Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible – Job – Robert Jamieson, A.R. Fausset, and David Brown
THE BOOK OF JOB Commentary by A. R. Faussett
Job a Real Person.–It has been supposed by some that the book of Job is an allegory, not a real narrative, on account of the artificial character of many of its statements. Thus the sacred numbers, three and seven, often occur. He had seven thousand sheep, seven sons, both before and after his trials; his three friends sit down with him seven days and seven nights; both before and after his trials he had three daughters. So also the number and form of the speeches of the several speakers seem to be artificial. The name of Job, too, is derived from an Arabic word signifying repentance.
But Eze 14:14 (compare Eze 14:16, 20) speaks of “Job” in conjunction with “Noah and Daniel,” real persons. St. James (Jas 5:11) also refers to Job as an example of “patience,” which he would not have been likely to do had Job been only a fictitious person. Also the names of persons and places are specified with a particularity not to be looked for in an allegory. As to the exact doubling of his possessions after his restoration, no doubt the round number is given for the exact number, as the latter approached near the former; this is often done in undoubtedly historical books. As to the studied number and form of the speeches, it seems likely that the arguments were substantially those which appear in the book, but that the studied and poetic form was given by Job himself, guided by the Holy Spirit. He lived one hundred and forty years after his trials, and nothing would be more natural than that he should, at his leisure, mould into a perfect form the arguments used in the momentous debate, for the instruction of the Church in all ages. Probably, too, the debate itself occupied several sittings; and the number of speeches assigned to each was arranged by preconcerted agreement, and each was allowed the interval of a day or more to prepare carefully his speech and replies; this will account for the speakers bringing forward their arguments in regular series, no one speaking out of his turn. As to the name Job–repentance (supposing the derivation correct)–it was common in old times to give a name from circumstances which occurred at an advanced period of life, and this is no argument against the reality of the person.
Where Job Lived.–“Uz,” according to Gesenius, means a light, sandy soil, and was in the north of Arabia-Deserta, between Palestine and the Euphrates, called by Ptolemy (Geography, 19) Ausitai or Aisitai. In Ge 10:23; 22:21; 36:28; and 1Ch 1:17, 42, it is the name of a man. In Jer 25:20; La 4:21; and Job 1:1, it is a country. Uz, in Ge 22:21, is said to be the son of Nahor, brother of Abraham–a different person from the one mentioned (Ge 10:23), a grandson of Shem. The probability is that the country took its name from the latter of the two; for this one was the son of Aram, from whom the Arameans take their name, and these dwelt in Mesopotamia, between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris. Compare as to the dwelling of the sons of Shem in Ge 10:30, “a mount of the East,” answering to “men of the East” (Job 1:3). Rawlinson, in his deciphering of the Assyrian inscriptions, states that “Uz is the prevailing name of the country at the mouth of the Euphrates.” It is probable that Eliphaz the Temanite and the Sabeans dwelt in that quarter; and we know that the Chaldeans resided there, and not near Idumea, which some identify with Uz. The tornado from “the wilderness” (Job 1:19) agrees with the view of it being Arabia-Deserta. Job (Job 1:3) is called “the greatest of the men of the East”; but Idumea was not east, but south of Palestine: therefore in Scripture language, the phrase cannot apply to that country, but probably refers to the north of Arabia-Deserta, between Palestine, Idumea, and the Euphrates. So the Arabs still show in the Houran a place called Uz as the residence of Job.
The Age When Job Lived.–Eusebius fixes it two ages before Moses, that is, about the time of Isaac: eighteen hundred years before Christ, and six hundred after the Deluge. Agreeing with this are the following considerations: 1. Job’s length of life is patriarchal, two hundred years. 2. He alludes only to the earliest form of idolatry, namely, the worship of the sun, moon, and heavenly hosts (called Saba, whence arises the title “Lord of Sabaoth,” as opposed to Sabeanism) (Job 31:26-28). 3. The number of oxen and rams sacrificed, seven, as in the case of Balaam. God would not have sanctioned this after the giving of the Mosaic law, though He might graciously accommodate Himself to existing customs before the law. 4. The language of Job is Hebrew, interspersed occasionally with Syriac and Arabic expressions, implying a time when all the Shemitic tribes spoke one common tongue and had not branched into different dialects, Hebrew, Syriac, and Arabic. 5. He speaks of the most ancient kind of writing, namely, sculpture. Riches also are reckoned by cattle. The Hebrew word, translated “a piece of money,” ought rather be rendered “a lamb.” 6. There is no allusion to the exodus from Egypt and to the miracles that accompanied it; nor to the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah (Patrick, however, thinks there is); though there is to the Flood (Job 22:17); and these events, happening in Job’s vicinity, would have been striking illustrations of the argument for God’s interposition in destroying the wicked and vindicating the righteous, had Job and his friends known of them. Nor is there any undoubted reference to the Jewish law, ritual, and priesthood. 7. The religion of Job is that which prevailed among the patriarchs previous to the law; sacrifices performed by the head of the family; no officiating priesthood, temple, or consecrated altar.
The Writer.–All the foregoing facts accord with Job himself having been the author. The style of thought, imagery, and manners, are such as we should look for in the work of an Arabian emir. There is precisely that degree of knowledge of primitive tradition (see Job 31:33, as to Adam) which was universally spread abroad in the days of Noah and Abraham, and which was subsequently embodied in the early chapters of Genesis. Job, in his speeches, shows that he was much more competent to compose the work than Elihu, to whom Lightfoot attributes it. The style forbids its being attributed to Moses, to whom its composition is by some attributed, “whilst he was among the Midianites, about 1520 B.C.” But the fact, that it, though not a Jewish book, appears among the Hebrew sacred writings, makes it likely that it came to the knowledge of Moses during the forty years which he passed in parts of Arabia, chiefly near Horeb; and that he, by divine guidance, introduced it as a sacred writing to the Israelites, to whom, in their affliction, the patience and restoration of Job were calculated to be a lesson of especial utility. That it is inspired appears from the fact that Paul (1Co 3:19) quotes it (Job 5:13) with the formula, “It is written.” Our Savior, too Mt 24:28), plainly refers to Job 29:30. Compare also Jas 4:10 and 1Pe 5:6 with Job 22:29; Ro 11:34, 35 with Job 15:8. It is probably the oldest book in the world. It stands among the Hagiographa in the threefold division of Scripture into the Law, the Prophets, and the Hagiographa (“Psalms,” Lu 24:44).
Design of the Book.–It is a public debate in poetic form on an important question concerning the divine government; moreover the prologue and epilogue, which are in prose, shed the interest of a living history over the debate, which would otherwise be but a contest of abstract reasonings. To each speaker of the three friends three speeches are assigned. Job having no one to stand by him is allowed to reply to each speech of each of the three. Eliphaz, as the oldest, leads the way. Zophar, at his third turn, failed to speak, thus virtually owning himself overcome (Job 27:1-23). Therefore Job continued his reply, which forms three speeches (Job 26:1-14; 27:1-23; 28:1-28; 29:1-31:40). Elihu (Job 32:1-37:24) is allowed four speeches. Jehovah makes three addresses (Job 38:1-41:34). Thus, throughout there is a tripartite division. The whole is divided into three parts–the prologue, poem proper, and epilogue. The poem, into three–(1) The dispute of Job and his three friends; (2) The address of Elihu; (3) The address of God. There are three series in the controversy, and in the same order. The epilogue (Job 42:1-17) also is threefold; Job’s justification, reconciliation with his friends, restoration. The speakers also in their successive speeches regularly advance from less to greater vehemence. With all this artificial composition, everything seems easy and natural.
The question to be solved, as exemplified in the case of Job, is, Why are the righteous afflicted consistently with God’s justice? The doctrine of retribution after death, no doubt, is the great solution of the difficulty. And to it Job plainly refers in Job 14:14, and Job 19:25. The objection to this, that the explicitness of the language on the resurrection in Job is inconsistent with the obscurity on the subject in the early books of the Old Testament, is answered by the fact that Job enjoyed the divine vision (Job 38:1; 42:5), and therefore, by inspiration, foretold these truths. Next, the revelations made outside of Israel being few needed to be the more explicit; thus Balaam’s prophecy (Nu 24:17) was clear enough to lead the wise men of the East by the star (Mt 2:2); and in the age before the written law, it was the more needful for God not to leave Himself without witness of the truth. Still Job evidently did not fully realize the significance designed by the Spirit in his own words (compare 1Pe 1:11, 12). The doctrine, though existing, was not plainly revealed or at least understood. Hence he does not mainly refer to this solution. Yes, and even now, we need something in addition to this solution. David, who firmly believed in a future retribution (Ps 16:10; 17:15), still felt the difficulty not entirely solved thereby (Ps 83:1-18). The solution is not in Job’s or in his three friends’ speeches. It must, therefore, be in Elihu’s. God will hold a final judgment, no doubt, to clear up all that seems dark in His present dealings; but He also now providentially and morally governs the world and all the events of human life. Even the comparatively righteous are not without sin which needs to be corrected. The justice and love of God administer the altogether deserved and merciful correction. Affliction to the godly is thus mercy and justice in disguise. The afflicted believer on repentance sees this. “Via crucis, via salutis” ["The way of the cross, the way of deliverance”]. Though afflicted, the godly are happier even now than the ungodly, and when affliction has attained its end, it is removed by the Lord. In the Old Testament the consolations are more temporal and outward; in the New Testament, more spiritual; but in neither to the entire exclusion of the other. “Prosperity,” says Bacon, “is the blessing of the Old Testament; adversity that of the New Testament, which is the mark of God’s more especial favor. Yet even in the Old Testament, if you listen to David’s harp, you shall hear as many hearse-like airs as carols; and the pencil of the Holy Ghost has labored more in describing the afflictions of Job than the felicities of Solomon. Prosperity is not without many fears and distastes; and adversity is not without comforts and hopes.” This solution of Elihu is seconded by the addresses of God, in which it is shown God must be just (because He is God), as Elihu had shown how God can be just, and yet the righteous be afflicted. It is also acquiesced in by Job, who makes no reply. God reprimands the “three” friends, but not Elihu. Job’s general course is approved; he is directed to intercede for his friends, and is restored to double his former prosperity.
Poetry.–In all countries poetry is the earliest form of composition as being best retained in the memory. In the East especially it was customary for sentiments to be preserved in a terse, proverbial, and poetic form (called maschal). Hebrew poetry is not constituted by the rhythm or meter, but in a form peculiar to itself: 1. In an alphabetical arrangement somewhat like our acrostic. For instance, La 1:1-22. 2. The same verse repeated at intervals; as in Ps 42:1-11; 107:1-43. 3. Rhythm of gradation. Psalms of degrees, Ps 120:1-134:3, in which the expression of the previous verse is resumed and carried forward in the next (Ps 121:1-8). 4. The chief characteristic of Hebrew poetry is parallelism, or the correspondence of the same ideas in the parallel clauses. The earliest instance is Enoch’s prophecy (Jude 14), and Lamech’s parody of it (Ge 4:23). Three kinds occur: (1) The synonymous parallelism, in which the second is a repetition of the first, with or without increase of force (Ps 22:27; Isa 15:1); sometimes with double parallelism (Isa 1:15). (2) The antithetic, in which the idea of the second clause is the converse of that in the first (Pr 10:1). (3) The synthetic, where there is a correspondence between different propositions, noun answering to noun, verb to verb, member to member, the sentiment, moreover, being not merely echoed, or put in contrast, but enforced by accessory ideas (Job 3:3-9). Also alternate (Isa 51:19). “Desolation and destruction, famine and sword,” that is, desolation by famine, and destruction by the sword. Introverted; where the fourth answers to the first, and the third to the second (Mt 7:6). Parallelism thus often affords a key to the interpretation. For fuller information, see Lowth (Introduction to Isaiah, and Lecture on Hebrew Poetry) and Herder (Spirit of Hebrew Poetry, translated by Marsh). The simpler and less artificial forms of parallelism prevail in Job–a mark of its early age.
PART I–PROLOGUE OR HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION IN PROSE–(Job 1:1-2:13)
Job 1:1-5. The Holiness of Job, His Wealth, &c.
1. Uz–north of Arabia-Deserta, lying towards the Euphrates. It was in this neighborhood, and not in that of Idumea, that the Chaldeans and Sabeans who plundered him dwell. The Arabs divide their country into the north, called Sham, or “the left”; and the south, called Yemen, or “the right”; for they faced east; and so the west was on their left, and the south on their right. Arabia-Deserta was on the east, Arabia-Petræa on the west, and Arabia-Felix on the south.
Job–The name comes from an Arabic word meaning “to return,” namely, to God, “to repent,” referring to his end [E[Eichorn]or rather from a Hebrew word signifying one to whom enmity was shown, “greatly tried” [G[Gesenius]Significant names were often given among the Hebrews, from some event of later life (compare Ge 4:2, Abel–a “feeder” of sheep). So the emir of Uz was by general consent called Job, on account of his “trials.” The only other person so called was a son of Issachar (Ge 46:13).
perfect–not absolute or faultless perfection (compare Job 9:20; Ec 7:20), but integrity, sincerity, and consistency on the whole, in all relations of life (Ge 6:9; 17:1; Pr 10:9; Mt 5:48). It was the fear of God that kept Job from evil (Pr 8:13).
