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Harvesting Wheat - Artist unknown

After Jesus explained why he used parables to present his New Testament message, he presented another parable to the disciples.

“The kingdom of heaven is like a person who sowed good seed in his field. While everyone was sleeping, an enemy came and sowed weeds among the wheat. When the plants sprouted and bore grain, the weeds also appeared. So the slaves of the owner came and said to him, ‘Sir, didn’t you sow good seed in your field? Then where did the weeds come from?’ The owner said, ‘An enemy has done this.’ So the slaves replied, ‘Do you want us to go and gather the weeds?’ But he said, ‘No, since pulling up the weeds might uproot the wheat with them. Let both grow together until the harvest. At harvest time, I will tell the reapers, ‘First collect the weeds and tie them in bundles to be burned, then gather my wheat into my barn.’”

The enemy sowing weeds - Heinrich Fullmaurer (1540)Jesus gave them another parable.

“The kingdom of heaven is like a mustard seed that a man took and sowed in his field. It is the smallest of seeds but when it has grown, it is the greatest garden plant and becomes a tree so big that the birds come and nest in its branches.”

He told them another parable.

“The kingdom of heaven is like yeast that a woman took and mixed with three measures of flour until all the dough has risen.”

Jesus spoke all these things in parables to the crowds. He did not speak to them without a parable. This fulfilled what was spoken by the prophet, “I will open my mouth in parables. I will announce what has been hidden from the foundation of the world.”

Then Jesus left the crowds and went into the house. His disciples came to him saying, “Explain to us the parable of the weeds in the field.”

Jesus answered:

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“The one who sowed the good seed is the Son of Man. The field is the world and the good seed are the people of God. The weeds are the people of the evil one. The enemy who sows them is the devil. The harvest is the end of the age and the reapers are the angels. As the weeds are collected and burned with fire, so it will be at the end of the age. The Son of Man will send his angels, they will gather from his kingdom everything that causes sin as well as all lawbreakers. They will throw them into the fiery furnace where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. Then the righteous will shine like the sun in the kingdom of their Father. The one who has ears had better listen!”

Jesus continued.

“The kingdom of heaven is like a treasure, hidden in a field, that a person found and hid. Then because of joy he went and sold all that he had and bought the field. Again, the kingdom of heaven is like a merchant searching for fine pearls. When he found a pearl of great value, he went out and sold everything he had and bought it.”

“Again, the kingdom of heaven is like a net that was cast into the sea that caught all kinds of fish. When it was full, they pulled it ashore, sat down, and put the good fish into containers and threw the bad away. It will be this way at the end of the age. Angels will come and separate the evil from the righteous and throw them into the fiery furnace where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

Have you understood all these things?”

They replied, “Yes.”

Then he said to them,

“Therefore, every expert in the law who has been trained for the kingdom of heaven is like the owner of a house who brings out his treasures that is new and old.”

What the story means to us today

Good and evil exist together but good will always prevail

Parable of the Wheat and the Tares - Abraham Bloemaert (1624)The first parable that is presented here is only recorded in the book of Matthew. It is known variously as the Parable of the Weeds, Parable of the Tares, Parable of the Wheat and Tares, Parable of the Wheat and Weeds, or the Parable of the Weeds in the Grain. It references the idea of good and evil existing in the world together. Jesus confirms the scheme with a parable about fishermen catching fish. Jesus also tells us that heaven is like a net used to catch fish. When the fisherman pulls the net out of the water, he then separates the good fish from the bad fish.

Jesus says this is how it will be at the end of the age. The wicked and the righteous will be separated and the wicked will be punished for their bad deeds. We don’t have to worry about personally destroying evil on earth. At the time of the “harvest”, malevolence will be reconciled and punished while good will be rewarded. It’s an overall theme presented through the Bible – the battle between good and evil.

