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The Dynasties of Egypt

Egyptian rulers are mentioned throughout the Bible. Scholars have attempted to identify the ancient rulers using Egyptian historical records and monuments. Unfortunately, many of the names have been lost or are unidentifiable.

Historians divide ancient Egyptian history into 30 or 32 pharaonic dynasties (3100 BC – 332 BC). A dynasty is a series of rulers belonging to the same family. The first thirty divisions are due to the 3rd century BC Egyptian priest Manetho, and appeared in his now-lost work Aegyptiaca. The names of the last two, the short-lived Thirty-First Dynasty and the longer-lasting Ptolemaic Dynasty, are later coinings.

While widely used and useful, the system does have its shortcomings. Some dynasties only ruled part of Egypt and existed concurrently with other dynasties based in other cities. The Seventh might not have existed at all, the Tenth seems to be a continuation of the Ninth, and there might have been one or several Upper Egyptian Dynasties before the First Dynasty.

The names of Egyptian rulers were obtained from a variety of sources including Egyptian historical documents and monuments. Many names derive from the Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon. The Turin Canon is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio (Egyptian Museum)  in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

Pre-dynastic period: c.5500 – 3100 BC

Hieroglyphs first appeared around the end of this period. Settlements were established beside the Nile River by Merimdeon, Tasian and Badarian.

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Early Dynastic Period: 3100 – 2686 BC

Upper and Lower Egypt were unified under King Menses (Narmer) starting the First Dynasty. Memphis, in Lower Egypt, became the capital.

First Dynasty of Egypt (3100 – 2890 BC)

Rulers of the First Dynasty:

  1. Narmer (Menes) – considered to be the first unifier of Egypt.
  2. Hor-Aha – could be the same person as Narmer-Menes or possibly his son.
  3. Neithhotep – possibly the wife of Narmer and mother of Hor-Aha. Her tomb was discovered in 1897
  4. Djer – son of Hor-Aha and his wife Khenthap. Grandfather may have been Narmer. His tomb was discovered in Umm el-Qa’ab at Abydos.
  5. Djet (aka Wadj, Zet, Uadji, Uenephes, or Atothis)
  6. Merneith (2950 BC) – possibly Djer’s daughter and probably Djet’s wife. Believe to have become ruler upon the death of Djet.
  7. Den (Hor-Den, Dewen, or Udimu) (2970 BC)
  8. Anedjib (2930 BC) – probably the son of Den and possibly married to a woman named Betrest.
  9. Semerkhe (2920 BC) – believed that some sort of calamity occurred during his reign (the words “destruction of Egypt” are found in his stones).
  10. Qaa (2910 BC) – probably the son of Semerkhe. Evidence suggests that after his death, a dynastic war between the different royal houses began.

Second Dynasty of Egypt (2890 – 2686 BC)

The first five are fairly certain. After that. rulers are unclear. Rulers of the Second Dynasty:

  1. Hotepsekhemwy (2890 BC) – The Turin Canon says he ruled for 95 years but most historians believe this is incorrect.
  2. Nebra
  3. Nynetjer – One of the best archaeologically attested kings of the 2nd dynasty. His name appears on many stone vessels and clay sealings. May have split Egypt into two realms to ease administration.
  4. Senedj
  5. Seth-Peribsen
  6. Sekhemib-Perenmaat
  7. Khasekhemwy (2690 – 2670 BC) – Married to Queen Nimaathap, father of Djoser and possibly Sanakhte.

Old Kingdom: 2686 – 2181 BC

A Golden Age for Egypt. The king was considered the incarnation of the god Horus and from the 5th Dynasty, the son of Re, the sun god. The first major stone building in the world, the famous Step Pyramid, was constructed at Saqqara for King Zoser of the 3rd Dynasty. During the 4th Dynasty, the great pyramids of Giza were built for pharaohs Khufu (Cheops), Kheophren (Cheophren ) and Menkaru (Mycerinus). The priesthood of the god Re became powerful at Heliopolis and some of the kings of the 5th Dynasty built solar temples adjacent to their relatively small pyramids at Abusir near Saqqara. At Saqqara, the pyramid of Unas, the last king of the 5th Dynasty, contains the famous Pyramid Texts – spells for the afterlife.

