Ancient Texts

The collected writings of T. Justin Martyr – first century philosopher and early Christian Apologist (part 1 of 2)

Introduction to Justin Martyr Justin Martyr, also known as Saint Justin, was an early Christian apologist.  Originally a professional philosopher, Justin converted to Christianity about 130 AD after witnessing Christians die for their faith.  He learned about Christianity from “an old Christian man” who told him of a “true philosophy”…
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Ancient Texts

The collected writings of T. Justin Martyr – first century philosopher and early Christian Apologist (part 2 of 2)

Introduction to Justin Martyr Justin Martyr, also known as Saint Justin, was an early Christian apologist.  Originally a professional philosopher, Justin converted to Christianity about 130 AD after witnessing Christians die for their faith.  He learned about Christianity from “an old Christian man” who told him of a “true philosophy”…
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Ancient Texts

The Apocalypse of Thomas (ancient apocryphal texts)

Introduction The Apocalypse of Thomas is a work from the New Testament apocrypha, apparently composed originally in Greek. It is the inspiration for the popular medieval millennial list Fifteen Signs before Doomsday. The text was written in Greek between the second and the fourth century. There are two recensions of the text, the second one of which…
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Ancient Texts

Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles – Mesopotamian Chronicles (ABC)

ABC Translation of Column IV The third year : -ahhe-šullim, the governor of Nippur, and Šamaš-ibni, the Dakkurean, were transported to Assyria and executed in Assyria.   The fourth year: Sidon was captured and sacked. In that same year: the major-domo conscripted troops in Akkad.   The fifth year: On…
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Ancient Texts

Mesopotamian Chronicles – Assyrian chronicle describes war of King Assur-res-isi against Babylonian king Ninurta-nadin-sumi

The Chronicle of Aššur-reš-iši is a fragment of an Assyrian chronicle; the tablet was found in Aššur. It describes the war of king Aššur-reš-iši () against the Babylonian king Ninurta-nadin-šumi (). Translation ... against them ... their ... an alliance ... the merchants ... he inflicted a defeat on them.…
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Ancient Texts

The Epic of Atrahasis – a non-biblical account of the Great Flood (1600 BC)

  The Epic of Atrahasis is the fullest Mesopotamian account of the Great Flood. The text is known from several versions: two written by Assyrian scribes (one in the Assyrian, one in the Babylonian dialect), the third one (on three tablets) was written during the reign of king Ammi-saduqa of…
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Ancient Texts

Berossus’ Babylonian History – Fragment 4 (278 BC)

    Fragment 4 of Berossus' Babylonian History, which was published in 278 BCE, in the translation by Verbrugghe and Wickersham (with some minor modifications).The text itself is lost, but was quoted by a Byzantine author named George Syncellus, who lived in the early ninth century. Syncellus, Chronological Excerpts 53-56…
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Ancient Texts

Epic of Gilgames – Tablet XI – non-biblical account of the Great Flood (1100 BC)

    The Epic of Gilgameš is one of the most famous texts from ancient Babylonia. It tells the story of a king who is trying to find immortality, and meets Ut-napištim, who has survived the Great Flood and has found what Gilgameš is looking for. In the following text,…
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Ancient Texts

The Epic of Atraḥasis – a non-biblical account of the Great Flood (1700 BC)

The Epic of Atraḥasis is the fullest Mesopotamian account of the Great Flood, with Atraḥasis in the role of Noah. It was written in the seventeenth century BCE. Translation Complaints of the Lower Gods When the gods were man they did forced labor, they bore drudgery. Great indeed was the…
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