Additional thoughts and considerations

The devil (and evil) can go unnoticed if you do not remain alert

In the parable about the weeds amongst the wheat, Jesus says the enemy came and sowed weeds among the wheat “while everyone was sleeping”. He then reveals that the enemy who sows the weeds is the Devil. The craftiness of Satan is further emphasized when you understand the translation of the word “weeds”. The original word used here for weeds hints at a plant named bearded darnel (Lolium temulentum). The infestation of this weed amongst wheat is common, especially in the Middle East. The plant gains a foothold by entangling its roots with the wheat’s roots. Further worsening the problem, bearded darnel looks exactly like wheat until the heads of grain appear at which time it becomes clear that a weed has rooted itself among the grain. The analogy presented here is common throughout the Bible – the devil’s acts are dangerous and can easily go unnoticed. Satan and his wicked acts are easy to miss if you are not paying attention.

The parable of the kingdom of heaven and the mustard seed

Jesus uses the tiny mustard seed in the parable of the kingdom of heaven and the mustard seed. A mustard seed is miniscule but grows into a 10-12 foot tree, big enough for sturdy branches that birds may perch upon. Jesus’ ministry can be considered the mustard seed that was planted first in the Middle East, then propagated throughout the world.

The parable of the kingdom of heaven and yeast

The meaning of the parable of the kingdom of heaven and yeast is often debated. Jesus says the kingdom of heaven is like yeast that is mixed into flour and worked thoroughly through the dough. This parable likely is intended to continue the prior mustard seed parable. Where the mustard seed parable emphasizes heaven’s growth from the time of Jesus until the end-times, the yeast parable seems to emphasize the changes to heaven that occurred after Jesus begins his ministry.

“I will open my mouth in parables”

Matthew tells us Jesus spoke frequently in parables that day. He points out that this fulfills prophecy. The prophecy Matthew references is given in Psalm 78:2,

“I will open my mouth in parables. I will utter things hidden since the creation of the world.”

Christ's Object Lessons - Ellen Gould Harmon White (1900)It is unusual for verses in Psalm to be referenced as prophecy. It is even more unusual for Jesus’ public lessons to be referred to as secrets, implying knowledge purposely kept from humanity. The act of Jesus speaking “secrets” to the crowds using parables is emphasized in Matthew but not in Mark nor Luke.

Some scholars theorize that these parables could have been added to Matthew at a later date. However, their confusion may be due to an incorrect interpretation of Matthew’s statement. More likely, Matthew is saying that Jesus speaks in parables, not revealing deep-seated secrets but rather, saying things that mankind has been unaware of up to this point in time. Jesus’ entire ministry is indeed a “new testament” for the people.

The argument for and against excommunication

The Christian community holds various beliefs regarding excommunication, the act of officially excluding someone from participation in religious services offered by the Christian Church. Those who believe a person should be removed from a church because of bad behavior point to Matthew 18:8 which says, “if your hand or your foot cause you to stumble, cut it off and throw it away.” However, in the verses we see here, Jesus clearly explains that “weeds” and “wheat” will grow together. Only at judgement time will each person be judged.

The confusion regarding excommunication comes from a misinterpretation of Matthew 18:8 which points out that you must avoid evil behavior, not necessarily evil people. This makes much more sense considering our objective as Christians is to mimic Jesus’ behavior and Jesus clearly associated with sinners in an effort to save them. It is hard to imagine Jesus would not invite a sinner into a church out of love.

The value of heaven

Jesus says, “The kingdom of heaven is like a treasure hidden in a field. When a man found the treasure, he hid it again, and then in his joy went and sold all he had and bought the field.” The point Jesus makes is that heaven in invaluable.

This parable would have made more sense to ancient readers who were accustomed to Jewish law. Jewish law said that a workman who stumbled on a treasure and picked it up was obliged to turn the treasure over to his master, the field’s owner. In this parable, the finder does not lift the treasure from the ground but instead, leaves it hidden and quickly buys the entire field to obtain ownership of the treasure.

The lesson is reiterated in the next verses where Jesus uses another parable to emphasize heaven’s worth. He says, “The kingdom of heaven is like a merchant looking for fine pearls. When he found one of great value, he went away and sold everything he had and bought it.” The merchant may have spent a lifetime buying, selling, and trading pearls. He understands the market value and fair price of a pearl. But when he finds one that is extraordinarily valuable, he sells everything he owns to buy it. The same holds true for heaven – its worth is invaluable.