Third Dynasty of Egypt (2686 – 2575 BC)

Rulers of the Third Dynasty:

  1. Netjerikhet (Djoser) – Buried in the step pyramid at Saqqara, Egypt’s first step pyramid. His chancellor was Imhotep, responsible for many great construction projects in Egypt.
  2. Sekhemkhet (Djoserty) (abt 2648 – 2640 BC) – His step pyramid was never completed, possibly because the died unexpectedly. A sealed sarcophagus was found beneath the pyramid but when opened, was found to be empty.
  3. Sanakhte (Nebka), (2686 – 2668 BC) – Believed to be entombed at Beit Khallaf. Inside the tomb were the skeletal remains of a man who was 8-inches taller than the average male at the time.
  4. Khaba (Teti) (2643 – 2637 BC)
  5. Uncertain, possibly Qahedjet (Huni) (2637 – 2613 BC)

Fourth Dynasty of Egypt (2613 – 2498 BC)

Rulers of the Fourth Dynasty:

  1. Sneferu (2613 – 2589 ) – Married to Hetepheres. Father of Khufu. Captured large numbers of people from other nations to use in pyramid construction projects.
  2. Khufu aka Cheops (2589 – 2566 BC) – Believed to have commissioned the Great Pyramid of Giza. Was a heretic and cruel tyrant. Forced all Egyptians to work for him.
  3. Djedefre (Kheper) (2566 – 2558 BC) – Was the first to connect his name with the sun god Ra.
  4. Khafre aka Cheophren (2558 – 2532 BC)
  5. Menkaru aka Mycerinus (2532 – 2504 BC)
  6. Shepseskaf (2504 – 2500 BC)

Fifth Dynasty of Egypt (2465 – 2323 BC)

Rulers of the Fifth Dynasty:

  1. Userkef (2498 – 2491 BC)
  2. Sahure (2491 – 2477 BC)
  3. Neferirkare Kakai (2477 – 2467 BC)
  4. Neferefre (Neferkhau)
  5. Shepseskare Ini (2467 – 2460 BC)
  6. Neuserre Izi (2453 – 2422BC)
  7. Menkauhor Kaiu (2422 – 2414 BC)
  8. Djedkare Isesi (2414 – 2375 BC)
  9. Unas (2375 – 2345 BC)

Sixth Dynasty of Egypt (2345 – 2181 BC)

Rulers of the Sixth Dynasty:

  1. Teti (2345 – 2333 BC)
  2. Userkare (2333 – 2331 BC)
  3. Pepi I (2332 – 2283 BC)
  4. Merenre (2283 – 2278 BC)
  5. Pepi II (2278 – 2184 BC)
  6. Merenre II (2184 BC)
  7. Netjerkare Siptah or Nitocris (2184 – 2181 BC)

First Intermediate Period: 2181 – 2040 BC

This period saw a breakdown of central government.

Seventh Dynasty of Egypt

The Seventh Dynasty is usually considered fictitious (a metaphor of chaos) and ignored by modern scholars or combined with the Eighth Dynasty.

  1. Djedkare Shemai
  2. Neferkare Khendu
  3. Merenhor
  4. Neferkamin
  5. Nikare
  6. Neferkare Tereru
  7. Nefekahor
  8. Nefekare Pepiseneb
  9. Neferkamin Anu

Eighth Dynasty of Egypt (2181 – 2160 BC)

The rulers of this Dynasty are unclear. They possibly included:

  1. Netjerkare Siptah
  2. Menkare
  3. Neferkare II
  4. Neferkare Neby
  5. Djedkare Shemai
  6. Nefekare Khendu
  7. Merenhor
  8. Neferkamin
  9. Nikare
  10. Neferkare Tereru
  11. Neferkahor
  12. neferkare Pepiseneb
  13. Neferkamin Anu
  14. Qakare Ibi
  15. neferkaure
  16. Khwiwihepu Neferkauhor
  17. Neferirkare

Ninth Dynasty of Egypt (2160 – 2130 BC)

At this time, Egypt was not unified and there is some overlap between these and other dynasties. The Turin Canon lists eighteen kings for this royal line but their names are damaged, unidentifiable, or lost. The following are possible rules of the Ninth Dynasty based on the Turin Canon.