3. she-asses–prized on account of their milk, and for riding (Jud 5:10). Houses and lands are not mentioned among the emir’s wealth, as nomadic tribes dwell in movable tents and live chiefly by pasture, the right to the soil not being appropriated by individuals. The “five hundred yoke of oxen” imply, however, that Job tilled the soil. He seems also to have had a dwelling in a town, in which respect he differed from the patriarchs. Camels are well called “ships of the desert,” especially valuable for caravans, as being able to lay in a store of water that suffices them for days, and to sustain life on a very few thistles or thorns.
household–(Ge 26:14). The other rendering which the Hebrew admits, “husbandry,” is not so probable.
men of the east–denoting in Scripture those living east of Palestine; as the people of North Arabia-Deserta (Jud 6:3; Eze 25:4).
4. every one his day–namely, the birthday (Job 3:1). Implying the love and harmony of the members of the family, as contrasted with the ruin which soon broke up such a scene of happiness. The sisters are specified, as these feasts were not for revelry, which would be inconsistent with the presence of sisters. These latter were invited by the brothers, though they gave no invitations in return.
5. when the days of their feasting were gone about–that is, at the end of all the birthdays collectively, when the banquets had gone round through all the families.
Job … sanctified–by offering up as many expiatory burnt offerings as he had sons (Le 1:4). This was done “in the morning” (Ge 22:3; Le 6:12). Jesus also began devotions early (Mr 1:35). The holocaust, or burnt offering, in patriarchal times, was offered (literally, “caused to ascend,” referring to the smoke ascending to heaven) by each father of a family officiating as priest in behalf of his household.
cursed God–The same Hebrew word means to “curse,” and to “bless”; Gesenius says, the original sense is to “kneel,” and thus it came to mean bending the knee in order to invoke either a blessing or a curse. Cursing is a perversion of blessing, as all sin is of goodness. Sin is a degeneracy, not a generation. It is not, however, likely that Job should fear the possibility of his sons cursing God. The sense “bid farewell to,” derived from the blessing customary at parting, seems sufficient (Ge 47:10). Thus Umbreit translates “may have dismissed God from their hearts”; namely, amid the intoxication of pleasure (Pr 20:1). This act illustrates Job’s “fear of God” (Job 1:1).
Job 1:6-12. Satan, Appearing before God, Falsely Accuses Job.
6. sons of God–angels (Job 38:7; 1Ki 22:19). They present themselves to render account of their “ministry” in other parts of the universe (Heb 1:14).
the Lord–Hebrew, Jehovah, the self-existing God, faithful to His promises. God says (Ex 6:3) that He was not known to the patriarchs by this name. But, as the name occurs previously in Ge 2:7-9, &c., what must be meant is, not until the time of delivering Israel by Moses was He known peculiarly and publicly in the character which the name means; namely, “making things to be,” fulfilling the promises made to their forefathers. This name, therefore, here, is no objection against the antiquity of the Book of Job.
Satan–The tradition was widely spread that he had been the agent in Adam’s temptation. Hence his name is given without comment. The feeling with which he looks on Job is similar to that with which he looked on Adam in Paradise: emboldened by his success in the case of one not yet fallen, he is confident that the piety of Job, one of a fallen race, will not stand the test. He had fallen himself (Job 4:19; 15:15; Jude 6). In the Book of Job, Satan is first designated by name: “Satan,” Hebrew, “one who lies in wait”; an “adversary” in a court of justice (1Ch 21:1; Ps 109:6; Zec 3:1); “accuser” (Re 12:10). He has the law of God on his side by man’s sin, and against man. But Jesus Christ has fulfilled the law for us; justice is once more on man’s side against Satan (Isa 42:21); and so Jesus Christ can plead as our Advocate against the adversary. “Devil” is the Greek name–the “slanderer,” or “accuser.” He is subject to God, who uses his ministry for chastising man. In Arabic, Satan is often applied to a serpent (Ge 3:1). He is called prince of this world (Joh 12:31); the god of this world (2Co 4:4); prince of the power of the air (Eph 2:2). God here questions him, in order to vindicate His own ways before angels.
7. going to and fro–rather, “hurrying rapidly to and fro.” The original idea in Arabic is the heat of haste (Mt 12:43; 1Pe 5:8). Satan seems to have had some peculiar connection with this earth. Perhaps he was formerly its ruler under God. Man succeeded to the vice royalty (Ge 1:26; Ps 8:6). Man then lost it and Satan became prince of this world. The Son of man (Ps 8:4)–the representative man, regains the forfeited inheritance (Re 11:15). Satan’s replies are characteristically curt and short. When the angels appear before God, Satan is among them, even as there was a Judas among the apostles.
8. considered–Margin, “set thine heart on”; that is, considered attentively. No true servant of God escapes the eye of the adversary of God.
9. fear God for naught–It is a mark of the children of Satan to sneer and not give credit to any for disinterested piety. Not so much God’s gifts, as God Himself is “the reward” of His people (Ge 15:1).
10. his substance is increased–literally, “spread out like a flood”; Job’s herds covered the face of the country.
11. curse thee to thy face–in antithesis to God’s praise of him (Job 1:8), “one that feareth God.” Satan’s words are too true of many. Take away their prosperity and you take away their religion (Mal 3:14).
12. in thy power–Satan has no power against man till God gives it. God would not touch Job with His own hand, though Satan asks this (Job 1:11, “thine”), but He allows the enemy to do so.
Job 1:13-22. Job, in Affliction, Blesses God, &c.
13. wine–not specified in Job 1:4. The mirth inspired by the “wine” here contrasts the more sadly with the alarm which interrupted it.
14. the asses feeding beside them–Hebrew, “she asses.” A graphic picture of rural repose and peace; the more dreadful, therefore, by contrast is the sudden attack of the plundering Arabs.
15. Sabeans–not those of Arabia-Felix, but those of Arabia-Deserta, descending from Sheba, grandson of Abraham and Keturah (Ge 25:3). The Bedouin Arabs of the present day resemble, in marauding habits, these Sabeans (compare Ge 16:12).
I alone am escaped–cunningly contrived by Satan. One in each case escapes (Job 1:16, 17, 19), and brings the same kind of message. This was to overwhelm Job, and leave him no time to recover from the rapid succession of calamities–“misfortunes seldom come single.”
16. fire of God–Hebraism for “a mighty fire”; as “cedars of God”–“lofty cedars” [P[Ps 80:10]Not lightning, which would not consume all the sheep and servants. Umbreit understands it of the burning wind of Arabia, called by the Turks “wind of poison.” “The prince of the power of the air” [E[Eph 2:2]s permitted to have control over such destructive agents.
17. Chaldeans–not merely robbers as the Sabeans; but experienced in war, as is implied by “they set in array three bands” (Hab 1:6-8). Rawlinson distinguishes three periods: 1. When their seat of empire was in the south, towards the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates. The Chaldean period, from 2300 B.C. to 1500 B.C. In this period was Chedorlaomer (Ge 14:1), the Kudur of Hur or Ur of the Chaldees, in the Assyrian inscriptions, and the conqueror of Syria. 2. From 1500 to 625 B.C., the Assyrian period. 3. From 625 to 538 B.C. (when Cyrus the Persian took Babylon), the Babylonian period. “Chaldees” in Hebrew–Chasaim. They were akin, perhaps, to the Hebrews, as Abraham’s sojourn in Ur, and the name “Chesed,” a nephew of Abraham, imply. The three bands were probably in order to attack the three separate thousands of Job’s camels (Job 1:3).
19. a great wind from the wilderness–south of Job’s house. The tornado came the more violently over the desert, being uninterrupted (Isa 21:1; Ho 13:15).
the young men–rather, “the young people”; including the daughters (so in Ru 2:21).
20. Job arose–not necessarily from sitting. Inward excitement is implied, and the beginning to do anything. He had heard the other messages calmly, but on hearing of the death of his children, then he arose; or, as Eichorn translates, he started up (2Sa 13:31). The rending of the mantle was the conventional mark of deep grief (Ge 37:34). Orientals wear a tunic or shirt, and loose pantaloons; and over these a flowing mantle (especially great persons and women). Shaving the head was also usual in grief (Jer 41:5; Mic 1:16).
21. Naked–(1Ti 6:7). “Mother’s womb” is poetically the earth, the universal mother (Ec 5:15; 12:7; Ps 139:15). Job herein realizes God’s assertion (Job 1:8) against Satan’s (Job 1:11). Instead of cursing, he blesses the name of Jehovah (Hebrew). The name of Jehovah, is Jehovah Himself, as manifested to us in His attributes (Isa 9:6).
22. nor charged God foolishly–rather, “allowed himself to commit no folly against God” [U[Umbreit]Job 2:10 proves that this is the meaning. Not as Margin “attributed no folly to God.” Hasty words against God, though natural in the bitterness of grief, are folly; literally, an “insipid, unsavory” thing (Job 6:6; Jer 23:13, Margin). Folly in Scripture is continually equivalent to wickedness. For when man sins, it is himself, not God, whom he injures (Pr 8:36). We are to submit to trials, not because we see the reasons for them, nor yet as though they were matters of chance, but because God wills them, and has a right to send them, and has His own good reasons in sending them.
Job 2:1-8. Satan Further Tempts Job.
1. a day–appointed for the angels giving an account of their ministry to God. The words “to present himself before the Lord” occur here, though not in Job 1:6, as Satan has now a special report to make as to Job.
3. integrity–literally, “completeness”; so “perfect,” another form of the same Hebrew word, Job 11:7.
movedst … against–So 1Sa 26:19; compare 1Ch 21:1 with 2Sa 24:1.
4. Skin for skin–a proverb. Supply, “He will give.” The “skin” is figurative for any outward good. Nothing outward is so dear that a man will not exchange it for some other outward good; “but” (not “yea”) “life,” the inward good, cannot be replaced; a man will sacrifice everything else for its sake. Satan sneers bitterly at man’s egotism and says that Job bears the loss of property and children because these are mere outward and exchangeable goods, but he will give up all things, even his religion, in order to save his life, if you touch his bones and flesh. “Skin” and “life” are in antithesis [U[Umbreit]The martyrs prove Satan’s sneer false. Rosenmuller explains it not so well. A man willingly gives up another’s skin (life) for his own skin (life). So Job might bear the loss of his children, &c., with equanimity, so long as he remained unhurt himself; but when touched in his own person, he would renounce God. Thus the first “skin” means the other’s skin, that is, body; the second “skin,” one’s own, as in Ex 21:28.
6. but save–rather, “only spare his life.” Satan shows his ingenuity in inflicting pain, and also his knowledge of what man’s body can bear without vital injury.
7. sore boils–malignant boils; rather, as it is singular in the Hebrew, a “burning sore.” Job was covered with one universal inflammation. The use of the potsherd [J[Job 2:8]grees with this view. It was that form of leprosy called black (to distinguish it from the white), or elephantiasis, because the feet swell like those of the elephant. The Arabic judham (De 28:35), where “sore botch” is rather the black burning boil (Isa 1:6).
8. a potsherd–not a piece of a broken earthen vessel, but an instrument made for scratching (the root of the Hebrew word is “scratch”); the sore was too disgusting to touch. “To sit in the ashes” marks the deepest mourning (Jon 3:6); also humility, as if the mourner were nothing but dust and ashes; so Abraham (Ge 18:27).
Job 2:9-13. Job Reproves His Wife.
9. curse God–rather, “renounce” God. (See on Job 1:5) [U[Umbreit]However, it was usual among the heathens, when disappointed in their prayers accompanied with offerings to their gods, to reproach and curse them.
and die–that is, take thy farewell of God and so die. For no good is to be got out of religion, either here or hereafter; or, at least, not in this life [G[Gill]Nothing makes the ungodly so angry as to see the godly under trial not angry.
10. the foolish women–Sin and folly are allied in Scripture (1Sa 25:25; 2Sa 13:13; Ps 14:1).
receive evil–bear willingly (La 3:39).
11. Eliphaz–The view of Rawlinson that “the names of Job’s three friends represent the Chaldean times, about 700 B.C.,” cannot be accepted. Eliphaz is an Idumean name, Esau’s oldest son (Ge 36:4); and Teman, son of Eliphaz (Ge 36:15), called “duke.” Eusebius places Teman in Arabia-Petræa (but see on Job 6:19). Teman means “at the right hand”; and then the south, namely, part of Idumea; capital of Edom (Am 1:12). Hebrew geographers faced the east, not the north as we do; hence with them “the right hand” was the south. Temanites were famed for wisdom (Jer 49:7). Baruch mentions them as “authors of fables” (namely, proverbs embodying the results of observation), and “searchers out of understanding.”
Bildad the Shuhite–Shuah (“a pit”), son of Abraham and Keturah (Ge 25:2). Ptolemy mentions the region Syccea, in Arabia-Deserta, east of Batanea.
Zophar the Naamathite–not of the Naamans in Judah (Jos 15:41), which was too distant; but some region in Arabia-Deserta. Fretelius says there was a Naamath in Uz.