The storeroom of new and old treasures

Jesus tells the disciples, “Every teacher of the law who has become a disciple in the kingdom of heaven is like the owner of a house who brings out of his storeroom new treasures as well as old.” This verse has puzzled theologians for centuries. The owner of the storeroom has both old and new treasures and uses both. But who is the owner of the storeroom? Jesus identifies them as “teachers of the law”, or Old Testament Jewish religious followers, including the disciples, who converted and became followers of Jesus. Their treasures of Jesus’ converted followers now include both Old Testament treasures and the renewed fulfillment Jesus is presenting in his New Testament teachings.

The science and history behind the story

Leymus arenarius and Lolium temulentumo - Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm (1885)The bearded darnel weed

The weed called bearded darnel has plagued wheat crops throughout the world for centuries. It’s commonly called “wheat’s evil twin” or the “plant of frenzy”. Bearded darnel looks just like wheat until the grain head forms. It entangles its roots around the wheat root. It’s a stowaway type plant that would not survive without its ability to be harvested, and spread, with the wheat grain.

Bearded darnel is dangerous and poisonous when ingested in high quantities. Today, modern techniques allow it to be separated from wheat. In ancient times however, farmers had to take great care to separate bearded darnel from the wheat. The effects of harvesting it with the wheat would cause delirium in the person who consumed it.

Bible Text

NIV

24 Jesus told them another parable: “The kingdom of heaven is like a man who sowed good seed in his field. 25 But while everyone was sleeping, his enemy came and sowed weeds among the wheat, and went away. 26 When the wheat sprouted and formed heads, then the weeds also appeared.

27 “The owner’s servants came to him and said, ‘Sir, didn’t you sow good seed in your field? Where then did the weeds come from?’

28 “ ‘An enemy did this,’ he replied.

“The servants asked him, ‘Do you want us to go and pull them up?’

29 “ ‘No,’ he answered, ‘because while you are pulling the weeds, you may uproot the wheat with them. 30 Let both grow together until the harvest. At that time I will tell the harvesters: First collect the weeds and tie them in bundles to be burned; then gather the wheat and bring it into my barn.’ ”

31 He told them another parable: “The kingdom of heaven is like a mustard seed, which a man took and planted in his field. 32 Though it is the smallest of all seeds, yet when it grows, it is the largest of garden plants and becomes a tree, so that the birds come and perch in its branches.”

33 He told them still another parable: “The kingdom of heaven is like yeast that a woman took and mixed into about sixty pounds of flour until it worked all through the dough.”

34 Jesus spoke all these things to the crowd in parables; he did not say anything to them without using a parable. 35 So was fulfilled what was spoken through the prophet:

“I will open my mouth in parables,

I will utter things hidden since the creation of the world.”

36 Then he left the crowd and went into the house. His disciples came to him and said, “Explain to us the parable of the weeds in the field.”

37 He answered, “The one who sowed the good seed is the Son of Man. 38 The field is the world, and the good seed stands for the people of the kingdom. The weeds are the people of the evil one, 39 and the enemy who sows them is the devil. The harvest is the end of the age, and the harvesters are angels.

40 “As the weeds are pulled up and burned in the fire, so it will be at the end of the age. 41 The Son of Man will send out his angels, and they will weed out of his kingdom everything that causes sin and all who do evil. 42 They will throw them into the blazing furnace, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. 43 Then the righteous will shine like the sun in the kingdom of their Father. Whoever has ears, let them hear.

44 “The kingdom of heaven is like treasure hidden in a field. When a man found it, he hid it again, and then in his joy went and sold all he had and bought that field.

45 “Again, the kingdom of heaven is like a merchant looking for fine pearls. 46 When he found one of great value, he went away and sold everything he had and bought it.

47 “Once again, the kingdom of heaven is like a net that was let down into the lake and caught all kinds of fish. 48 When it was full, the fishermen pulled it up on the shore. Then they sat down and collected the good fish in baskets, but threw the bad away. 49 This is how it will be at the end of the age. The angels will come and separate the wicked from the righteous 50 and throw them into the blazing furnace, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

51 “Have you understood all these things?” Jesus asked.

“Yes,” they replied.

52 He said to them, “Therefore every teacher of the law who has become a disciple in the kingdom of heaven is like the owner of a house who brings out of his storeroom new treasures as well as old.”

The New International Version. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2011. Print.

