiful years. 35 And let them gather all the food of those good years that are coming, and store up grain under the authority of Pharaoh, and let them keep food in the cities. 36 Then that food shall be as a reserve for the land for the seven years of famine which shall be in the land of Egypt, that the land may not perish during the famine.”

37 So the advice was good in the eyes of Pharaoh and in the eyes of all his servants. 38 And Pharaoh said to his servants, “Can we find such a one as this, a man in whom is the Spirit of God?”

39 Then Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Inasmuch as God has shown you all this, there is no one as discerning and wise as you. 40 You shall be over my house, and all my people shall be ruled according to your word; only in regard to the throne will I be greater than you.” 41 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, “See, I have set you over all the land of Egypt.”

42 Then Pharaoh took his signet ring off his hand and put it on Joseph’s hand; and he clothed him in garments of fine linen and put a gold chain around his neck. 43 And he had him ride in the second chariot which he had; and they cried out before him, “Bow the knee!” So he set him over all the land of Egypt. 44 Pharaoh also said to Joseph, “I am Pharaoh, and without your consent no man may lift his hand or foot in all the land of Egypt.” 45 And Pharaoh called Joseph’s name Zaphnath-Paaneah. And he gave him as a wife Asenath, the daughter of Poti-Pherah priest of On. So Joseph went out over all the land of Egypt.

46 Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh king of Egypt. And Joseph went out from the presence of Pharaoh, and went throughout all the land of Egypt. 47 Now in the seven plentiful years the ground brought forth abundantly. 48 So he gathered up all the food of the seven years which were in the land of Egypt, and laid up the food in the cities; he laid up in every city the food of the fields which surrounded them. 49 Joseph gathered very much grain, as the sand of the sea, until he stopped counting, for it was immeasurable.

50 And to Joseph were born two sons before the years of famine came, whom Asenath, the daughter of Poti-Pherah priest of On, bore to him. 51 Joseph called the name of the firstborn Manasseh: “For God has made me forget all my toil and all my father’s house.” 52 And the name of the second he called Ephraim: “For God has caused me to be fruitful in the land of my affliction.”

53 Then the seven years of plenty which were in the land of Egypt ended, 54 and the seven years of famine began to come, as Joseph had said. The famine was in all lands, but in all the land of Egypt there was bread. 55 So when all the land of Egypt was famished, the people cried to Pharaoh for bread. Then Pharaoh said to all the Egyptians, “Go to Joseph; whatever he says to you, do.” 56 The famine was over all the face of the earth, and Joseph opened all the storehouses and sold to the Egyptians. And the famine became severe in the land of Egypt. 57 So all countries came to Joseph in Egypt to buy grain, because the famine was severe in all lands.

Egyptians stockpile grain to prepare for seven-year famineThe New King James Version. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1982. Print.

The Message

1–4 41 Two years passed and Pharaoh had a dream: He was standing by the Nile River. Seven cows came up out of the Nile, all shimmering with health, and grazed on the marsh grass. Then seven other cows, all skin and bones, came up out of the river after them and stood by them on the bank of the Nile. The skinny cows ate the seven healthy cows. Then Pharaoh woke up.

5–7 He went back to sleep and dreamed a second time: Seven ears of grain, full-bodied and lush, grew out of a single stalk. Then seven more ears grew up, but these were thin and dried out by the east wind. The thin ears swallowed up the full, healthy ears. Then Pharaoh woke up—another dream.

8 When morning came, he was upset. He sent for all the magicians and sages of Egypt. Pharaoh told them his dreams, but they couldn’t interpret them to him.

9–13 The head cupbearer then spoke up and said to Pharaoh, “I just now remembered something—I’m sorry, I should have told you this long ago. Once when Pharaoh got angry with his servants, he locked me and the head baker in the house of the captain of the guard. We both had dreams on the same night, each dream with its own meaning. It so happened that there was a young Hebrew slave there with us; he belonged to the captain of the guard. We told him our dreams and he interpreted them for us, each dream separately. Things turned out just as he interpreted. I was returned to my position and the head baker was impaled.”