12. toward heaven–They threw ashes violently upwards, that they might fall on their heads and cover them–the deepest mourning (Jos 7:6; Ac 22:23).
13. seven days … nights–They did not remain in the same posture and without food, &c., all this time, but for most of this period daily and nightly. Sitting on the earth marked mourning (La 2:10). Seven days was the usual length of it (Ge 50:10; 1Sa 31:13). This silence may have been due to a rising suspicion of evil in Job; but chiefly because it is only ordinary griefs that find vent in language; extraordinary griefs are too great for utterance.
THE POEM OR DEBATE ITSELF (Job 3:2-42:6). FIRST SERIES IN IT (Job 3:1-14:22). JOB FIRST (Job 3:1-26).
Job 3:1-19. Job Curses the Day of His Birth and Wishes for Death.
1. opened his mouth–The Orientals speak seldom, and then sententiously; hence this formula expressing deliberation and gravity (Ps 78:2). He formally began.
cursed his day–the strict Hebrew word for “cursing:” not the same as in Job 1:5. Job cursed his birthday, but not his God.
2. spake–Hebrew, “answered,” that is, not to any actual question that preceded, but to the question virtually involved in the case. His outburst is singularly wild and bold (Jer 20:14). To desire to die so as to be free from sin is a mark of grace; to desire to die so as to escape troubles is a mark of corruption. He was ill-fitted to die who was so unwilling to live. But his trials were greater, and his light less, than ours.
3. the night in which–rather “the night which said.” The words in italics are not in the Hebrew. Night is personified and poetically made to speak. So in Job 3:7, and in Ps 19:2. The birth of a male in the East is a matter of joy; often not so of a female.
4. let not God regard it–rather, more poetically, “seek it out.” “Let not God stoop from His bright throne to raise it up from its dark hiding-place.” The curse on the day in Job 3:3, is amplified in Job 3:4, 5; that on the night, in Job 3:6-10.
5. Let … the shadow of death–(“deepest darkness,” Isa 9:2).
stain it–This is a later sense of the verb [G[Gesenius]better the old and more poetic idea, “Let darkness (the ancient night of chaotic gloom) resume its rights over light (Ge 1:2), and claim that day as its own.”
a cloud–collectively, a gathered mass of dark clouds.
the blackness of the day terrify it–literally, “the obscurations”; whatever darkens the day [G[Gesenius]The verb in Hebrew expresses sudden terrifying. May it be suddenly affrighted at its own darkness. Umbreit explains it as “magical incantations that darken the day,” forming the climax to the previous clauses; Job 3:8 speaks of “cursers of the day” similarly. But the former view is simpler. Others refer it to the poisonous simoom wind.
6. seize upon it–as its prey, that is, utterly dissolve it.
joined unto the days of the year–rather, by poetic personification, “Let it not rejoice in the circle of days and nights and months, which form the circle of years.”
7. solitary–rather, “unfruitful.” “Would that it had not given birth to me.”
8. them … curse the day–If “mourning” be the right rendering in the latter clause of this verse, these words refer to the hired mourners of the dead (Jer 9:17). But the Hebrew for “mourning” elsewhere always denotes an animal, whether it be the crocodile or some huge serpent (Isa 27:1), such as is meant by “leviathan.” Therefore, the expression, “cursers of day,” refers to magicians, who were believed to be able by charms to make a day one of evil omen. (So Balaam, Nu 22:5). This accords with Umbreit’s view (Job 3:7); or to the Ethiopians and Atlantes, who “used to curse the sun at his rising for burning up them and their country” [H[Herodotus]Necromancers claimed power to control or rouse wild beasts at will, as do the Indian serpent-charmers of our day (Ps 58:5). Job does not say they had the power they claimed; but, supposing they had, may they curse the day. Schuttens renders it by supplying words as follows:–Let those that are ready for anything, call it (the day) the raiser up of leviathan, that is, of a host of evils.
9. dawning of the day–literally, “eyelashes of morning.” The Arab poets call the sun the eye of day. His early rays, therefore, breaking forth before sunrise, are the opening eyelids or eyelashes of morning.
12. Why did the knees prevent me?–Old English for “anticipate my wants.” The reference is to the solemn recognition of a new-born child by the father, who used to place it on his knees as his own, whom he was bound to rear (Ge 30:3; 50:23; Isa 66:12).
13. lain … quiet … slept–a gradation. I should not only have lain, but been quiet, and not only been quiet, but slept. Death in Scripture is called “sleep” (Ps 13:3); especially in the New Testament, where the resurrection-awakening is more clearly set forth (1Co 15:51; 1Th 4:14; 5:10).
14. With kings … which built desolate places for themselves–who built up for themselves what proved to be (not palaces, but) ruins! The wounded spirit of Job, once a great emir himself, sick of the vain struggles of mortal great men, after grandeur, contemplates the palaces of kings, now desolate heaps of ruins. His regarding the repose of death the most desirable end of the great ones of earth, wearied with heaping up perishable treasures, marks the irony that breaks out from the black clouds of melancholy [U[Umbreit]The “for themselves” marks their selfishness. Michaelis explains it weakly of mausoleums, such as are found still, of stupendous proportions, in the ruins of Petra of Idumea.
15. filled their houses with silver–Some take this to refer to the treasures which the ancients used to bury with their dead. But see Job 3:26.
16. untimely birth–(Ps 58:8); preferable to the life of the restless miser (Ec 6:3-5).
17. the wicked–the original meaning, “those ever restless,” “full of desires” (Isa 57:20, 21).
the weary–literally, “those whose strength is wearied out” (Re 14:13).
18. There the prisoners rest–from their chains.
19. servant–The slave is there manumitted from slavery.
Job 3:20-26. He Complains of Life because of His Anguish.
20. Wherefore giveth he light–namely, God; often omitted reverentially (Job 24:23; Ec 9:9). Light, that is, life. The joyful light ill suits the mourners. The grave is most in unison with their feelings.
23. whose way is hid–The picture of Job is drawn from a wanderer who has lost his way, and who is hedged in, so as to have no exit of escape (Ho 2:6; La 3:7, 9).
24. my sighing cometh before I eat–that is, prevents my eating [U[Umbreit]or, conscious that the effort to eat brought on the disease, Job must sigh before eating [R[Rosenmuller]or, sighing takes the place of good (Ps 42:3) [G[Good]But the first explanation accords best with the text.
my roarings are poured out like the waters–an image from the rushing sound of water streaming.
25. the thing which I … feared is come upon me–In the beginning of his trials, when he heard of the loss of one blessing, he feared the loss of another; and when he heard of the loss of that, he feared the loss of a third.
that which I was afraid of is come unto me–namely, the ill opinion of his friends, as though he were a hypocrite on account of his trials.
26. I was not in safety … yet trouble came–referring, not to his former state, but to the beginning of his troubles. From that time I had no rest, there was no intermission of sorrows. “And” (not, “yet”) a fresh trouble is coming, namely, my friends’ suspicion of my being a hypocrite. This gives the starting-point to the whole ensuing controversy.
Job 4:1-21. First Speech of Eliphaz.
1. Eliphaz–the mildest of Job’s three accusers. The greatness of Job’s calamities, his complaints against God, and the opinion that calamities are proofs of guilt, led the three to doubt Job’s integrity.
2. If we assay to commune–Rather, two questions, “May we attempt a word with thee? Wilt thou be grieved at it?” Even pious friends often count that only a touch which we feel as a wound.
3. weak hands–Isa 35:3; 2Sa 4:1.
5. thou art troubled–rather, “unhinged,” hast lost thy self-command (1Th 3:3).
6. Is not this thy fear, thy confidence, &c.–Does thy fear, thy confidence, come to nothing? Does it come only to this, that thou faintest now? Rather, by transposition, “Is not thy fear (of God) thy hope? and the uprightness of thy ways thy confidence? If so, bethink thee, who ever perished being innocent?” [U[Umbreit]But Lu 13:2, 3 shows that, though there is a retributive divine government even in this life, yet we cannot judge by the mere outward appearance. “One event is outwardly to the righteous and to the wicked” (Ec 9:2); but yet we must take it on trust, that God deals righteously even now (Ps 37:25; Isa 33:16). Judge not by a part, but by the whole of a godly man’s life, and by his end, even here (Jas 5:11). The one and the same outward event is altogether a different thing in its inward bearings on the godly and on the ungodly even here. Even prosperity, much more calamity, is a punishment to the wicked (Pr 1:32). Trials are chastisements for their good (to the righteous) (Ps 119:67, 71, 75). See Preface on the Design of this book (see Introduction).
8. they that plough iniquity … reap the same–(Pr 22:8; Ho 8:7; 10:13; Ga 6:7, 8).
9. breath of his nostrils–God’s anger; a figure from the fiery winds of the East (Job 1:16; Isa 5:25; Ps 18:8, 15).
10, 11. lion–that is, wicked men, upon whom Eliphaz wished to show that calamities come in spite of their various resources, just as destruction comes on the lion in spite of his strength (Ps 58:6; 2Ti 4:17). Five different Hebrew terms here occur for “lion.” The raging of the lion (the tearer), and the roaring of the bellowing lion and the teeth of the young lions, not whelps, but grown up enough to hunt for prey. The strong lion, the whelps of the lioness (not the stout lion, as in English Version) [B[Barnes and Umbreit]The various phases of wickedness are expressed by this variety of terms: obliquely, Job, his wife, and children, may be hinted at by the lion, lioness, and whelps. The one verb, “are broken,” does not suit both subjects; therefore, supply “the roaring of the bellowing lion is silenced.” The strong lion dies of want at last, and the whelps, torn from the mother, are scattered, and the race becomes extinct.
12. a thing–Hebrew, a “word.” Eliphaz confirms his view by a divine declaration which was secretly and unexpectedly imparted to him.
a little–literally, “a whisper”; implying the still silence around, and that more was conveyed than articulate words could utter (Job 26:14; 2Co 12:4).
13. In thoughts from the visions of the night–[S[So Winer]While revolving night visions previously made to him (Da 2:29). Rather, “In my manifold (Hebrew, divided) thoughts, before the visions of the night commenced”; therefore not a delusive dream (Ps 4:4) [U[Umbreit]/p>
deep sleep–(Ge 2:21; 15:12).
16. It stood still–At first the apparition glides before Eliphaz, then stands still, but with that shadowy indistinctness of form which creates such an impression of awe; a gentle murmur: not (English Version): there was silence; for in 1Ki 19:12, the voice, as opposed to the previous storm, denotes a gentle, still murmur.
17. mortal man … a man–Two Hebrew words for “man” are used; the first implying his feebleness; the second his strength. Whether feeble or strong, man is not righteous before God.
more just than God … more pure than his maker–But this would be self-evident without an oracle.
18. folly–Imperfection is to be attributed to the angels, in comparison with Him. The holiness of some of them had given way (2Pe 2:4), and at best is but the holiness of a creature. Folly is the want of moral consideration [U[Umbreit]/p>
19. houses of clay–(2Co 5:1). Houses made of sun-dried clay bricks are common in the East; they are easily washed away (Mt 7:27). Man’s foundation is this dust (Ge 3:19).
before the moth–rather, “as before the moth,” which devours a garment (Job 13:28; Ps 39:11; Isa 50:9). Man, who cannot, in a physical point of view, stand before the very moth, surely cannot, in a moral, stand before God.
20. from morning to evening–unceasingly; or, better, between the morning and evening of one short day (so Ex 18:14; Isa 38:12).
They are destroyed–better, “they would be destroyed,” if God withdrew His loving protection. Therefore man must not think to be holy before God, but to draw holiness and all things else from God (Job 4:17).
21. their excellency–(Ps 39:11; 146:4; 1Co 13:8). But Umbreit, by an Oriental image from a bow, useless because unstrung: “Their nerve, or string would be torn away.” Michaelis, better in accordance with Job 4:19, makes the allusion be to the cords of a tabernacle taken down (Isa 33:20).
they die, even without wisdom–rather, “They would perish, yet not according to wisdom,” but according to arbitrary choice, if God were not infinitely wise and holy. The design of the spirit is to show that the continued existence of weak man proves the inconceivable wisdom and holiness of God, which alone save man from ruin [U[Umbreit]Bengel shows from Scripture that God’s holiness (Hebrew, kadosh) comprehends all His excellencies and attributes. De Wette loses the scope, in explaining it, of the shortness of man’s life, contrasted with the angels “before they have attained to wisdom.”
Job 5:1-27. Eliphaz’ Conclusion from the Vision.
1. if there be any, &c.–Rather, “will He (God) reply to thee?” Job, after the revelation just given, cannot be so presumptuous as to think God or any of the holy ones (Da 4:17, “angels”) round His throne, will vouchsafe a reply (a judicial expression) to his rebellious complaint.
2. wrath … envy–fretful and passionate complaints, such as Eliphaz charged Job with (Job 4:5; so Pr 14:30). Not, the wrath of God killeth the foolish, and His envy, &c.
3. the foolish–the wicked. I have seen the sinner spread his “root” wide in prosperity, yet circumstances “suddenly” occurred which gave occasion for his once prosperous dwelling being “cursed” as desolate (Ps 37:35, 36; Jer 17:8).