  1. Meryibre Khety I
  2. Name lost
  3. Neferkare VII
  4. Nebkaure Khety II
  5. Setut
  6. Name lost
  7. Mery…
  8. Shed…
  9. H…
  10. Name lost
  11. Name lost
  12. Name lost
  13. User…

Tenth Dynasty of Egypt (2134 – 2061 BC)

The Tenth Dynasty is often combined with the 7th, 8th, 9th, and early 11th Dynasties. At this time, Egypt was not unified and there is some overlap between these and other dynasties. The Turin Canon lists this royal line but their names are damaged, unidentifiable, or lost. The following is a list of possible rulers.

  1. Meryhathor
  2. neferkare VIII
  3. Wahkare Khety III
  4. Merykare
  5. Name lost

Middle Kingdom: 2040 – 1797 BC

Reunification of Egypt occurred in the 11th Dynasty under the rule of Mentuhotep I, whose family was based in Thebes (modern Luxor). A series of kings oversaw a renaissance in Egyptian art and the literature.

Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt (2134 – 1991 BC)

Rulers of the Eleventh Dynasty:

  1. Intef the Elder
  2. Mentuhotep (2134 – ? BC)
  3. Intef I (2134 – 2117 BC)
  4. Intef II 2117 – 2069 BC)
  5. Intef III (2069 – 2060 BC)
  6. Nebhepetre Mentuhotep I (2060 – 2010 (BC)
  7. Sankhkare Mentuhotep II (2010 – 1998 BC)
  8. Nebtawyre Mentuhotep III (1997 – 1991 BC)

Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt (1991 – 1782 BC)

Rulers of the Twelfth Dynasty:

  1. Amenemhet I (1991 – 1962 BC)
  2. Senusret I (1971 – 1926 BC)
  3. Amenemhet II (1929 – 1895 BC)
  4. Senusret II (1897 – 1878 BC)
  5. Senusret III (1878 – 1841 BC)
  6. Amenemhet III (1842 – 1797 BC)
  7. Amenemhet IV (1798 – 1786 BC)
  8. Queen Sobeknefru (1785 – 1782 BC)

Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt (1786 – 1567 BC)

The Thirteenth Dynasty was a direct continuation of the preceding 12th Dynasty with its ruler believed to be the son of Amenemhat IV. The Dynasty is described as an era of famine, chaos and disorder. There are few monuments from this period so the chronology is difficult to discern. The following are believed to be rulers from this period. They had very short reigns,  were not from a single family and some may have been born commoners.

  1. Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep I
  2. Sonbef
  3. Nerikare
  4. Sekhemkare Amenemhat V
  5. Ameny Qemau
  6. Hotepibre Qemau Siharnedjherite
  7. Iufni
  8. Seankhibre Ameny-Intef-Amenembat VI
  9. Semenkare nebnuni
  10. Sehetepibre Sewesekhtawy
  11. Sewadjkare I
  12. Nedjemibre
  13. Khaankhre Sobekhotep II
  14. Renseneb Amenemhat
  15. Hor Awybre
  16. Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw
  17. Djedkheperew
  18. Sedjefakare Kay-Amenemhet VII
  19. Khutawyre Wegaf
  20. Userkare Khendjer
  21. Smenkhkare Imyremeshaw
  22. Sehetepkare Intef
  23. Seth Meribre
  24. Sekhemresewadjtawy Sobekhotep III
  25. Khasekhemre Neferhotep I
  26. Menwadjre Sihathor
  27. Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV
  28. Merhotepre Sobekhotep V
  29. Khaotepre Sobekhotep VI
  30. Wahibre Ibiau
  31. Merneferre Ay

Following these kings, the remaining rulers are only attested by finds in Upper Egypt. The country may have fragmented at that time or been invaded by Canaanite rulers.

  1. Merhotepre Ini
  2. Sankhenre Seewadjtu
  3. Mersekhemre Ined
  4. Sewadjkare Hori
  5. Merkawre Sobekhotep VII
  6. Name lost
  7. Name lost
  8. Name lost
  9. Name lost
  10. Name lost
  11. Name lost
  12. Name lost
  13. Name lost
  14. Merkeperre
  15. Merkare
  16. Name lost
  17. Sewadjare Mentuhotep V
  18. …mosre
  19. Ibi…maatre
  20. Hor..webenre
  21. Se…kare
  22. Seheqenre Sankhptahi
  23. ..re
  24. Se..enre

The chronological position of the follower rulers cannot be determined.