 Satan Sowig Seeds - Felicen Rops (1872)The NET Bible

13:24 He presented them with another parable: “The kingdom of heaven is like a person who sowed good seed in his field. 13:25 But while everyone was sleeping, an enemy came and sowed weeds among the wheat and went away. 13:26 When the plants sprouted and bore grain, then the weeds also appeared. 13:27 So the slaves of the owner came and said to him, ‘Sir, didn’t you sow good seed in your field? Then where did the weeds come from?’ 13:28 He said, ‘An enemy has done this.’ So the slaves replied, ‘Do you want us to go and gather them?’ 13:29 But he said, ‘No, since in gathering the weeds you may uproot the wheat with them. 13:30 Let both grow together until the harvest. At harvest time I will tell the reapers, “First collect the weeds and tie them in bundles to be burned, but then gather the wheat into my barn.” ’ ”

13:31 He gave them another parable: “The kingdom of heaven is like a mustard seed that a man took and sowed in his field. 13:32 It is the smallest of all the seeds, but when it has grown it is the greatest garden plant and becomes a tree, so that the wild birds come and nest in its branches.”

13:33 He told them another parable: “The kingdom of heaven is like yeast that a woman took and mixed with three measures of flour until all the dough had risen.”

13:34 Jesus spoke all these things in parables to the crowds; he did not speak to them without a parable. 13:35 This fulfilled what was spoken by the prophet:

“I will open my mouth in parables,

I will announce what has been hidden from the foundation of the world.”

13:36 Then he left the crowds and went into the house. And his disciples came to him saying, “Explain to us the parable of the weeds in the field.” 13:37 He answered, “The one who sowed the good seed is the Son of Man. 13:38 The field is the world and the good seed are the people of the kingdom. The weeds are the people of the evil one, 13:39 and the enemy who sows them is the devil. The harvest is the end of the age, and the reapers are angels. 13:40 As the weeds are collected and burned with fire, so it will be at the end of the age. 13:41 The Son of Man will send his angels, and they will gather from his kingdom everything that causes sin as well as all lawbreakers. 13:42 They will throw them into the fiery furnace, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. 13:43 Then the righteous will shine like the sun in the kingdom of their Father. The one who has ears had better listen!

13:44 “The kingdom of heaven is like a treasure, hidden in a field, that a person found and hid. Then because of joy he went and sold all that he had and bought that field.

13:45 “Again, the kingdom of heaven is like a merchant searching for fine pearls. 13:46 When he found a pearl of great value, he went out and sold everything he had and bought it.

13:47 “Again, the kingdom of heaven is like a net that was cast into the sea that caught all kinds of fish. 13:48 When it was full, they pulled it ashore, sat down, and put the good fish into containers and threw the bad away. 13:49 It will be this way at the end of the age. Angels will come and separate the evil from the righteous 13:50 and throw them into the fiery furnace, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

13:51 “Have you understood all these things?” They replied, “Yes.” 13:52 Then he said to them, “Therefore every expert in the law who has been trained for the kingdom of heaven is like the owner of a house who brings out of his treasure what is new and old.”

Biblical Studies Press. The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press, 2006. Print.

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New King James Version

24 Another parable He put forth to them, saying: “The kingdom of heaven is like a man who sowed good seed in his field; 25 but while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat and went his way. 26 But when the grain had sprouted and produced a crop, then the tares also appeared. 27 So the servants of the owner came and said to him, ‘Sir, did you not sow good seed in your field? How then does it have tares?’ 28 He said to them, ‘An enemy has done this.’ The servants said to him, ‘Do you want us then to go and gather them up?’ 29 But he said, ‘No, lest while you gather up the tares you also uproot the wheat with them. 30 Let both grow together until the harvest, and at the time of harvest I will say to the reapers, “First gather together the tares and bind them in bundles to burn them, but gather the wheat into my barn.” ’ ”

31 Another parable He put forth to them, saying: “The kingdom of heaven is like a mustard seed, which a man took and sowed in his field, 32 which indeed is the least of all the seeds; but when it is grown it is greater than the herbs and becomes a tree, so that the birds of the air come and nest in its branches.”

33 Another parable He spoke to them: “The kingdom of heaven is like leaven, which a woman took and hid in three measures of meal till it was all leavened.”