14 Pharaoh at once sent for Joseph. They brought him on the run from the jail cell. He cut his hair, put on clean clothes, and came to Pharaoh.

15 “I dreamed a dream,” Pharaoh told Joseph. “Nobody can interpret it. But I’ve heard that just by hearing a dream you can interpret it.”

16 Joseph answered, “Not I, but God. God will set Pharaoh’s mind at ease.”

17–21 Then Pharaoh said to Joseph, “In my dream I was standing on the bank of the Nile. Seven cows, shimmering with health, came up out of the river and grazed on the marsh grass. On their heels seven more cows, all skin and bones, came up. I’ve never seen uglier cows anywhere in Egypt. Then the seven skinny, ugly cows ate up the first seven healthy cows. But you couldn’t tell by looking—after eating them up they were just as skinny and ugly as before. Then I woke up.

22–24 “In my second dream I saw seven ears of grain, full-bodied and lush, growing out of a single stalk, and right behind them, seven other ears, shriveled, thin, and dried out by the east wind. And the thin ears swallowed up the full ears. I’ve told all this to the magicians but they can’t figure it out.”

25–27 Joseph said to Pharaoh, “Pharaoh’s two dreams both mean the same thing. God is telling Pharaoh what he is going to do. The seven healthy cows are seven years and the seven healthy ears of grain are seven years—they’re the same dream. The seven sick and ugly cows that followed them up are seven years and the seven scrawny ears of grain dried out by the east wind are the same—seven years of famine.

28–32 “The meaning is what I said earlier: God is letting Pharaoh in on what he is going to do. Seven years of plenty are on their way throughout Egypt. But on their heels will come seven years of famine, leaving no trace of the Egyptian plenty. As the country is emptied by famine, there won’t be even a scrap left of the previous plenty—the famine will be total. The fact that Pharaoh dreamed the same dream twice emphasizes God’s determination to do this and do it soon.

33–36 “So, Pharaoh needs to look for a wise and experienced man and put him in charge of the country. Then Pharaoh needs to appoint managers throughout the country of Egypt to organize it during the years of plenty. Their job will be to collect all the food produced in the good years ahead and stockpile the grain under Pharaoh’s authority, storing it in the towns for food. This grain will be held back to be used later during the seven years of famine that are coming on Egypt. This way the country won’t be devastated by the famine.”

37 This seemed like a good idea to Pharaoh and his officials.

38 Then Pharaoh said to his officials, “Isn’t this the man we need? Are we going to find anyone else who has God’s spirit in him like this?”

39–40 So Pharaoh said to Joseph, “You’re the man for us. God has given you the inside story—no one is as qualified as you in experience and wisdom. From now on, you’re in charge of my affairs; all my people will report to you. Only as king will I be over you.”

41–43 So Pharaoh commissioned Joseph: “I’m putting you in charge of the entire country of Egypt.” Then Pharaoh removed his signet ring from his finger and slipped it on Joseph’s hand. He outfitted him in robes of the best linen and put a gold chain around his neck. He put the second-in-command chariot at his disposal, and as he rode people shouted “Bravo!”

44 Pharaoh told Joseph, “I am Pharaoh, but no one in Egypt will make a single move without your stamp of approval.”

45 Then Pharaoh gave Joseph an Egyptian name, Zaphenath-Paneah (God Speaks and He Lives). He also gave him an Egyptian wife, Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera, the priest of On (Heliopolis).

And Joseph took up his duties over the land of Egypt.

46 Joseph was thirty years old when he went to work for Pharaoh the king of Egypt. As soon as Joseph left Pharaoh’s presence, he began his work in Egypt.

47–49 During the next seven years of plenty the land produced bumper crops. Joseph gathered up the food of the seven good years in Egypt and stored the food in cities. In each city he stockpiled surplus from the surrounding fields. Joseph collected so much grain—it was like the sand of the ocean!—that he finally quit keeping track.

50–52 Joseph had two sons born to him before the years of famine came. Asenath, daughter of Potiphera the priest of On, was their mother. Joseph named the firstborn Manasseh (Forget), saying, “God made me forget all my hardships and my parental home.” He named his second son Ephraim (Double Prosperity), saying, “God has prospered me in the land of my sorrow.”