  1. Mershepsesre Ini II
  2. Mersekhemre Neferhotep II
  3. Sewahenre Senebmiu
  4. Sekhanenre..re

Second Intermediate Period: 1786 – 1567 BC

A period about which little is known. Foreign occupation and continued internal struggle were common and rulers did not last very long.. Invaders known as the Hyksos came in 1730 BC from Asia and moved into the Delta. This period of instability lasted from 1730 to 1580 BC and was brought to an end by a Theban family, one of whom (Ahmose) finally expelled the Hyksos to start the 18th Dynasty and the rise of the New Kingdom era.

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Fourteenth Dynasty of Egypt

The capital of the 14th Dynasty was probably Avaris. It likely existed concurrently with the 13th dynasty based in Memphis. These rulers are probably of Canaanite or West Semitic descent. The era was known to be hit by famine.

The following are listed as some as rulers during this period.

  1. Yakbim Sekhaenre (1805 – 1780 BC)
  2. Ya’ammu Nubwoserre (1780 – 1770 BC)
  3. Qareh Khawoserre (1770 – 1760 BC)
  4. ‘Ammu Ahotepre (1760 – 1745 BC)
  5. Sheshi Maaibre (1745 – 1705 BC)

The following rulers are listed in the Turin Canon.

  1. Nehesy Aasehre (1705 BC
  2. Khakherewre (1705 BC)
  3. Nebefawre (1704 BC)
  4. Sehebre
  5. Merdjefare
  6. Sewadjkare III
  7. Nebdjefare
  8. Webenre
  9. Name lost
  10. ..djefare
  11. ..webenre
  12. Awibre II
  13. Heribre
  14. nebsenre
  15. Name lost
  16. ..re
  17. Sekheperenre
  18. Djedkherewre
  19. Sankhibre II
  20. Nefertum..re
  21. sekhem..re
  22. Kakemure
  23. neferibre
  24. I..re
  25. Khakare
  26. Akare
  27. hapu.. Semenenre
  28. Anati Djedkare
  29. Babnum..kare
  30. Name lost
  31. Senefer..re
  32. Men..re
  33. Djed..re
  34. Name lost
  35. Ink..
  36. ‘A..
  37. Apophis I
  38. Name lost

The following are possible pharaohs of Egypt in the 14th Dynasty.

  1. Nuya
  2. Sheneh
  3. Shenshek
  4. Wazad
  5. Khamure
  6. Yakareb
  7. Merwoserre Yaqub-Har

Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt

This dynasty was foreign to Egypt being founded by Salitis, a Hyksos from West Asia whose people invaded and conquered Egypt. Little is know about these rulers since Egyptians likely destroyed historical evidence of the invaders and their rule over the land.

  1. Salitis (around 1650 BC) – The first Hyksos king, the one who invaded, subdued, and ruled over Lower Egypt.
  2. Semqen (1649 – 1621 BC)
  3. Aperanat – Is only known from a single scarab-seal where he is given the title “Ruler of the Foreign Lands”.
  4. Sakir-har – Obscure king known from writing on an excavated doorjamb – “the possessor of the Wadjet and Nekhbet diadems who subdues the bow people”.
  5. Khyan (1610 – 1580 BC) – One of the better attested kings of this dynasty./
  6. Apophis (1590? – 1550 BC)
  7. Khamudi (1550 – 1540 BC) – Ruled the northern part of Egypt from the capital Avaris. Was defeated at the hands of Ahmose I marking the end of this period.

Sixteenth Dynasty of Egypt

This dynasty of pharaohs ruled the Theban region in Upper Egypt for 70 years. They warred against leaders from the Fifteenth Dynasty and were eventually conquered by it. The period was also hit with famine.

The following are vassals of the Hyksos. The ordering is largely uncertain.