34 All these things Jesus spoke to the multitude in parables; and without a parable He did not speak to them, 35 that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying:

“I will open My mouth in parables;

I will utter things kept secret from the foundation of the world.”

36 Then Jesus sent the multitude away and went into the house. And His disciples came to Him, saying, “Explain to us the parable of the tares of the field.”

37 He answered and said to them: “He who sows the good seed is the Son of Man. 38 The field is the world, the good seeds are the sons of the kingdom, but the tares are the sons of the wicked one. 39 The enemy who sowed them is the devil, the harvest is the end of the age, and the reapers are the angels. 40 Therefore as the tares are gathered and burned in the fire, so it will be at the end of this age. 41 The Son of Man will send out His angels, and they will gather out of His kingdom all things that offend, and those who practice lawlessness, 42 and will cast them into the furnace of fire. There will be wailing and gnashing of teeth. 43 Then the righteous will shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. He who has ears to hear, let him hear!

44 “Again, the kingdom of heaven is like treasure hidden in a field, which a man found and hid; and for joy over it he goes and sells all that he has and buys that field.

45 “Again, the kingdom of heaven is like a merchant seeking beautiful pearls, 46 who, when he had found one pearl of great price, went and sold all that he had and bought it.

47 “Again, the kingdom of heaven is like a dragnet that was cast into the sea and gathered some of every kind, 48 which, when it was full, they drew to shore; and they sat down and gathered the good into vessels, but threw the bad away. 49 So it will be at the end of the age. The angels will come forth, separate the wicked from among the just, 50 and cast them into the furnace of fire. There will be wailing and gnashing of teeth.”

51 Jesus said to them, “Have you understood all these things?”

They said to Him, “Yes, Lord.”

52 Then He said to them, “Therefore every scribe instructed concerning the kingdom of heaven is like a householder who brings out of his treasure things new and old.”

Bearded Darnel weed vs Wheat plantThe New King James Version. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1982. Print.

The Message

24–26 He told another story. “God’s kingdom is like a farmer who planted good seed in his field. That night, while his hired men were asleep, his enemy sowed thistles all through the wheat and slipped away before dawn. When the first green shoots appeared and the grain began to form, the thistles showed up, too.

27 “The farmhands came to the farmer and said, ‘Master, that was clean seed you planted, wasn’t it? Where did these thistles come from?’

28 “He answered, ‘Some enemy did this.’

“The farmhands asked, ‘Should we weed out the thistles?’

29–30 “He said, ‘No, if you weed the thistles, you’ll pull up the wheat, too. Let them grow together until harvest time. Then I’ll instruct the harvesters to pull up the thistles and tie them in bundles for the fire, then gather the wheat and put it in the barn.’ ”

31–32 Another story. “God’s kingdom is like a pine nut that a farmer plants. It is quite small as seeds go, but in the course of years it grows into a huge pine tree, and eagles build nests in it.”

33 Another story. “God’s kingdom is like yeast that a woman works into the dough for dozens of loaves of barley bread—and waits while the dough rises.”

34–35 All Jesus did that day was tell stories—a long storytelling afternoon. His storytelling fulfilled the prophecy:

I will open my mouth and tell stories;

I will bring out into the open

things hidden since the world’s first day.

36 Jesus dismissed the congregation and went into the house. His disciples came in and said, “Explain to us that story of the thistles in the field.”

37–39 So he explained. “The farmer who sows the pure seed is the Son of Man. The field is the world, the pure seeds are subjects of the kingdom, the thistles are subjects of the Devil, and the enemy who sows them is the Devil. The harvest is the end of the age, the curtain of history. The harvest hands are angels.

40–43 “The picture of thistles pulled up and burned is a scene from the final act. The Son of Man will send his angels, weed out the thistles from his kingdom, pitch them in the trash, and be done with them. They are going to complain to high heaven, but nobody is going to listen. At the same time, ripe, holy lives will mature and adorn the kingdom of their Father.

“Are you listening to this? Really listening?

44 “God’s kingdom is like a treasure hidden in a field for years and then accidentally found by a trespasser. The finder is ecstatic—what a find!—and proceeds to sell everything he owns to raise money and buy that field.

45–46 “Or, God’s kingdom is like a jewel merchant on the hunt for excellent pearls. Finding one that is flawless, he immediately sells everything and buys it.