4. His children … crushed in the gate–A judicial formula. The gate was the place of judgment and of other public proceedings (Ps 127:5; Pr 22:22; Ge 23:10; De 21:19). Such propylæa have been found in the Assyrian remains. Eliphaz obliquely alludes to the calamity which cut off Job’s children.
5. even out of the thorns–Even when part of the grain remains hanging on the thorn bushes (or, “is growing among thorns,” Mt 13:7), the hungry gleaner does not grudge the trouble of even taking it away, so clean swept away is the harvest of the wicked.
the robber–as the Sabeans, who robbed Job. Rather, translate “the thirsty,” as the antithesis in the parallelism, “the hungry,” proves.
6. Although–rather, “for truly” [U[Umbreit]/p>
affliction cometh not forth of the dust–like a weed, of its own accord. Eliphaz hints that the cause of it lay with Job himself.
7. Yet–rather, “Truly,” or, But affliction does not come from chance, but is the appointment of God for sin; that is, the original birth-sin of man. Eliphaz passes from the particular sin and consequent suffering of Job to the universal sin and suffering of mankind. Troubles spring from man’s common sin by as necessary a law of natural consequences as sparks (Hebrew, “sons of coal”) fly upward. Troubles are many and fiery, as sparks (1Pe 4:12; Isa 43:2). Umbreit for “sparks” has “birds of prey;” literally, “sons of lightning,” not so well.
8. Therefore (as affliction is ordered by God, on account of sin), “I would” have you to “seek unto God” (Isa 8:19; Am 5:8; Jer 5:24).
11. Connected with Job 5:9. His “unsearchable” dealings are with a view to raise the humble and abase the proud (Lu 1:52). Therefore Job ought to turn humbly to Him.
12. enterprise–literally, “realization.” The Hebrew combines in the one word the two ideas, wisdom and happiness, “enduring existence” being the etymological and philosophical root of the combined notion [U[Umbreit]/p>
13. Paul (1Co 3:19) quoted this clause with the formula establishing its inspiration, “it is written.” He cites the exact Hebrew words, not as he usually does the Septuagint, Greek version (Ps 9:15). Haman was hanged on the gallows he prepared for Mordecai (Es 5:14; 7:10).
the wise–that is, “the cunning.”
is carried headlong–Their scheme is precipitated before it is ripe.
14. Judicial blindness often is sent upon keen men of the world (De 28:29; Isa 59:10; Joh 9:39).
15. “From the sword” which proceedeth “from their mouth” (Ps 59:7; 57:4).
16. the poor hath hope–of the interposition of God.
iniquity stoppeth her mouth–(Ps 107:42; Mic 7:9, 10; Isa 52:15). Especially at the last day, through shame (Jude 15; Mt 22:12). The “mouth” was the offender (Job 5:15), and the mouth shall then be stopped (Isa 25:8) at the end.
17. happy–not that the actual suffering is joyous; but the consideration of the righteousness of Him who sends it, and the end for which it is sent, make it a cause for thankfulness, not for complaints, such as Job had uttered (Heb 12:11). Eliphaz implies that the end in this case is to call back Job from the particular sin of which he takes for granted that Job is guilty. Paul seems to allude to this passage in Heb 12:5; so Jas 1:12; Pr 3:12. Eliphaz does not give due prominence to this truth, but rather to Job’s sin. It is Elihu alone (Job 32:1-37:24) who fully dwells upon the truth, that affliction is mercy and justice in disguise, for the good of the sufferer.
18. he maketh sore, and bindeth up–(De 32:39; Ho 6:1; 1Sa 2:6). An image from binding up a wound. The healing art consisted much at that time in external applications.
19. in six … yea, in seven–(Pr 6:16; Am 1:3). The Hebrew idiom fixes on a certain number (here “six”), in order to call attention as to a thing of importance; then increases the force by adding, with a “yea, nay seven,” the next higher number; here “seven,” the sacred and perfect number. In all possible troubles; not merely in the precise number “seven.”
20. power–(Jer 5:12). Hebrew, “hands.”
of the sword–(Eze 35:5, Margin). Hands are given to the sword personified as a living agent.
21. (Ps 31:20; Jer 18:18). Smite (Psalm 73. 9).
22. famine thou shalt laugh–Not, in spite of destruction and famine, which is true (Hab 3:17, 18), though not the truth meant by Eliphaz, but because those calamities shall not come upon thee. A different Hebrew word from that in Job 5:20; there, famine in general; here, the languid state of those wanting proper nutriment [B[Barnes]/p>
23. in league with the stones of the field–They shall not hurt the fertility of thy soil; nor the wild beasts thy fruits; spoken in Arabia-Deserta, where stones abounded. Arabia, derived from Arabah–a desert plain. The first clause of this verse answers to the first clause of Job 5:22; and the last of this verse to the last of that verse. The full realization of this is yet future (Isa 65:23, 25; Ho 2:18).
24. know–“Thou shalt rest in the assurance, that thine habitation is the abode of peace; and (if) thou numberest thine herd, thine expectations prove not fallacious” [U[Umbreit]“Sin” does not agree with the context. The Hebrew word–“to miss” a mark, said of archers (Jud 20:16). The Hebrew for “habitation” primarily means “the fold for cattle”; and for “visit,” often to “take an account of, to number.” “Peace” is the common Eastern salutation; including inward and outward prosperity.
25. as the grass–(Ps 72:16). Properly, “herb-bearing seed” (Ge 1:11, 12).
26. in a full age–So “full of days” (Job 42:17; Ge 35:29). Not mere length of years, but ripeness for death, one’s inward and outward full development not being prematurely cut short, is denoted (Isa 65:22).
Thou shalt come–not literally, but expressing willingness to die. Eliphaz speaks from the Old Testament point of view, which made full years a reward of the righteous (Ps 91:16; Ex 20:12), and premature death the lot of the wicked (Ps 55:23). The righteous are immortal till their work is done. To keep them longer would be to render them less fit to die. God takes them at their best (Isa 57:1). The good are compared to wheat (Mt 13:30).
cometh in–literally, “ascends.” The corn is lifted up off the earth and carried home; so the good man “is raised into the heap of sheaves” [U[Umbreit]/p>
27. searched it … for thy good–literally, “for thyself” (Ps 111:2; Pr 2:4; 9:12).
FIRST SERIES CONTINUED.
Job 6:1-30. Reply of Job to Eliphaz.
2. throughly weighed–Oh, that instead of censuring my complaints when thou oughtest rather to have sympathized with me, thou wouldst accurately compare my sorrow, and my misfortunes; these latter “outweigh in the balance” the former.
3. the sand–(Pr 27:3).
are swallowed up–See Margin [t[that is, "I want words to express my grief”]But Job plainly is apologizing, not for not having had words enough, but for having spoken too much and too boldly; and the Hebrew is, “to speak rashly” [Umb[Umbreit, Gesenius, Rosenmuller]Therefore were my words so rash.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
4. arrows ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ within meÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhave pierced me. A poetic image representing the avenging Almighty armed with bow and arrows (Ps 38:2, 3). Here the arrows are poisoned. Peculiarly appropriate, in reference to the burning pains which penetrated, like poison, into the inmost partsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂspiritÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; as contrasted with mere surface flesh wounds) of JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs body.
set themselves in arrayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa military image (Jud 20:33). All the terrors which the divine wrath can muster are set in array against me (Isa 42:13).
5. Neither wild animals, as the wild ass, nor tame, as the ox, are dissatisfied when well-supplied with food. The braying of the one and the lowing of the other prove distress and want of palatable food. So, Job argues, if he complains, it is not without cause; namely, his pains, which are, as it were, disgusting food, which God feeds him with (end of Job 6:7). But he should have remembered a rational being should evince a better spirit than the brute.
6. unsavouryÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtasteless, insipid. Salt is a chief necessary of life to an Easterner, whose food is mostly vegetable.
the whiteÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂspittleÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (1Sa 21:13), which the white of an egg resembles.
7. To ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtouchÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is contrasted with ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmeat.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂMy taste refused even to touch it, and yet am I fed with such meat of sickness.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The second clause literally, is, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂSuch is like the sickness of my food.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The natural taste abhors even to touch insipid food, and such forms my nourishment. For my sickness is like such nauseous food [Umb[Umbreit]s 42:3; 80:5; 102:9). No wonder, then, I complain.
8. To desire death is no necessary proof of fitness for death. The ungodly sometimes desire it, so as to escape troubles, without thought of the hereafter. The godly desire it, in order to be with the Lord; but they patiently wait GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs will.
9. destroyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgrindÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcrushÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Isa 3:15).
let loose his handÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGod had put forth His hand only so far as to wound the surface of JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs flesh (Job 1:12; 2:6); he wishes that hand to be let loose, so as to wound deeply and vitally.
cut me offÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmetaphor from a weaver cutting off the web, when finished, from the thrum fastening it to the loom (Isa 38:12).
10. I would harden myself in sorrowÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI would exult in the pain,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ if I knew that that pain would hasten my death [Ges[Gesenius]breit translates the Hebrew of ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂLet Him not spare,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂunsparingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; and joins it with ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpain.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
concealedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI have not disowned, in word or deed, the commands of the Holy One (Ps 119:46; Ac 20:20). He says this in answer to EliphazÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ insinuation that he is a hypocrite. God is here called ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe Holy One,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ to imply manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs reciprocal obligation to be holy, as He is holy (Le 19:2).
11. What strength have I, so as to warrant the hope of restoration to health? a hope which Eliphaz had suggested. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAnd whatÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ but a miserable ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂendÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of life is before me, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat I shouldÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ desire to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂprolong lifeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ? [Umb[Umbreit]breit and Rosenmuller not so well translate the last words ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto be patient.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
12. Disease had so attacked him that his strength would need to be hard as a stone, and his flesh like brass, not to sink under it. But he has only flesh, like other men. It must, therefore, give way; so that the hope of restoration suggested by Eliphaz is vain (see on Job 5:11).
13. Is not my help in me?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe interrogation is better omitted. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThere is no help in me!ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ For ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwisdom,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdeliveranceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is a better rendering. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAnd deliverance is driven quite from me.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
14. pityÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa proverb. Charity is the love which judges indulgently of our fellow men: it is put on a par with truth in Pr 3:3, for they together form the essence of moral perfection [Umb[Umbreit] is the spirit of Christianity (1Pe 4:8; 1Co 13:7; Pr 10:12; 17:17). If it ought to be used towards all men, much more towards friends. But he who does not use it forsaketh (renounceth) the fear of the Almighty (Jas 2:13).
15. Those whom I regarded as ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmy brethren,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ from whom I looked for faithfulness in my adversity, have disappointed me, as the streams failing from droughtÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwadies of Arabia, filled in the winter, but dry in the summer, which disappoint the caravans expecting to find water there. The fulness and noise of these temporary streams answer to the past large and loud professions of my friends; their dryness in summer, to the failure of the friendship when needed. The Arab proverb says of a treacherous friend, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI trust not in thy torrentÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Isa 58:11, Margin).
stream of brooksÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe brook in the ravines which passes away.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ It has no perpetual spring of water to renew it (unlike ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe fountain of living waters,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Jer 2:13; Isa 33:16, at the end); and thus it passes away as rapidly as it arose.
16. blackishÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGo as a mourner in black clothingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ps 34:14). A vivid and poetic image to picture the stream turbid and black with melted ice and snow, descending from the mountains into the valley. In the [sec[second]use, the snow dissolved is, in the poetÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs view, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhidÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in the flood [Umb[Umbreit]>
17. wax warmÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAt the time when.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂBut they soon waxÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) [Umb[Umbreit]ÃÂthey become narrower (flow in a narrower bed), they are silent (cease to flow noisily); in the heat (of the sun) they are consumed or vanish out of their place. First the stream flows more narrowlyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthen it becomes silent and still; at length every trace of water disappears by evaporation under the hot sunÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Umb[Umbreit]>
18. turned asideÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcaravansÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Hebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtravellersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) turn aside from their way, by circuitous routes, to obtain water. They had seen the brook in spring full of water: and now in the summer heat, on their weary journey, they turn off their road by a devious route to reach the living waters, which they remembered with such pleasure. But, when ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthey go,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ it is ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂinto a desertÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Noy[Noyes and Umbreit]t as English Version, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThey go to nothing,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ which would be a tame repetition of the drying up of the waters in Job 6:17; instead of waters, they find an ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂempty wildernessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; and, not having strength to regain their road, bitterly disappointed, they ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂperish.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The terse brevity is most expressive.
19. the troopsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcaravans.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
TemaÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnorth of Arabia-Deserta, near the Syrian desert; called from Tema son of Ishmael (Ge 25:15; Isa 21:14; Jer 25:23), still so called by the Arabs. Job 6:19, 20 give another picture of the mortification of disappointed hopes, namely, those of the caravans on the direct road, anxiously awaiting the return of their companions from the distant valley. The mention of the locality whence the caravans came gives living reality to the picture.
ShebaÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrefers here not to the marauders in North Arabia-Deserta (Job 1:15), but to the merchants (Eze 27:22) in the south, in Arabia-Felix or Yemen, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂafar offÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Jer 6:20; Mt 12:42; Ge 10:28). Caravans are first mentioned in Ge 37:25; men needed to travel thus in companies across the desert, for defense against the roving robbers and for mutual accommodation.