  1. ‘Anat-Har
  2. ‘Aper-‘Anati
  3. Semqen
  4. Sakir-Har
  5. Apepi
  6. Maaibre Sheshi
  7. Yaqub-Har
  8. Jamu
  9. Jakebmu
  10. Amu
  11. Sneferankhre Pepi III
  12. Hepu
  13. Anati
  14. Bebnum
  15. nebmaare
  16. Aahotepre
  17. Anetrire
  18. Meribre
  19. Nubankhre
  20. Nikare II
  21. ..kare
  22. ..kare
  23. ..kare
  24. Sharek
  25. Wazad
  26. Qur
  27. Shenes
  28. Inek
  29. ‘A…
  30. ‘Apepi
  31. Hibe
  32. Aped
  33. Hapi
  34. Shemsu
  35. Meni…
  36. Werqa

This is often listed as rulers from an independent Theban kingdom.

  1. Sekhemre-sementawi Djehuti
  2. Sekhemre-seusertawi Sobekhotep VIII
  3. Sekhemre-seankhtawi neferhotep III
  4. Seankhenre Mentuhotepi
  5. Sewadjenre Nebiryraw I
  6. Nebiriau II
  7. Semenre
  8. Seuserenre Bebiankh
  9. Sekhemre Shedwaset
  10. Name lost

The following are sometimes listed as kings from this dynasty. The names below may correspond to the five lost kings on the Turin Canon.

  1. Djedhotepre Dedumose I
  2. Djedneferre Dedumose II
  3. Djedankhre Montemsaf
  4. Merankhre Mentuhotep VI
  5. Seneferibre Senusret IV

Abydos Dynasty of Egypt

The Abydos Dynasty of Egypt is hypothesized to have been a short-lived dynasty ruling over parts of Middle and Upper Egypt. It would have existed alongside the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Dynasties and based around Abydos or possibly the foot of the Mountain of Anubis. The names below were listed in the Turin Canon.

  1. Woser..re
  2. Woser..re
  3. Name lost
  4. Name lost
  5. Name lost
  6. Name lost
  7. Name lost
  8. Name lost
  9. Name lost
  10. Name lost
  11. ..hebre
  12. Name lost
  13. Name lost
  14. Name lost
  15. ..hebre
  16. ..webenre
  17. Sekhemraneferkhau Wepwawetemsaf
  18. Sekhemrekhutawy Pantjeny
  19. menkhaure Snaaib
  20. Woseribre Senebkay

Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt

The Seventeenth Dynasty consisted of mainly Theban rulers and existed with the Hyksos of the Fifteenth Dynasty and succeed the Sixteenth Dynasty. The last two kings of this dynasty opposed Hyksos rule over Egypt and began a war that ridded Egypt of the Hyksos kings.

  1. Rahotep (1580 – 1576 BC)
  2. Sobekemsaf I
  3. Sobekemsaf II
  4. Intef V (Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef) (1573 -1571 BC) – Ruled Upper Egypt from Thebes.
  5. Intef VI (Nubkheperre Intef) (1571 – 1565 BC) – Restored several damaged temples in Upper Egypt.
  6. Intef VII (Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef) – Possibly a short-lived king who died within months of accession to power.
  7. Ahmose
  8. Tao – Led military skirmishes against the Hyksos. Mummy revealed head wound caused by an axe and a neck wound caused by a dagger while he was prone. No wounds on arms or hands suggested he was not able to defend himself.
  9. Kamose (1555 – 1550 BC) – Embarked on military campaigns against the Hyksos.

New Kingdom: 1567 -1 070 BC

It was during this dynasty that Egypt achieved the peak of its power. Many famous pharaohs came from this period. By the Twentieth  Dynasty the power of the pharaohs had waned and there were battles with invaders called the Sea Peoples. Egypt would never rule again with the same power. Ramesses XI was the last of the rulers of the New Kingdom.

Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt  (1570 – 1293 BC)

Rulers of the Eighteenth Dynasty:

  1. Ahmose I (1570 – 1546 BC) Possibly the pharaoh mentioned in Exodus. Completed the conquest against Hyksos and restored Theban rule over all of Egypt. Reopened mines and trade routes and constructed the last pyramid built by native Egyptian rulers.
  2. Amenhotep I (1551 – 1524 BC) – Likely tried to dominate surrounding nations. Began a number of temple building projects. Was deified upon death.
  3. Tuthmosis I (1524 – 1518 BC) – Expanded the borders of Egypt even more. Completed many great building projects.
  4. Tuthmosis II (1528 – 1504 BC) – Possibly reigned only a short time. Another popular candidate for the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Body displayed cysts, possibly from a plague.
  5. Queen Hatshepsut (1498 – 1483 BC) – Restablished trade networks. Was one of the most prolific builders in Egypt.
  6. Tuthmosis III (1504 – 1450 BC) – Considered a military genius, created the largest empire Egypt had ever seen. Believed to have conquered 350 cities.
  7. Amenhotep II (1453 – 1419 BC) – Less militant that his father, was known to be open contemptuous towards non-Egyptians.
  8. Tuthmosis IV (1419 – 1386 BC) – Died  young from disease.
  9. Amenhotep III (1386 – 1349 BC) – May have been crowned at 5 or 6 years old. Refused to allow one of his daughters to be married to a Babylonian monarch. Peaceful and relatively uneventful reign.
  10. Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton) (1350 – 1334 BC) – Abandoned traditional Egyptian polytheism and introduced worship of Aten. This change was not popular with the Egyptian people and he was nearly wiped from Egyptian history.
  11. Smenkhkare (1336 -1334 BC) – Had a short reign and died at a young age, around 18 years old.
  12. Neferneferuaten (Queen Nefertiti) (1334 – 1332 BC) – Female king of Egypt.
  13. Tutankhamun (1332 -1325 BC) – Known as King Tut. Ended the worship of Aten and restored the god Amun.
  14. Ay (1325 – 1321 BC)
  15. Horemheb (1321 – 1293 BC) – Was the commander in chief of the army under King Tut.

Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt  (1293 – 1185 BC)

Rulers of the Nineteenth Dynasty:

  1. Ramesses I (1291 – 1291 BC)
  2. Seti I (1291 1278 BC)
  3. Ramesses II (1279 – 1212 BC) – A popular candidate for the Pharaoh mentioned in Exodus.
  4. Merneptah (1212 – 1202 BC)
  5. Amenmesses (1202 – 1199 BC)
  6. Seti II (1199 – 1193 BC)
  7. Amenmesse (1201 – 1198 BC)
  8. Siptah (1197 – 1187 BC)
  9. Queen Twosret (1187 – 1185 BC)

Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt  (1185 – 1070 BC)

Upon the death of Queen Twosret, Egypt descended into a period of civil war. The first ruler of this period may have overthrown Queen Twosret. Rulers of the Twentieth Dynasty:

  1. Setnakhte (1185 – 1182 BC)
  2. Ramesses III (1182 – 1151 BC)
  3. Ramesses IV (1151 – 1145 BC)
  4. Ramesses V (1145 – 1141 BC)
  5. Ramesses VI (1141 – 1133 BC)
  6. Ramesses VII (1133 – 1126 BC)
  7. Ramesses VIII (1133 – 1126 BC)
  8. Ramesses IX (1126 – 1108 BC)
  9. Ramesses X (1108 – 1098 BC)
  10. Ramesses XI (1098 – 1070 BC)

Third Intermediate Period: 1070 – 525 BC

After the end of the New Kingdom, Egypt was virtually bankrupt. By the Twenty-second  Dynasty, pharaohs of Libyan descent came to power, to be followed by rulers from Nubia in the Twenty-fifth  Dynasty. The country was invaded by Assyrians in 671 BC. Under the rule of Psamtik (Psammetichus) from 664 B.C., Egypt began to enjoy peace for about 140 years.

Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt  (1085 – 945 BC)

After the reign of Ramesses III, a long, slow decline of power in Egypt followed. These pharaohs ruled from Tanis but were mostly active only in Lower Egypt. The High Priests of Amun at Thebes effectively ruled Middle and Upper Egypt during this period. Rulers of the Twenty-first Dynasty:

  1. Smendes – Ruled over a divided Egypt and effectively ruled over Lower Egypt while the Middle and Upper Egypt were controlled by the High Priests of Amun.
  2. Amenemnisu
  3. Psusenne
  4. Amenemope
  5. Osorkon the Elder
  6. Siamun – possibly the pharaoh of Egypt that gave a daughter in marriage to Solomon mentioned in 1 Kings 3:1.
  7. Psusennes II – possibly the pharaoh of Egypt that gave a daughter in marriage to Solomon mentioned in 1 Kings 3:1.

Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt  (Bubastite Dynasty) (945 – 745 BC)

Pharaohs in this period originally ruled from Bubastis. The rulers were a series of Meshwesh ancient Libyans who settled in Egypt during the Twentieth Dynasty. The following are known rulers from the period.

  1. Sheshonk I (945 – 924 BC) Pursued aggressive foreign policy. Possibly the biblical pharaoh Shishaq or Shishak mentioned in 1 Kings 11:40 and 2 Chronicles 12:2.
  2. Osorkon I – Known for many temple building projects.
  3. Shoshenq II – Died from a septic infection from a head wound.
  4. Takelot I (885 – 872 BC) Son of Osorkon I.
  5. Osorkon II – Conducted considerable building projects. Had an aggressive foreign policy due to the growing power of Assyria and Israel.
  6. Shoshenq III
  7. Shoshenq IV (798 – 785 BC)
  8. Pami (785 – 778 BC)
  9. Shoshenq V (767 – 730 BC) Egypt underwent unstoppable shrinkage during his reign due to growing independence of tribal chiefs, princes, and other kings.
  10. Pedubast II
  11. Osorkon IV (730 – 715 BC) The biblical Pharaoh So “King of Egypt” mentioned in 2 Kings 17:4 and King Shilkanni mentioned in Assyrian sources. Ruled during a very chaotic period and ultimately submitted himself to the Kushite King Piye during Piye’s conquest of Egypt.

Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt  (745 – 718 BC)

This dynasty consisted of a number of Meshwesh ancient Libyan (Berber) kings who ruled Upper Egypt. The dynasty may have ruled from Herakleopolis Magna, Hermopolis Magna, or Thebes. They ruled in parallel with the Twenty-second Dynasty shortly before the death of Osorkon II.

  1. Harsiese A (880 – 860 BC)
  2. Takelot II
  3. Pedubast I
  4. Iuput I
  5. Shoshenq VI
  6. Osorkon III
  7. Takelot III
  8. Rudamun
  9. Ini (755 – 750 BC)

Twenty-fourth Dynasty of Egypt  (718 – 712 BC)

This was a short-lived dynasty of pharaohs who ruled from Sais in the western Nile Delta.

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  1. Tefnakht I (Shepsesre) (732 – 725 BC)
  2. Bakenranef (Wahkare) (725 – 720 BC)

Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt  (712 – 663 BC)

This dynasty was a line of pharaohs who originated in the Kingdom of Kush, located in present-day northern Sudan and Upper Egypt. The dynasty began with Kashta’s invasion of Upper Egypt. Loser Egypt, Upper Egypt, and Kush were reunified to create the largest Egyptian empire since the New Kingdom.

  1. Piye (Usimare) (744 – 714 BC)
  2. Shebitku (Djedkare) (714 – 705 BC)
  3. Shabaka (Nefer-ka-re) (705 – 690 BC)
  4. Taharqa (Khunefertumre) (690 – 664 BC) – possibly the Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia (Kush) mentioned in 2 Kings 19:9 and Isaiah 37:9.
  5. Tantamani (Bakre) (664 – 656 BC) – Lost control of Upper Egypt when Psamtik I captured Thebes.

Late Dynastic Period (Saite Period): 525 – 332 BC

Peace for Egypt ended when it was invaded by the Persian king Cambyses in 525 B.C. The invaders eventually were expelled, but Egypt was repeatedly having to deal with Persian invasions over nearly two centuries

Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt (663 – 525 BC)

This was the last dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC. The dynasty was based in Sais.

  1. Psamtik (Wahibre) (664 – 610 BC) Reunified Egypt and ended Nubian control of Upper Egypt.
  2. Necho II (Wehemibre) (610 – 595 BC) Likely the Pharaoh mentioned in several books of the Bible. Undertook a number of construction projects.
  3. Pasmtik II (Psammetichus) (595 – 589 BC)
  4. Wahibre Haaibre (Haaibre) (589 – 570 BC) Was overthrown and forced into exile by Amasis II. Returned with Babylonian army and was defeated and likely killed in battle.
  5. Amasis II (khnem-ib-re) 9570 – 526 BC)
  6. Psamtik III (Ankhkaenre) (526 – 525 BC)

Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt (First Egyptian Satrapy)  (525 – 405 BC)

This dynasty was founded by Cambyses II, the King of Persia, after his conquest of Egypt and subsequent crowning as Pharaoh of Egypt.