47–50 “Or, God’s kingdom is like a fishnet cast into the sea, catching all kinds of fish. When it is full, it is hauled onto the beach. The good fish are picked out and put in a tub; those unfit to eat are thrown away. That’s how it will be when the curtain comes down on history. The angels will come and cull the bad fish and throw them in the garbage. There will be a lot of desperate complaining, but it won’t do any good.”

51 Jesus asked, “Are you starting to get a handle on all this?”

They answered, “Yes.”

52 He said, “Then you see how every student well-trained in God’s kingdom is like the owner of a general store who can put his hands on anything you need, old or new, exactly when you need it.”

Peterson, Eugene H. The Message: The Bible in Contemporary Language. Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress, 2005. Print.

King James Version

24 Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is likened unto a man which sowed good seed in his field: 25 But while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat, and went his way. 26 But when the blade was sprung up, and brought forth fruit, then appeared the tares also. 27 So the servants of the householder came and said unto him, Sir, didst not thou sow good seed in thy field? from whence then hath it tares? 28 He said unto them, An enemy hath done this. The servants said unto him, Wilt thou then that we go and gather them up? 29 But he said, Nay; lest while ye gather up the tares, ye root up also the wheat with them. 30 Let both grow together until the harvest: and in the time of harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them: but gather the wheat into my barn.

31 Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and sowed in his field: 32 Which indeed is the least of all seeds: but when it is grown, it is the greatest among herbs, and becometh a tree, so that the birds of the air come and lodge in the branches thereof.

33 Another parable spake he unto them; The kingdom of heaven is like unto leaven, which a woman took, and hid in three measures of meal, till the whole was leavened. 34 All these things spake Jesus unto the multitude in parables; and without a parable spake he not unto them: 35 That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, I will open my mouth in parables; I will utter things which have been kept secret from the foundation of the world.

36 Then Jesus sent the multitude away, and went into the house: and his disciples came unto him, saying, Declare unto us the parable of the tares of the field. 37 He answered and said unto them, He that soweth the good seed is the Son of man; 38 The field is the world; the good seed are the children of the kingdom; but the tares are the children of the wicked one; 39 The enemy that sowed them is the devil; the harvest is the end of the world; and the reapers are the angels. 40 As therefore the tares are gathered and burned in the fire; so shall it be in the end of this world. 41 The Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all things that offend, and them which do iniquity; 42 And shall cast them into a furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth. 43 Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. Who hath ears to hear, let him hear.

44 Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto treasure hid in a field; the which when a man hath found, he hideth, and for joy thereof goeth and selleth all that he hath, and buyeth that field.

45 Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a merchant man, seeking goodly pearls: 46 Who, when he had found one pearl of great price, went and sold all that he had, and bought it.

47 Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a net, that was cast into the sea, and gathered of every kind: 48 Which, when it was full, they drew to shore, and sat down, and gathered the good into vessels, but cast the bad away. 49 So shall it be at the end of the world: the angels shall come forth, and sever the wicked from among the just, 50 And shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.

51 Jesus saith unto them, Have ye understood all these things? They say unto him, Yea, Lord. 52 Then said he unto them, Therefore every scribe which is instructed unto the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is an householder, which bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and old.

The Holy Bible: King James Version. Electronic Edition of the 1900 Authorized Version. Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 2009. Print.

Sources: NIV, The Message, The NET Bible, King James Version, NET Bible Notes, Faithlife Study Bible, The Apologetics Study Bible, The Bible Knowledge Commentary, Jamieson, Fausset, Brown Commentary, The Bible Reader’s Companion, Matthew Henry’s Commentary, Holman Concise Bible Commentary, The Bible Exposition Commentary, The Teacher’s Bible Commentary, The Teacher’s Commentary, The Bible Guide, Word Studies in the New Testament, Holman Bible Handbook, Calvin Commentaries, Wiersbe’s Expository Outlines, The New Manner and Customs of the Bible, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, The Lexham Bible Dictionary, Easton’s Bible Dictionary, Harper’s Bible Dictionary, Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible, The Archaeological Encyclopedia, Biblical Archaeology Review, The New Bible Dictionary, The Lexham Analytical Lexicon, Glossary of Morpho-Syntactic Database
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