The companies ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ waited for themÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcannot refer to the caravans who had gone in quest of the waters; for Job 6:18 describes their utter destruction.
20. literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂeach had hopedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; namely, that their companions would find water. The greater had been their hopes the more bitter now their disappointment;
they came thitherÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto the place.
and were ashamedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtheir countenances burn,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ an Oriental phrase for the shame and consternation of deceived expectation; so ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂashamedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as to disappointment (Ro 5:5).
21. As the dried-up brook is to the caravan, so are ye to me, namely, a nothing; ye might as well not be in existence [Umb[Umbreit]e Margin ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlike to them,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto itÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (namely, the waters of the brook), is not so good a reading.
ye see, and are afraidÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂYe are struck aghast at the sight of my misery, and ye lose presence of mind. Job puts this mild construction on their failing to relieve him with affectionate consolation.
22. And yet I did not ask you to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbring meÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ a gift; or to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpay for me out of your substance a rewardÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (to the Judge, to redeem me from my punishment); all I asked from you was affectionate treatment.
23. the mightyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe oppressor, or creditor, in whose power the debtor was [Umb[Umbreit]>
24, 25. Irony. If you can ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂteach meÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ the right view, I am willing to be set right, and ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhold my tongueÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; and to be made to see my error. But then if your words be really the right words, how is it that they are so feeble? ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂYet how feeble are the words of what you call the right view.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ So the Hebrew is used (in Mic 2:10; 1:9). The English Version, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHow powerful,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c., does not agree so well with the last clause of the verse.
25. And what will your arguings reprove?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe reproofs which proceed from youÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; the emphasis is on you; you may find fault, who are not in my situation [Umb[Umbreit]>
26. Do you imagineÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂor, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmean.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
to reprove words and (to reprove) the speeches of one desperate, (which are) as wind?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmere nothings, not to be so narrowly taken to task? Umbreit not so well takes the Hebrew for ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas wind,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsentimentsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; making formal ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsentimentsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ antithetical to mere ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂspeeches,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ and supplying, not the word ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂreprove,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ but ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwould you regard,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ from the first clause.
27. literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂye causeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (supply, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂyour angerÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) [Umb[Umbreit]net, namely, of sophistry [Noy[Noyes and Schuttens] fall upon the desolate (one bereft of help, like the fatherless orphan);
and ye dig (a pit) for your friendÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, try to ensnare him, to catch him in the use of unguarded language [Noy[Noyes]s 57:6); metaphor from hunters catching wild beasts in a pit covered with brushwood to conceal it. Umbreit from the Syriac, and answering to his interpretation of the first clause, has, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWould you be indignant against your friend?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The Hebrew in Job 41:6, means to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfeast upon.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ As the first clause asks, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWould you catch him in a net?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ so this follows up the image, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAnd would you next feast upon him, and his miseries?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ So the Septuagint.
28. be contentÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbe pleased toÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlook. Since you have so falsely judged my words, look upon me, that is, upon my countenance: for (it is evident before your faces) if I lie; my countenance will betray me, if I be the hypocrite that you suppose.
29. ReturnÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂretractÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ your charges:
let it not be iniquityÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, (retract) that injustice may not be done me. Yea retract, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmy righteousness is in itÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; that is, my right is involved in this matter.
30. Will you say that my guilt lies in the organ of speech, and will you call it to account? or, Is it that my taste (palate) or discernment is not capable to form a judgment of perverse things? Is it thus you will explain the fact of my having no consciousness of guilt? [Umb[Umbreit]>
Job 7:1-21. Job Excuses His Desire for Death.
1. appointed timeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbetter, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa warfare,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ hard conflict with evil (so in Isa 40:2; Da 10:1). Translate it ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂappointed timeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 14:14). Job reverts to the sad picture of man, however great, which he had drawn (Job 3:14), and details in this chapter the miseries which his friends will see, if, according to his request (Job 6:28), they will look on him. Even the Christian soldier, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwarring a good warfare,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ rejoices when it is completed (1Ti 1:18; 2Ti 2:3; 4:7, 8).
2. earnestly desirethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpants for the [eve[evening]dow.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Easterners measure time by the length of their shadow. If the servant longs for the evening when his wages are paid, why may not Job long for the close of his hard service, when he shall enter on his ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂreward?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ This proves that Job did not, as many maintain, regard the grave as a mere sleep.
3.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂMonths of comfortless misfortune.
I am made to possessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto be heir to.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Irony. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂTo be heir to,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is usually a matter of joy; but here it is the entail of an involuntary and dismal inheritance.
MonthsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfor days, to express its long duration.
AppointedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthey have numbered to meÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; marking well the unavoidable doom assigned to him.
4. Literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWhen shall be the flight of the night?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Ges[Gesenius]breit, not so well, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe night is long extendedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmeasured outÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (so Margin).
5. In elephantiasis maggots are bred in the sores (Ac 12:23; Isa 14:11).
clods of dustÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, a crust of dried filth and accumulated corruption (Job 2:7, 8).
my skin is broken and ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ loathsomeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, comes together so as to heal up, and again breaks out with running matter [Ges[Gesenius]re simply the Hebrew is, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂMy skin rests (for a time) and (again) melts awayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ps 58:7).
6. (Isa 38:12). Every day like the weaverÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs shuttle leaves a thread behind; and each shall wear, as he weaves. But JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs thought is that his days must swiftly be cut off as a web;
without hopeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, of a recovery and renewal of life (Job 14:19; 1Ch 29:15).
7. Address to God.
WindÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa picture of evanescence (Ps 78:39).
shall no more seeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂshall no more return to see good.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ This change from the different wish in Job 3:17, &c., is most true to nature. He is now in a softer mood; a beam from former days of prosperity falling upon memory and the thought of the unseen world, where one is seen no more (Job 7:8), drew from him an expression of regret at leaving this world of light (Ec 11:7); so Hezekiah (Isa 38:11). Grace rises above nature (2Co 5:8).
8. The eye of him who beholds me (present, not past), that is, in the very act of beholding me, seeth me no more.
Thine eyes are upon me, and I am notÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe disappears, even while God is looking upon him. Job cannot survive the gaze of Jehovah (Ps 104:32; Re 20:11). Not, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThine eyes seek me and I am not to be foundÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; for GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs eye penetrates even to the unseen world (Ps 139:8). Umbreit unnaturally takes ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthineÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ to refer to one of the three friends.
9. (2Sa 12:23).
the graveÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe Sheol, or place of departed spirits, not disproving JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs belief in the resurrection. It merely means, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe shall come up no moreÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in the present order of things.
10. (Ps 103:16). The Oriental keenly loves his dwelling. In Arabian elegies the desertion of abodes by their occupants is often a theme of sorrow. Grace overcomes this also (Lu 18:29; Ac 4:34).
11. Therefore, as such is my hard lot, I will at least have the melancholy satisfaction of venting my sorrow in words. The Hebrew opening words, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂTherefore I, at all events,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ express self-elevation [Umb[Umbreit]>
12. Why dost thou deny me the comfort of care-assuaging sleep? Why scarest thou me with frightful dreams?
Am I a seaÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂregarded in Old Testament poetry as a violent rebel against God, the Lord of nature, who therefore curbs his violence (Jer 5:22).
or a whaleÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂor some other sea monster (Isa 27:1), that Thou needest thus to watch and curb me? The Egyptians watched the crocodile most carefully to prevent its doing mischief.
14. The frightful dreams resulting from elephantiasis he attributes to God; the common belief assigned all night visions to God.
15. Umbreit translates, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂSo that I could wish to strangle myselfÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdead by my own hands.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ He softens this idea of JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs harboring the thought of suicide, by representing it as entertained only in agonizing dreams, and immediately repudiated with horror in Job 7:16, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂYet that (self-strangling) I loathe.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ This is forcible and graphic. Perhaps the meaning is simply, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂMy soul chooses (even) strangling (or any violent death) rather than my life,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmy bonesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ps 35:10); that is, rather than the wasted and diseased skeleton, left to him. In this view, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI loathe itÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 7:16) refers to his life.
16. Let me aloneÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, cease to afflict me for the few and vain days still left to me.
17. (Ps 8:4; 144:3). Job means, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWhat is man that thou shouldst make him [of [of so much importance]d that thou shouldst expend such attention [or,[or, heart-thought]n himÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as to make him the subject of so severe trials? Job ought rather to have reasoned from GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs condescending so far to notice man as to try him, that there must be a wise and loving purpose in trial. David uses the same words, in their right application, to express wonder that God should do so much as He does for insignificant man. Christians who know God manifest in the man Christ Jesus may use them still more.
18. With each new day (Ps 73:14). It is rather GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs mercies, not our trials, that are new every morning (La 3:23). The idea is that of a shepherd taking count of his flock every morning, to see if all are there [Coc[Cocceius]>
19. How long (like a jealous keeper) wilt thou never take thine eyes off (so the Hebrew for ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdepart fromÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) me? Nor let me alone for a brief respite (literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂso long as I take to swallow my spittleÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ), an Arabic proverb, like our, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtill I draw my breath.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
20. I have sinnedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂYet what sin can I do against (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Job 35:6) thee (of such a nature that thou shouldst jealously watch and deprive me of all strength, as if thou didst fear me)? Yet thou art one who hast men ever in view, ever watchest themÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂO thou Watcher (Job 7:12; Da 9:14) of men. Job had borne with patience his trials, as sent by God (Job 1:21; 2:10); only his reason cannot reconcile the ceaseless continuance of his mental and bodily pains with his ideas of the divine nature.
set me as a markÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWherefore dost thou make me thy point of attack? that is, ever assail me with new pains? [Umb[Umbreit] 3:12).
21. for nowÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂvery soon.
in the morningÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot the resurrection; for then Job will be found. It is a figure, from one seeking a sick man in the morning, and finding he has died in the night. So Job implies that, if God does not help him at once, it will be too late, for he will be gone. The reason why God does not give an immediate sense of pardon to awakened sinners is that they think they have a claim on God for it.
FIRST SERIESÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂFIRST SPEECH OF BILDAD, MORE SEVERE AND COARSE THAN THAT OF ELIPHAZ.
Job 8:1-22. The Address of Bildad.
2. like a ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ wind?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdisregarding restraints, and daring against God.
3. The repetition of ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpervertÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ gives an emphasis galling to Job (Job 34:12). ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWouldst thou have God,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as thy words imply, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpervert judgment,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ by letting thy sins go unpunished? He assumes JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs guilt from his sufferings.
4. IfÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂSince thy children have sinned against Him, and (since) He has cast them away (Hebrew, by the hand of) for their transgressions, (yet) if thou wouldst seek unto God, &c., if thou wert pure, &c., surely [eve[even] He would awake for thee.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Umbreit makes the apodosis to, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsince thy children,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c., begin at ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe has cast them away.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Also, instead of ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfor,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe gave them up to (literally, into the hand of) their own guilt.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Bildad expresses the justice of God, which Job had arraigned. Thy children have sinned; God leaves them to the consequence of their sin; most cutting to the heart of the bereaved father.
5. seek unto God betimesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂearly. Make it the first and chief anxiety (Ps 78:34; Ho 5:15; Isa 26:9; Pr 8:17; 13:24).
6. He would awake for theeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, arise to thy help. God seemed to be asleep toward the sufferer (Ps 35:23; 7:6; Isa 51:9).
make ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ prosperousÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrestore to prosperity thy (their) righteous habitation. Bildad assumes it to have been heretofore the habitation of guilt.
7. thy beginningÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe beginning of thy new happiness after restoration.
latter endÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Job 42:12; Pr 23:18).
8, 9. The sages of the olden time reached an age beyond those of JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs time (see on Job 42:16), and therefore could give the testimony of a fuller experience.
9. of yesterdayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, a recent race. We know nothing as compared with them because of the brevity of our lives; so even Jacob (Ge 47:9). Knowledge consisted then in the results of observation, embodied in poetical proverbs, and handed down by tradition. Longevity gave the opportunity of wider observation.
a shadowÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Ps 144:4; 1Ch 29:15).
10. teach theeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂJob 6:24 had said, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂTeach me.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Bildad, therefore, says, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂSince you want teaching, inquire of the fathers. They will teach thee.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
utter wordsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmore than mere speaking; ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂput forth well-considered words.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
out of their heartÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfrom observation and reflection; not merely, from their mouth: such, as Bildad insinuates, were JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs words. Job 8:11-13 embody in poetic and sententious form (probably the fragment of an old poem) the observation of the elders. The double point of comparison between the ungodly and the paper-reed is: 1. the luxuriant prosperity at first; and, 2. the sudden destruction.
11. rushÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpaper-reedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ: The papyrus of Egypt, which was used to make garments, shoes, baskets, boats, and paper (a word derived from it). It and the flag, or bulrush, grow only in marshy places (such as are along the Nile). So the godless thrives only in external prosperity; there is in the hypocrite no inward stability; his prosperity is like the rapid growth of water plants.
12. not cut downÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂBefore it has ripened for the scythe, it withers more suddenly than any herb, having no self-sustaining power, once that the moisture is gone, which other herbs do not need in the same degree. So ruin seizes on the godless in the zenith of prosperity, more suddenly than on others who appear less firmly seated in their possessions [Umb[Umbreit] 112:10).
13. pathsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂso ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwaysÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Pr 1:19).
all that forget GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe distinguishing trait of the godless (Ps 9:17; 50:22).
14. cut offÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂso Gesenius; or, to accord with the metaphor of the spiderÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhouse,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe confidence (on which he builds) shall be laid in ruinsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Isa 59:5, 6).
15. he shall hold it fastÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂimplying his eager grasp, when the storm of trial comes: as the spider ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂholds fastÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ by its web; but with this difference: the light spider is sustained by that on which it rests; the godless is not by the thin web on which he rests. The expression, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHold fast,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ properly applies to the spider holding his web, but is transferred to the man. Hypocrisy, like the spiderÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs web, is fine-spun, flimsy, and woven out of its own inventions, as the spiderÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs web out of its own bowels. An Arab proverb says, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂTime destroys the well-built house, as well as the spiderÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs web.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
16. before the sunÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, he (the godless) is green only before the sun rises; but he cannot bear its heat, and withers. So succulent plants like the gourd (Jon 4:7, 8). But the widespreading in the garden does not quite accord with this. Better, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin sunshineÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; the sun representing the smiling fortune of the hypocrite, during which he wondrously progresses [Umb[Umbreit]e image is that of weeds growing in rank luxuriance and spreading over even heaps of stones and walls, and then being speedily torn away.
17. seeth the place of stonesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe house of stonesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; that is, the wall surrounding the garden. The parasite plant, in creeping towards and over the wallÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe utmost bound of the gardenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂis said figuratively to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂseeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or regard it.
18. If He (God) tear him away (properly, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto tear away rapidly and violentlyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) from his place, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthen it [the[the place personified]ll deny himÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ps 103:16). The very soil is ashamed of the weeds lying withered on its surface, as though it never had been connected with them. So, when the godless falls from prosperity, his nearest friends disown him.
19. Bitter irony. The hypocrite boasts of joy. This then is his ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂjoyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ at the last.
and out of the earthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂothers immediately, who take the place of the man thus punished; not godly men (Mt 3:9). For the place of the weeds is among stones, where the gardener wishes no plants. But, ungodly; a fresh crop of weeds always springs up in the place of those torn up: there is no end of hypocrites on earth [Umb[Umbreit]>
20. Bildad regards Job as a righteous man, who has fallen into sin.
God will not cast away a perfect manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(or godly man, such as Job was), if he will only repent. Those alone who persevere in sin God will not help (Hebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtake by the hand,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Ps 73:23; Isa 41:13; 42:6) when fallen.
21. TillÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto the point thatÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs blessing on thee, when repentant, will go on increasing to the point that, or until, &c.
22. The haters of Job are the wicked. They shall be clothed with shame (Jer 3:25; Ps 35:26; 109:29), at the failure of their hope that Job would utterly perish, and because they, instead of him, come to naught.
Job 9:1-35. Reply of Job to Bildad.
2. I know it is so of a truthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat God does not ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpervert justiceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 8:3). But (even though I be sure of being in the right) how can a mere man assert his rightÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(be just) with God. The Gospel answers (Ro 3:26).
3. If heÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGod
will contend with himÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdeign to enter into judgment.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
he cannot answer, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe (man) would not dare, even if he had a thousand answers in readiness to one question of GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs, to utter one of them, from awe of His Majesty.
4. wise in heartÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin understanding!ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂand mighty in power! God confounds the ablest arguer by His wisdom, and the mightiest by His power.
hardened himselfÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂor his neck (Pr 29:1); that is, defied God. To prosper, one must fall in with GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs arrangements of providence and grace.
5. and they know notÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHebrew for ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsuddenly, unexpectedly, before they are aware of itÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ps 35:8); ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂat unawaresÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; Hebrew, which ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhe knoweth not ofÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Joe 2:14; Pr 5:6).
6. The earth is regarded, poetically, as resting on pillars, which tremble in an earthquake (Ps 75:3; Isa 24:20). The literal truth as to the earth is given (Job 26:7).
7. The sun, at His command, does not rise; namely, in an eclipse, or the darkness that accompanies earthquakes (Job 9:6).
sealeth up the starsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, totally covers as one would seal up a room, that its contents may not be seen.
8. spreadeth outÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Isa 40:22; Ps 104:2). But throughout it is not so much GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs creating, as His governing, power over nature that is set forth. A storm seems a struggle between Nature and her Lord! Better, therefore, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWho boweth the heavens alone,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ without help of any other. God descends from the bowed-down heaven to the earth (Ps 18:9). The storm, wherein the clouds descend, suggests this image. In the descent of the vault of heaven, God has come down from His high throne and walks majestically over the mountain waves (Hebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂheightsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ), as a conqueror taming their violence. So ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtread uponÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (De 33:29; Am 4:13; Mt 14:26). The Egyptian hieroglyphic for impossibility is a man walking on waves.
9. makethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, from the Arabic, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcovereth up.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ This accords better with the context, which describes His boundless power as controller rather than as creator [Umb[Umbreit]>
ArcturusÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe great bear, which always revolves about the pole, and never sets. The Chaldeans and Arabs, early named the stars and grouped them in constellations; often travelling and tending flocks by night, they would naturally do so, especially as the rise and setting of some stars mark the distinction of seasons. Brinkley, presuming the stars here mentioned to be those of Taurus and Scorpio, and that these were the cardinal constellations of spring and autumn in JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs time, calculates, by the precession of equinoxes, the time of Job to be eight hundred eighteen years after the deluge, and one hundred eighty-four before Abraham.
OrionÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe foolÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; in Job 38:31 he appears fettered with ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbands.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The old legend represented this star as a hero, who presumptuously rebelled against God, and was therefore a fool, and was chained in the sky as a punishment; for its rising is at the stormy period of the year. He is Nimrod (the exceedingly impious rebel) among the Assyrians; Orion among the Greeks. Sabaism (worship of the heavenly hosts) and hero-worship were blended in his person. He first subverted the patriarchal order of society by substituting a chieftainship based on conquest (Ge 10:9, 10).
PleiadesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe heap of starsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; Arabic, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂknot of stars.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The various names of this constellation in the East express the close union of the stars in it (Am 5:8).
chambers of the southÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe unseen regions of the southern hemisphere, with its own set of stars, as distinguished from those just mentioned of the northern. The true structure of the earth is here implied.
10. Repeated from Eliphaz (Job 5:9).
11. I see him not: he passeth onÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe image is that of a howling wind (Isa 21:1). Like it when it bursts invisibly upon man, so God is felt in the awful effects of His wrath, but is not seen (Joh 3:8). Therefore, reasons Job, it is impossible to contend with Him.
12. If ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe taketh away,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as in my case all that was dear to me, still a mortal cannot call Him to account. He only takes His own. He is an absolute King (Ec 8:4; Da 4:35).
13. If GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGod will not withdraw His anger,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, so long as a mortal obstinately resists [Umb[Umbreit]>
the proud helpersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe arrogant, who would help one contending with the Almighty, are of no avail against Him.
14. How much less shall I? &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwho am weak, seeing that the mighty have to stoop before Him. Choose words (use a well-chosen speech, in order to reason) with Him.
15. (Job 10:15). Though I were conscious of no sin, yet I would not dare to say so, but leave it to His judgment and mercy to justify me (1Co 4:4).
16, 17. would I not believe that he had hearkened unto my voiceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwho breaketh me (as a tree stripped of its leaves) with a tempest.
19. Umbreit takes these as the words of God, translating, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWhat availeth the might of the strong?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHere (saith he) behold! what availeth justice? Who will appoint me a time to plead?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (So Jer 49:19). The last words certainly apply better to God than to Job. The sense is substantially the same if we make ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ apply to Job. The ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlo!ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ expresses GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs swift readiness for battle when challenged.
20. itÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Job 15:6; Lu 19:22); or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ God.
21. Literally, here (and in Job 9:20), ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI perfect! I should not know my soul! I would despise,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [tha[that is]ÃÂdisown my lifeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; that is, Though conscious of innocence, I should be compelled, in contending with the infinite God, to ignore my own soul and despise my past life as if it were guilty [Ros[Rosenmuller]>
22. one thingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIt is all one; whether perfect or wickedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe destroyeth.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ This was the point Job maintained against his friends, that the righteous and wicked alike are afflicted, and that great sufferings here do not prove great guilt (Lu 13:1-5; Ec 9:2).
23. IfÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWhile (His) scourge slays suddenly (the wicked, Job 9:22), He laughs at (disregards; not derides) the pining away of the innocent.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The only difference, says Job, between the innocent and guilty is, the latter are slain by a sudden stroke, the former pine away gradually. The translation, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtrial,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ does not express the antithesis to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂslay suddenly,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpining awayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ does [Umb[Umbreit]>
24. Referring to righteous ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂjudges,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in antithesis to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe wickedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in the parallel first clause, whereas the wicked oppressor often has the earth given into his hand, the righteous judges are led to executionÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂculprits had their faces covered preparatory to execution (Es 7:8). Thus the contrast of the wicked and righteous here answers to that in Job 9:23.
if not, where and who?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIf God be not the cause of these anomalies, where is the cause to be found, and who is he?
25. a postÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa courier. In the wide Persian empire such couriers, on dromedaries or on foot, were employed to carry the royal commands to the distant provinces (Es 3:13, 15; 8:14). ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂMy daysÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ are not like the slow caravan, but the fleet post. The ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdaysÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ are themselves poetically said to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsee no good,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ instead of Job in them (1Pe 3:10).
26. swift shipsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, canoes of reeds or papyrus skiffs, used on the Nile, swift from their lightness (Isa 18:2).
28. The apodosis to Job 9:27ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIf I say, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI still am afraid of all my sorrows (returning), for I know that thou wilt (dost) (by removing my sufferings) not hold or declare me innocent. How then can I leave off my heaviness?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
29. The ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂifÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is better omitted; I (am treated by God as) wicked; why then labor I in vain (to disprove His charge)? Job submits, not so much because he is convinced that God is right, as because God is powerful and he weak [Bar[Barnes]>
30. snow waterÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthought to be more cleansing than common water, owing to the whiteness of snow (Ps 51:7; Isa 1:18).
never so cleanÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂBetter, to answer to the parallelism of the first clause which expresses the cleansing material, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlye:ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ the Arabs used alkali mixed with oil, as soap (Ps 73:13; Jer 2:22).
32. (Ec 6:10; Isa 45:9).
33. daysmanÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmediator,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂumpireÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; the imposition of whose hand expresses power to adjudicate between the persons. There might be one on a level with Job, the one party; but Job knew of none on a level with the Almighty, the other party (1Sa 2:25). We Christians know of such a Mediator (not, however, in the sense of umpire) on a level with bothÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe God-man, Christ Jesus (1Ti 2:5).
34. rodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot here the symbol of punishment, but of power. Job cannot meet God on fair terms so long as God deals with him on the footing of His almighty power.
35. it is not so with meÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAs it now is, God not taking His rod away, I am not on such a footing of equality as to be able to vindicate myself.
Job 10:1-22. JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs Reply to Bildad Continued.
1. leave my complaint upon myselfÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI will give loose to my complaintÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 7:11).
2. show me, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂDo not, by virtue of Thy mere sovereignty, treat me as guilty without showing me the reasons.
3. Job is unwilling to think God can have pleasure in using His power to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂoppressÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ the weak, and to treat man, the work of His own hands, as of no value (Job 10:8; Ps 138:8).
shine uponÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfavor with prosperity (Ps 50:2).
4-6. Dost Thou see as feebly as man? that is, with the same uncharitable eye, as, for instance, JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs friends? Is Thy time as short? Impossible! Yet one might think, from the rapid succession of Thy strokes, that Thou hadst no time to spare in overwhelming me.
7. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAlthough Thou (the Omniscient) knowest,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c. (connected with Job 10:6), ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThou searchest after my sin.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
and ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ that none that can deliver out of thine handÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂTherefore Thou hast no need to deal with me with the rapid violence which man would use (see Job 10:6).
8. MadeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwith pains; implying a work of difficulty and art; applying to God language applicable only to man.
together round aboutÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂimplying that the human body is a complete unity, the parts of which on all sides will bear the closest scrutiny.
9. clayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂJob 10:10 proves that the reference here is, not so much to the perishable nature of the materials, as to their wonderful fashioning by the divine potter.
10. In the organization of the body from its rude commencements, the original liquid gradually assumes a more solid consistency, like milk curdling into cheese (Ps 139:15, 16). Science reveals that the chyle circulated by the lacteal vessels is the supply to every organ.
11. fencedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂor ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂinlaidÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ps 139:15); ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcuriously wroughtÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Umb[Umbreit] the foetus the skin appears first, then the flesh, then the harder parts.
12. visitationÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThy watchful Providence.
13. is with theeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwas Thy purpose. All GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs dealings with Job in his creation, preservation, and present afflictions were part of His secret counsel (Ps 139:16; Ac 15:18; Ec 3:11).
14, 15. Job is perplexed because God ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmarksÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ every sin of his with such ceaseless rigor. Whether ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwickedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (godless and a hypocrite) or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrighteousÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (comparatively sincere), God condemns and punishes alike.