53–54 Then Egypt’s seven good years came to an end and the seven years of famine arrived, just as Joseph had said. All countries experienced famine; Egypt was the only country that had bread.

55 When the famine spread throughout Egypt, the people called out in distress to Pharaoh, calling for bread. He told the Egyptians, “Go to Joseph. Do what he tells you.”

56–57 As the famine got worse all over the country, Joseph opened the storehouses and sold emergency supplies to the Egyptians. The famine was very bad. Soon the whole world was coming to buy supplies from Joseph. The famine was bad all over.

Peterson, Eugene H. The Message: The Bible in Contemporary Language. Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress, 2005. Print.

King James Version

41 And it came to pass at the end of two full years, that Pharaoh dreamed: and, behold, he stood by the river. 2 And, behold, there came up out of the river seven well favoured kine and fatfleshed; and they fed in a meadow. 3 And, behold, seven other kine came up after them out of the river, ill favoured and leanfleshed; and stood by the other kine upon the brink of the river. 4 And the ill favoured and leanfleshed kine did eat up the seven well favoured and fat kine. So Pharaoh awoke. 5 And he slept and dreamed the second time: and, behold, seven ears of corn came up upon one stalk, rank and good. 6 And, behold, seven thin ears and blasted with the east wind sprung up after them. 7 And the seven thin ears devoured the seven rank and full ears. And Pharaoh awoke, and, behold, it was a dream. 8 And it came to pass in the morning that his spirit was troubled; and he sent and called for all the magicians of Egypt, and all the wise men thereof: and Pharaoh told them his dream; but there was none that could interpret them unto Pharaoh. 9 Then spake the chief butler unto Pharaoh, saying, I do remember my faults this day: 10 Pharaoh was wroth with his servants, and put me in ward in the captain of the guard’s house, both me and the chief baker: 11 And we dreamed a dream in one night, I and he; we dreamed each man according to the interpretation of his dream. 12 And there was there with us a young man, an Hebrew, servant to the captain of the guard; and we told him, and he interpreted to us our dreams; to each man according to his dream he did interpret. 13 And it came to pass, as he interpreted to us, so it was; me he restored unto mine office, and him he hanged.

14 Then Pharaoh sent and called Joseph, and they †brought him hastily out of the dungeon: and he shaved himself, and changed his raiment, and came in unto Pharaoh. 15 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, I have dreamed a dream, and there is none that can interpret it: and I have heard say of thee, that thou canst understand a dream to interpret it. 16 And Joseph answered Pharaoh, saying, It is not in me: God shall give Pharaoh an answer of peace. 17 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, In my dream, behold, I stood upon the bank of the river: 18 And, behold, there came up out of the river seven kine, fatfleshed and well favoured; and they fed in a meadow: 19 And, behold, seven other kine came up after them, poor and very ill favoured and leanfleshed, such as I never saw in all the land of Egypt for badness: 20 And the lean and the ill favoured kine did eat up the first seven fat kine: 21 And when they had eaten them up, it could not be known that they had eaten them; but they were still ill favoured, as at the beginning. So I awoke. 22 And I saw in my dream, and, behold, seven ears came up in one stalk, full and good: 23 And, behold, seven ears, withered, thin, and blasted with the east wind, sprung up after them: 24 And the thin ears devoured the seven good ears: and I told this unto the magicians; but there was none that could declare it to me. 25 And Joseph said unto Pharaoh, The dream of Pharaoh is one: God hath shewed Pharaoh what he is about to do. 26 The seven good kine are seven years; and the seven good ears are seven years: the dream is one. 27 And the seven thin and ill favoured kine that came up after them are seven years; and the seven empty ears blasted with the east wind shall be seven years of famine. 28 This is the thing which I have spoken unto Pharaoh: What God is about to do he sheweth unto Pharaoh. 29 Behold, there come seven years of great plenty throughout all the land of Egypt: 30 And there shall arise after them seven years of famine; and all the plenty shall be forgotten in the land of Egypt; and the famine shall consume the land; 31 And the plenty shall not be known in the land by reason of that famine following; for it shall be very grievous. 32 And for that the dream was doubled unto Pharaoh twice; it is because the thing is established by God, and God will shortly bring it to pass. 33 Now therefore let Pharaoh look out a man discreet and wise, and set him over the land of Egypt. 34 Let Pharaoh do this, and let him appoint officers over the land, and take up the fifth part of the land of Egypt in the seven plenteous years. 35 And let them gather all the food of those good years that come, and lay up corn under the hand of Pharaoh, and let them keep food in the cities. 36 And that food shall be for store to the land against the seven years of famine, which shall be in the land of Egypt; that the land perish not through the famine.

