Ancient Texts

Tertullian – To Scapula (ancient letter to)

This writing, which gives valuable clues to times and circumstances, was written around 215 AD.  It is addressed to Scapula (likely Scapula Tertullus), Proconsul of Africa, who had begun persecuting Christians.  Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus (Tertullian), an early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa, attempts to…
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Ancient Texts

Tertullian – On the Flesh of Christ (De Carne Christi)

In this work, written  around 200 years after the events, Tertullian defends Jesus as an actual person.  At the time, some argued that Jesus miraculous works were only possible because he was a "ghost" or phantom.  In particular, Tertullian calls out Marcion of Sinope by name and discounts Marcion's proposal…
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Ancient Texts

The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles (aka The Didache)

The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, also known as the Didache, was written sometime between 100-200 AD.  Lost for many centuries, a Greek manuscript of the Didache was discovered in 1873 in the Codex Hierosolymitanus (an 11th Century Greek manuscript).  It is believed to be a composite work composed over…
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Ancient Texts

Tertullian – On the Resurrection of the Flesh

Tertullian, full name Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, was an early Christian writer from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.  He is the first known writer to use the term "trinity".  His conversion to Christianity is believed to have taken place around 197 AD. Note: As with any apocryphal writing,…
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Ancient Texts

Tertullian – The Prescription against Heretics

Tertullian, full name Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, was an early Christian writer from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.  He is the first known writer to use the term "trinity".  His conversion to Christianity is believed to have taken place around 197 AD. Note: As with any apocryphal writing,…
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Ancient Texts

Epistle of the Church at Smyrna concerning the Martyrdom of the Holy Polycarp

The Epistle of the Church at Smyrna goes by several names including The Martyrdom of Polycarp and The Letter of the Smyrneans.  John, the last of the Twelve Apostles, ordained Polycarp bishop of Smyrna.  Shortly after Polycarp was martyred for his beliefs at the age of 86-years-old, this "Christian Martyrology"…
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Ancient Texts

The seventy disciples or seventy-two disciples according to Hippolytus

The seventy disciples or seventy-two disciples were mentioned in the Gospel of Luke. According to Luke, Jesus appointed them and sent them out in pairs on a specific mission which is detailed in the text.  Luke says: "And after these things, the Lord did appoint also other seventy, and sent…
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Ancient Texts

The Epistles of Jesus Christ and Abgarus King of Edessa

Abgar V the Black (aka Abgarus of Edessa) is reported to be one of the first Christian kings in history, having been converted to the faith by Thaddeus of Edessa, one of the Seventy-two Disciples.  The church historian Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea records that the Edessan archives contained a copy…
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