15. lift up my headÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin conscious innocence (Ps 3:3).
see thouÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂand seeing I see (I too well see) mine affliction,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (which seems to prove me guilty) [Umb[Umbreit]>
16. increasethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(if) I lift up (my head) Thou wouldest hunt me,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c. [Umb[Umbreit]>
and againÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas if a lion should not kill his prey at once, but come back and torture it again.
17. witnessesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHis accumulated trials were like a succession of witnesses brought up in proof of his guilt, to wear out the accused.
changes and warÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(thou settest in array) against me host after hostÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂchanges and a host,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, a succession of hosts); namely, his afflictions, and then reproach upon reproach from his friends.
20. But, since I was destined from my birth to these ills, at least give me a little breathing time during the few days left me (Job 9:34; 13:21; Ps 39:13).
22. The ideas of order and light, disorder and darkness, harmonize (Ge 1:2). Three Hebrew words are used for darkness; in Job 10:21 (1) the common word ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdarknessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; here (2) ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa land of gloomÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (from a Hebrew root, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto cover upÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ); (3) as ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthick darknessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or blackness (from a root, expressing sunset). ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWhere the light thereof is like blackness.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Its only sunshine is thick darkness. A bold figure of poetry. Job in a better frame has brighter thoughts of the unseen world. But his views at best wanted the definite clearness of the ChristianÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs. Compare with his words here Re 21:23; 22:5; 2Ti 1:10.
Job 11:1-20. First Speech of Zophar.
2. Zophar assails Job for his empty words, and indirectly, the two friends, for their weak reply. Taciturnity is highly prized among Orientals (Pr 10:8, 19).
3. liesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂvain boastingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Isa 16:6; Jer 48:30). The ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is emphatic; men of sense; in antithesis to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂvain boasting.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
mockestÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂupbraidest God by complaints, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂshall no man make thee ashamed?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
4. doctrineÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpurposely used of JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs speeches, which sounded like lessons of doctrine (De 32:2; Pr 4:2).
thineÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂaddressed to God. Job had maintained his sincerity against his friends suspicions, not faultlessness.
6. to that which is!ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthey are double to [man[manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs]domÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Mic[Michaelis] the Hebrew is rendered (Pr 2:7). GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs ways, which you arraign, if you were shown their secret wisdom, would be seen vastly to exceed that of men, including yours (1Co 1:25).
exactethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGod consigns to oblivion in thy favor much of thy guilt.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
7. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂPenetrate to the perfections of the AlmightyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 9:10; Ps 139:6).
8. ItÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwisdomÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of God (Job 11:6). The abruptness of the Hebrew is forcible: ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe heights of heaven! What canst thou doÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (as to attaining to them with thy gaze, Ps 139:8)?
knowÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, of His perfections.
10. cut offÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRather, as in Job 9:11, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpass over,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as a storm; namely, rush upon in anger.
shut upÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin prison, with a view to trial.
gather togetherÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe parties for judgment: hold a judicial assembly; to pass sentence on the prisoners.
11. (Ps 94:11).
considerÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂso as to punish it. Rather, from the connection, Job 11:6, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe seeth wickedness also, which man does not perceiveÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂBut no (other, save He) perceiveth itÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Umb[Umbreit]dÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwisdomÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 11:6), detects sin where JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs human eye cannot reach (Job 11:8), so as to see any.
would beÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwants to consider himself wiseÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; opposed to GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwisdomÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (see on Job 11:11); refuses to see sin, where God sees it (Ro 1:22).
wild assÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs coltÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa proverb for untamed wildness (Job 39:5, 8; Jer 2:24; Ge 16:12; Hebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa wild-ass manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ). Man wishes to appear wisely obedient to his Lord, whereas he is, from his birth, unsubdued in spirit.
13. The apodosis to the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIfÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is at Job 11:15. The preparation of the heart is to be obtained (Pr 16:1) by stretching out the hands in prayer for it (Ps 10:17; 1Ch 29:18).
14. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂif thou wilt put far away the iniquity in thine handÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (as Zaccheus did, Lu 19:8). The apodosis or conclusion is at Job 11:15, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthen shalt thou,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c.
15. Zophar refers to JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs own words (Job 10:15), ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂyet will I not lift up my head,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ even though righteous. Zophar declares, if Job will follow his advice, he may ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlift up his face.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
steadfastÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrun fast together,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ like metals which become firm and hard by fusion. The sinner on the contrary is wavering.
16. Just as when the stream runs dry (Job 6:17), the danger threatened by its wild waves is forgotten (Isa 65:16) [Umb[Umbreit]>
17. ageÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdays of life.
the noon-dayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, of thy former prosperity; which, in the poetÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs image, had gone on increasing, until it reached its height, as the sun rises higher and higher until it reaches the meridian (Pr 4:18).
shine forthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthough now in darkness, thou shall be as the morningÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; or, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthy darkness (if any dark shade should arise on thee, it) shall be as the morningÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (only the dullness of morning twilight, not nocturnal darkness) [Umb[Umbreit]>
18. The experience of thy life will teach thee there is hope for man in every trial.
digÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, wells; the chief necessity in the East. Better, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthough now ashamed (Ro 5:5, opposed to the previous ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhopeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ), thou shalt then rest safelyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Ges[Gesenius]>
19. (Ps 4:8; Pr 3:24; Isa 14:30); oriental images of prosperity.
make suitÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂstroke thy face,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcaress theeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Pr 19:6).
20. A warning to Job, if he would not turn to God.
The wickedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, obdurate sinners.
eyes ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ failÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, in vain look for relief (De 28:65). Zophar implies JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs only hope of relief is in a change of heart.
they shall not escapeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂevery refuge shall vanish from them.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
giving up of the ghostÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂTheir hope shall leave them as the breath does the body (Pr 11:7).
Job 12:1-14:22. JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs Reply to Zophar
2. wisdom shall die with youÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIronical, as if all the wisdom in the world was concentrated in them and would expire when they expired. Wisdom makes ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa people:ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ a foolish nation is ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot a peopleÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ro 10:19).
3. not inferiorÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot vanquished in argument and ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwisdomÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 13:2).
such things as theseÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsuch commonplace maxims as you so pompously adduce.
4. The unfounded accusations of JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs friends were a ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmockeryÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of him. He alludes to ZopharÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs word, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmockestÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 11:3).
neighbour, who calleth, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI who call upon God that he may answer me favorablyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Umb[Umbreit]>
5. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa torchÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (lamp) is an object of contempt in the thoughts of him who rests securely (is at ease), though it was prepared for the falterings of the feet [Umb[Umbreit] 25:19). ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThoughtsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ and ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfeetÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ are in contrast; also rests ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsecurely,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ and ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfalterings.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The wanderer, arrived at his night-quarters, contemptuously throws aside the torch which had guided his uncertain steps through the darkness. As the torch is to the wanderer, so Job to his friends. Once they gladly used his aid in their need; now they in prosperity mock him in his need.
6. Job shows that the matter of fact opposes ZopharÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs theory (Job 11:14, 19, 20) that wickedness causes insecurity in menÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtabernacles.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ On the contrary, they who rob the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtabernaclesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdwellingsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) of others ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂprosper securelyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in their own.
into whose hand, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwho make a god of their own hand,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, who regard their might as their only ruling principle [Umb[Umbreit]>
7, 8. Beasts, birds, fishes, and plants, reasons Job, teach that the violent live the most securely (Job 12:6). The vulture lives more securely than the dove, the lion than the ox, the shark than the dolphin, the rose than the thorn which tears it.
8. speak to the earthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe shrubs of the earthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Umb[Umbreit]>
9. In all these cases, says Job, the agency must be referred to Jehovah, though they may seem to man to imply imperfection (Job 12:6; 9:24). This is the only undisputed passage of the poetical part in which the name ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂJehovahÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ occurs; in the historical parts it occurs frequently.
10. the soulÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, the animal life. Man, reasons Job, is subjected to the same laws as the lower animals.
11. As the mouth by tasting meats selects what pleases it, so the ear tries the words of others and retains what is convincing. Each chooses according to his taste. The connection with Job 12:12 is in reference to BildadÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs appeal to the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂancientsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 8:8). You are right in appealing to them, since ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwith them was wisdom,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c. But you select such proverbs of theirs as suit your views; so I may borrow from the same such as suit mine.
12. ancientÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂaged (Job 15:10).
13. In contrast to, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwith the ancient is wisdomÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 12:12), Job quotes a saying of the ancients which suits his argument, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwith Him (God) is (the true) wisdomÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Pr 8:14); and by that ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwisdom and strengthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe breaketh down,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c., as an absolute Sovereign, not allowing man to penetrate His mysteries; manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs part is to bow to His unchangeable decrees (Job 1:21). The Mohammedan saying is, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂif God will, and how God will.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
14. shutteth upÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Isa 22:22). Job refers to ZopharÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂshut upÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 11:10).
15. Probably alluding to the flood.
16. (Eze 14:9).
18. He looseth the bond of kingsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe looseth the authority of kingsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbondÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ with which they bind their subjects (Isa 45:1; Ge 14:4; Da 2:21).
a girdleÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe cord, with which they are bound as captives, instead of the royal ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgirdleÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ they once wore (Isa 22:21), and the bond they once bound others with. So ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgirdÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂput on one the bonds of a prisoner instead of the ordinary girdle (Joh 21:18).
19. princesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpriests,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as the Hebrew is rendered (Ps 99:6). Even the sacred ministers of religion are not exempt from reverses and captivity.
the mightyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe firm-rooted in powerÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; the Arabic root expresses ever-flowing water [Umb[Umbreit]>
20. the trustyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthose secure in their eloquenceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; for example, the speakers in the gate (Isa 3:3) [Bez[Beza]>
understandingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtaste,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, insight or spiritual discernment, which experience gives the aged. The same Hebrew word is applied to DanielÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs wisdom in interpretation (Da 2:14).
21. Ps 107:40 quotes, in its first clause, this verse and, in its second, Job 12:24.
weakeneth the strengthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlooseth the girdleÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; Orientals wear flowing garments; when active strength is to be put forth, they gird up their garments with a girdle. Hence hereÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe destroyeth their powerÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in the eyes of the people.
22. (Da 2:22).
23. Isa 9:3; Ps 107:38, 39, which Psalm quotes this chapter elsewhere. (See on Job 12:21).
straitenethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂleadeth in,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂreduces.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
wander in a wildernessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfigurative; not referring to any actual fact. This cannot be quoted to prove Job lived after IsraelÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs wanderings in the desert. Ps 107:4, 40 quotes this passage.
25. De 28:29; Ps 107:27 again quote Job, but in a different connection.
Job 13:1-28. JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs Reply to Zophar Continued.
1. all thisÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas to the dealings of Providence (Job 12:3).
3. Job wishes to plead his cause before God (Job 9:34, 35), as he is more and more convinced of the valueless character of his would-be ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂphysiciansÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 16:2).
4. forgers of liesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂartful twisters of vain speechesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Umb[Umbreit]>
5. (Pr 17:28). The Arabs say, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe wise are dumb; silence is wisdom.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
7. deceitfullyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂuse fallacies to vindicate God in His dealings; as if the end justified the means. Their ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdeceitfulnessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ for God, against Job, was that they asserted he was a sinner, because he was a sufferer.
8. accept his personÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs; that is, be partial for Him, as when a judge favors one party in a trial, because of personal considerations.
contend for GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, with fallacies and prepossessions against Job before judgment (Jud 6:31). Partiality can never please the impartial God, nor the goodness of the cause excuse the unfairness of the arguments.
9. Will the issue to you be good, when He searches out you and your arguments? Will you be regarded by Him as pure and disinterested?
mockÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Ga 6:7). Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂCan you deceive Him as one man?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c.
10. If ye do, though secretly, act partially. (See on Job 13:8; Ps 82:1, 2). God can successfully vindicate His acts, and needs no fallacious argument of man.
11. make you afraid?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, of employing sophisms in His name (Jer 10:7, 10).
12. remembrancesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂproverbial maxims,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ so called because well remembered.
like unto ashesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂor, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂparables of ashesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; the image of lightness and nothingness (Isa 44:20).
bodiesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂentrenchmentsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; those of clay, as opposed to those of stone, are easy to be destroyed; so the proverbs, behind which they entrench themselves, will not shelter them when God shall appear to reprove them for their injustice to Job.
13. Job would wish to be spared their speeches, so as to speak out all his mind as to his wretchedness (Job 13:14), happen what will.
14. A proverb for, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWhy should I anxiously desire to save my life?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Eic[Eichorn]e image in the first clause is that of a wild beast, which in order to preserve his prey, carries it in his teeth. That in the second refers to men who hold in the hand what they want to keep secure.
15. in himÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂSo the margin or keri, reads. But the textual reading or chetib is ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ which agrees best with the context, and other passages wherein he says he has no hope (Job 6:11; 7:21; 10:20; 19:10). ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThough He slay me, and I dare no more hope, yet I will maintain,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c., that is, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI desire to vindicate myself before Him,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as not a hypocrite [Umb[Umbreit and Noyes]>
16. HeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThis also already speaks in my behalf (literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfor my saving acquittalÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) for an hypocrite would not wish to come before HimÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (as I do) [Umb[Umbreit]ee last clause of Job 13:15).
17. my declarationÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, that I wish to be permitted to justify myself immediately before God.
with your earsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, attentively.
18. orderedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂimplying a constant preparation for defense in his confidence of innocence.