37 And the thing was good in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of all his servants. 38 And Pharaoh said unto his servants, Can we find such a one as this is, a man in whom the Spirit of God is? 39 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, Forasmuch as God hath shewed thee all this, there is none so discreet and wise as thou art: 40 Thou shalt be over my house, and according unto thy word shall all my people be ruled: only in the throne will I be greater than thou. 41 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, See, I have set thee over all the land of Egypt. 42 And Pharaoh took off his ring from his hand, and put it upon Joseph’s hand, and arrayed him in vestures of fine linen, and put a gold chain about his neck; 43 And he made him to ride in the second chariot which he had; and they cried before him, †Bow the knee: and he made him ruler over all the land of Egypt. 44 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, I am Pharaoh, and without thee shall no man lift up his hand or foot in all the land of Egypt. 45 And Pharaoh called Joseph’s name Zaphnath-paaneah; and he gave him to wife Asenath the daughter of Poti-pherah priest of On. And Joseph went out over all the land of Egypt.

46 And Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh king of Egypt. And Joseph went out from the presence of Pharaoh, and went throughout all the land of Egypt. 47 And in the seven plenteous years the earth brought forth by handfuls. 48 And he gathered up all the food of the seven years, which were in the land of Egypt, and laid up the food in the cities: the food of the field, which was round about every city, laid he up in the same. 49 And Joseph gathered corn as the sand of the sea, very much, until he left numbering; for it was without number. 50 And unto Joseph were born two sons before the years of famine came, which Asenath the daughter of Poti-pherah priest of On bare unto him. 51 And Joseph called the name of the firstborn Manasseh: For God, said he, hath made me forget all my toil, and all my father’s house. 52 And the name of the second called he Ephraim: For God hath caused me to be fruitful in the land of my affliction.

53 And the seven years of plenteousness, that was in the land of Egypt, were ended. 54 And the seven years of dearth began to come, according as Joseph had said: and the dearth was in all lands; but in all the land of Egypt there was bread. 55 And when all the land of Egypt was famished, the people cried to Pharaoh for bread: and Pharaoh said unto all the Egyptians, Go unto Joseph; what he saith to you, do. 56 And the famine was over all the face of the earth: And Joseph opened all the storehouses, and sold unto the Egyptians; and the famine waxed sore in the land of Egypt. 57 And all countries came into Egypt to Joseph for to buy corn; because that the famine was so sore in all lands.

The Holy Bible: King James Version. Electronic Edition of the 1900 Authorized Version. Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 2009. Print.

Sources: NIV, The Message, The NET Bible, King James Version, NET Bible Notes, Faithlife Study Bible, The Apologetics Study Bible, The Bible Knowledge Commentary, Jamieson, Fausset, Brown Commentary, The Bible Reader’s Companion, Matthew Henry’s Commentary, Holman Concise Bible Commentary, The Bible Exposition Commentary, The Teacher’s Bible Commentary, The Teacher’s Commentary, The Bible Guide, Word Studies in the New Testament, Holman Bible Handbook, Calvin Commentaries, Wiersbe’s Expository Outlines, The New Manner and Customs of the Bible, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, The Lexham Bible Dictionary, Easton’s Bible Dictionary, Harper’s Bible Dictionary, Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible, The Archaeological Encyclopedia, Biblical Archeology Review, The New Bible Dictionary, The Lexham Analytical Lexicon, Glossary of Morpho-Syntactic Database
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