  1. Cambyses II (525 – 522 BC)
  2. Bardiya/Baumata (522 BC)
  3. Petubastis III
  4. Darius I the Great
  5. Pasmtik IV
  6. Xerxes I the Great
  7. Artabanus
  8. Artaxerxes I
  9. Xerxes II (425-424 BC)
  10. Sogdianus (424 – 423 BC)
  11. Darius II (423 – 404 BC)

Twenty-eighth Dynasty of Egypt  (405 – 332 BC)

This dynasty has only a single ruler. Amyrtaeus, a native Egyptian, revolted against Darius II and expelled the Persians from Memphis with assistance from Cretan mercenaries. Little is known about Amyrtaeus’ reign. In 398 BC, he was overthrown and executed by Nefaarud I.

  1. Amyrtaeus / Psamtik V / Psammetichus (404 – 398 BC)

Twenty-ninth Dynasty of Egypt

This dynasty was founded over the overthrow of Amyrtaeus.

  1. Nefaarud I (398 – 393 BC)
  2. Psammuthes (393 BC)
  3. Hakor (Achoris) (393 – 380 BC)
  4. Nefaarud II (380 BC) – ruled only 4 months before being killed by Nectanebo I.

Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt

This dynasty was founded after the overthrow of Nepherites (Nefaarudi II) by Nectanebo. It ended in 343 BC upon the invasion of Egypt by the Achaemenid emperor Artaxerxes III.

  1. Nectanebo I (380 – 362 BC)
  2. Teos (362 – 360 BC)
  3. nectanebo II (360 – 343 BC)

Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt (Second Egyptian Satrapy)

This dynasty was effectively a short-lived province of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. It was founded by Artaxerxes III, the King of Persia, after his reconquest of Egypt in 332 BC.

  1. Artaxerxes III (343 – 338 BC)
  2. Artaxerxes IV (338 – 336 BC)
  3. Khababash (338 – 335 BC)
  4. Darius III (336 – 332 BC)

Last of the native dynasties ends with the conquest of Alexander the Great in 332 BC.

Ptolemaic Period (Greek) or Graeco-Roman Period: 808 – 30 BC

Argead Dynasty (808 – 310 BC)

This dynasty was an ancient Macedonian royal house of Dorian Greek provenance.

  1. Caranus (808 – 778 BC)
  2. Koinos (778 – 750 BC)
  3. Tyrimmas750 – 700 BC)
  4. Perdiccas I
  5. Argaeus I
  6. Philip I
  7. Aeropus I
  8. Alcetas I
  9. Amyntas I
  10. Alexander I
  11. Perdiccas II
  12. Archelasu
  13. Oreste and Aeropus II
  14. Archelasu II
  15. Amyntas II
  16. Pausanias
  17. Amyntas III
  18. Argaeus II
  19. Amyntas III
  20. Alexander II
  21. Ptolemy I
  22. Perdiccas III
  23. Amyntas IV
  24. Philip II
  25. Alexander III (336 – 323 BC)
  26. Antipater (334 – 323 BC)
  27. Philip III Arhidaeus (323 – 317 BC0
  28. Alexander IV (323 – 310 BC)

Ptolmaic Dynasty (Ptolemaic Kingdom)

This dynasty was a Hellenistic kingdom based in ancient Egypt. It was ruled by the Ptolemaic dynasty which started with Ptolemy I Soter’s accession after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and ended with the death of Cleopatra and the Roman conquest in 30 BC).

  1. Ptolemy I
  2. Ptolemy II
  3. Ptolemy III Euergetes
  4. Ptolemy IV
  5. Ptolemy V Epiphanes
  6. Ptolemy VI Philometor
  7. Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator
  8. Cleopatra III
  9. Ptolemy XI Alexander II
  10. Ptolemy IX
  11. Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes)
  12. Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator
  13. Cleopatra VII – committed suicide before being captured by the Romans.

Roman Period

The Roman province of Egypt was established in 30 BC after Octavian (Augustus) defeated Mark Antony and deposed Pharaoh Cleopatra. The province encompassed most of modern-day Egypt. The Roman rulers were called “prefects”.

  1. Gaius Cornelius Gallus
  2. Aelius Gallus
  3. Gaius Petronius
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