19. if, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThen would I hold my tongue and give up the ghostÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; that is, if any one can contend with me and prove me false, I have no more to say. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI will be silent and die.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Like our ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI would stake my life on itÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Umb[Umbreit]>
20. Address to God.
not hideÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂstand forth boldly to maintain my cause.
21. (See on Job 9:34 and see Ps 39:10).
22. callÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa challenge to the defendant to answer to the charges.
answerÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe defense begun.
answerÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto the plea of the plaintiff. Expressions from a trial.
23. The catalogue of my sins ought to be great, to judge from the severity with which God ever anew crushes one already bowed down. Would that He would reckon them up! He then would see how much my calamities outnumber them.
sin?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsingular, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI am unconscious of a single particular sin, much less manyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Umb[Umbreit]>
24. hidest ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ faceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa figure from the gloomy impression caused by the sudden clouding over of the sun.
enemyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGod treated Job as an enemy who must be robbed of power by ceaseless sufferings (Job 7:17, 21).
25. (Le 26:36; Ps 1:4). Job compares himself to a leaf already fallen, which the storm still chases hither and thither.
breakÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂshake with (Thy) terrors.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Jesus Christ does not ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbreak the bruised reedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Isa 42:3, 27:8).
26. writestÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa judicial phrase, to note down the determined punishment. The sentence of the condemned used to be written down (Isa 10:1; Jer 22:30; Ps 149:9) [Umb[Umbreit]>
bitter thingsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbitter punishments.
makest me to possessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂor ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂinherit.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ In old age he receives possession of the inheritance of sin thoughtlessly acquired in youth. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂTo inherit sinsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is to inherit the punishments inseparably connected with them in Hebrew ideas (Ps 25:7).
27. stocksÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin which the prisonerÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs feet were made fast until the time of execution (Jer 20:2).
lookest narrowlyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas an overseer would watch a prisoner.
printÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂEither the stocks, or his disease, marked his soles (Hebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrootsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) as the bastinado would. Better, thou drawest (or diggest) [Ges[Gesenius]ine (or trench) [Ges[Gesenius]nd my soles, beyond which I must not move [Umb[Umbreit]>
28. Job speaks of himself in the third person, thus forming the transition to the general lot of man (Job 14:1; Ps 39:11; Ho 5:12).
Job 14:1-22. Job Passes from His Own to the Common Misery of Mankind.
1. womanÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfeeble, and in the East looked down upon (Ge 2:21). Man being born of one so frail must be frail himself (Mt 11:11).
few daysÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Ge 47:9; Ps 90:10). Literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂshort of days.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Man is the reverse of full of days and short of trouble.
2. (Ps 90:6; see on Job 8:9).
3. open ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ eyes uponÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂNot in graciousness; but, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂDost Thou sharply fix Thine eyes upon?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (See on Job 7:20; also see on Job 1:7). Is one so frail as man worthy of such constant watching on the part of God? (Zec 12:4).
4. A plea in mitigation. The doctrine of original sin was held from the first. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂMan is unclean from his birth, how then can God expect perfect cleanness from such a one and deal so severely with me?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
5. determinedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Job 7:1; Isa 10:23; Da 9:27; 11:36).
6. TurnÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, Thine eyes from watching him so jealously (Job 14:3).
accomplishÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂenjoy.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ That he may at least enjoy the measure of rest of the hireling who though hard worked reconciles himself to his lot by the hope of his rest and reward [Umb[Umbreit]>
7. Man may the more claim a peaceful life, since, when separated from it by death, he never returns to it. This does not deny a future life, but a return to the present condition of life. Job plainly hopes for a future state (Job 14:13; Job 7:2). Still, it is but vague and trembling hope, not assurance; excepting the one bright glimpse in Job 19:25. The Gospel revelation was needed to change fears, hopes, and glimpses into clear and definite certainties.
9. scentÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂexhalation, which, rather than the humidity of water, causes the tree to germinate. In the antithesis to man the tree is personified, and volition is poetically ascribed to it.
like a plantÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas if newly plantedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Umb[Umbreit]t as if trees and plants were a different species.
10. man ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂTwo distinct Hebrew words are here used; Geber, a mighty man: though mighty, he dies. Adam, a man of earth: because earthly, he gives up the ghost.
wastethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂis reduced to nothing: he cannot revive in the present state, as the tree does. The cypress and pine, which when cut down do not revive, were the symbols of death among the Romans.
11. seaÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, a lake, or pool formed from the outspreading of a river. Job lived near the Euphrates: and ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂseaÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is applied to it (Jer 51:36; Isa 27:1). So of the Nile (Isa 19:5).
failÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂutterly disappeared by drying up. The rugged channel of the once flowing water answers to the outstretched corpse (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlieth down,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Job 14:12) of the once living man.
12. heavens be no moreÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThis only implies that Job had no hope of living again in the present order of the world, not that he had no hope of life again in a new order of things. Ps 102:26 proves that early under the Old Testament the dissolution of the present earth and heavens was expected (compare Ge 8:22). Enoch before Job had implied that the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsaints shall live againÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Jude 14; Heb 11:13-16). Even if, by this phrase, Job meant ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂneverÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ps 89:29) in his gloomier state of feelings, yet the Holy Ghost has made him unconsciously (1Pe 1:11, 12) use language expressing the truth, that the resurrection is to be preceded by the dissolution of the heavens. In Job 14:13-15 he plainly passes to brighter hopes of a world to come.
13. Job wishes to be kept hidden in the grave until GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs wrath against him shall have passed away. So while GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs wrath is visiting the earth for the abounding apostasy which is to precede the second coming, GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs people shall be hidden against the resurrection glory (Isa 26:19-21).
set timeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa decreed time (Ac 1:7).
14. shall he live?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe answer implied is, There is a hope that he shall, though not in the present order of life, as is shown by the words following. Job had denied (Job 14:10-12) that man shall live again in this present world. But hoping for a ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂset time,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ when God shall remember and raise him out of the hiding-place of the grave (Job 14:13), he declares himself willing to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwait all the days of his appointed timeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of continuance in the grave, however long and hard that may be.
appointed timeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwarfare, hard serviceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; imlying the hardship of being shut out from the realms of life, light, and God for the time he shall be in the grave (Job 7:1).
changeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmy release, as a soldier at his post released from duty by the relieving guard (see on Job 10:17) [Umb[Umbreit and Gesenius]t elsewhere Gesenius explains it, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrenovation,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as of plants in spring (Job 14:7), but this does not accord so well with the metaphor in ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂappointed timeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwarfare.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
15. namely, at the resurrection (Joh 5:28; Ps 17:15).
have a desire toÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbecome pale with anxious desire:ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ the same word is translated ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsore longedst afterÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ge 31:30; Ps 84:2), implying the utter unlikelihood that God would leave in oblivion the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcreature of His own hands so fearfully and wonderfully made.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ It is objected that if Job knew of a future retribution, he would make it the leading topic in solving the problem of the permitted afflictions of the righteous. But, (1) He did not intend to exceed the limits of what was clearly revealed; the doctrine was then in a vague form only; (2) The doctrine of GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs moral government in this life, even independently of the future, needed vindication.
16. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂYea, thou wilt number my steps, and wilt not (as now) jealously watch over my sin.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Thenceforward, instead of severe watching for every sin of Job, God will guard him against every sin.
number ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ stepsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, minutely attend to them, that they may not wander [Umb[Umbreit]a 2:9; Ps 37:23).
17. sealed upÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Job 9:7). Is shut up in eternal oblivion, that is, God thenceforth will think no more of my former sins. To cover sins is to completely forgive them (Ps 32:1; 85:2). Purses of money in the East are usually sealed.
sewest upÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcoverestÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; akin to an Arabic word, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto color over,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ to forget wholly.
18. cometh to naughtÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfadethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; a poetical image from a leaf (Isa 34:4). Here Job falls back into his gloomy bodings as to the grave. Instead of ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂand surely,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ translate ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂyetÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; marking the transition from his brighter hopes. Even the solid mountain falls and crumbles away; man therefore cannot ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhopeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ to escape decay or to live again in the present world (Job 14:19).
out of his placeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂso man (Ps 103:16).
19. The Hebrew order is more forcible: ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂStones themselves are worn away by water.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
things which grow out ofÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfloods wash away the dust of the earth.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ There is a gradation from ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmountainsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrocksÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 14:18), then ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂstones,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ then last ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdust of the earthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; thus the solid mountain at last disappears utterly.
20. prevailestÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdost overpower by superior strength.
changest countenanceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe change in the visage at death. Differently (Da 5:9).
21. One striking trait is selected from the sad picture of the severance of the dead from all that passes in the world (Ec 9:5), namely, the utter separation of parents and children.
22. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂFleshÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ and ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsoulÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ describe the whole man. Scripture rests the hope of a future life, not on the inherent immortality of the soul, but on the restoration of the body with the soul. In the unseen world, Job in a gloomy frame anticipates, man shall be limited to the thought of his own misery. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂPain is by personification, from our feelings while alive, attributed to the flesh and soul, as if the man could feel in his body when dead. It is the dead in general, not the wicked, who are meant here.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
Job 15:1-35. Second Speech of Eliphaz.
2. a wise manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhich Job claims to be.
vain knowledgeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwindy knowledgeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂof windÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 8:2). In Ec 1:14, Hebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto catch wind,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ expresses to strive for what is vain.
east windÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂstronger than the previous ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwind,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ for in that region the east wind is the most destructive of winds (Isa 27:8). Thus here,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂempty violence.
bellyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe inward parts, the breast (Pr 18:8).
4. fearÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂreverence for God (Job 4:6; Ps 2:11).
prayerÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmeditation, in Ps 104:34; so devotion. If thy views were right, reasons Eliphaz, that God disregards the afflictions of the righteous and makes the wicked to prosper, all devotion would be at an end.
5. The sophistry of thine own speeches proves thy guilt.
6. No pious man would utter such sentiments.
7. That is, Art thou wisdom personified? Wisdom existed before the hills; that is, the eternal Son of God (Pr 8:25; Ps 90:2). Wast thou in existence before Adam? The farther back one existed, the nearer he was to the Eternal Wisdom.
8. secretÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWast thou a listener in the secret council of God?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The Hebrew means properly the cushions of a divan on which counsellors in the East usually sit. GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs servants are admitted to GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs secrets (Ps 25:14; Ge 18:17; Joh 15:15).
restrainÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRather, didst thou take away, or borrow, thence (namely, from the divine secret council) thy wisdom? Eliphaz in this (Job 15:8, 9) retorts JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs words upon himself (Job 12:2, 3; 13:2).
9. in usÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂor, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwith us,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Hebraism for ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwe are aware of.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
10. On our side, thinking with us are the aged. Job had admitted that wisdom is with them (Job 12:12). Eliphaz seems to have been himself older than Job; perhaps the other two were also (Job 32:6). Job, in Job 30:1, does not refer to his three friends; it therefore forms no objection. The Arabs are proud of fulness of years.
11. consolationsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, the revelation which Eliphaz had stated as a consolatory reproof to Job, and which he repeats in Job 15:14.
secretÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHast thou some secret wisdom and source of consolation, which makes thee disregard those suggested by me? (Job 15:8). Rather, from a different Hebrew root, Is the word of kindness or gentleness addressed by me treated by thee as valueless? [Umb[Umbreit]>
12. winkÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, why do thy eyes evince pride? (Pr 6:13; Ps 35:19).
13. That is, frettest against God and lettest fall rash words.
14. Eliphaz repeats the revelation (Job 4:17) in substance, but using JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs own words (see on Job 14:1, on ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂborn of a womanÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) to strike him with his own weapons.
15. Repeated from Job 4:18; ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂservantsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ there are ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsaintsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ here; namely, holy angels.
heavensÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, or else answering to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂangelsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (see on Job 4:18, and Job 25:5).
16. filthyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin Arabic ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsourÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ps 14:3; 53:3), corrupted from his original purity.
17. In direct contradiction of JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs position (Job 12:6, &c.), that the lot of the wicked was the most prosperous here, Eliphaz appeals (1) to his own experience, (2) to the wisdom of the ancients.
18. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂand which as handed down from their fathers, they have not concealed.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
19. Eliphaz speaks like a genuine Arab when he boasts that his ancestors had ever possessed the land unmixed with foreigners [Umb[Umbreit]s words are intended to oppose JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs (Job 9:24); ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe earthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in their case was not ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgiven into the hand of the wicked.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ He refers to the division of the earth by divine appointment (Ge 10:5; 25:32). Also he may insinuate that JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs sentiments had been corrupted from original purity by his vicinity to the Sabeans and Chaldeans [Ros[Rosenmuller]>
20. travailethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtrembleth of himself,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ though there is no real danger [Umb[Umbreit]>
and the number of his years, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThis gives the reason why the wicked man trembles continually; namely, because he knows not the moment when his life must end.
21. An evil conscience conceives alarm at every sudden sound, though it be in a time of peace (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂprosperityÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ), when there is no real danger (Le 26:36; Pr 28:1; 2Ki 7:6).
22. darknessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, danger or calamity. Glancing at Job, who despaired of restoration: in contrast to good men when in darkness (Mic 7:8, 9).
waited for ofÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, He is destined for the sword [Ges[Gesenius]ther (in the night of danger), ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhe looks anxiously towards the sword,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as if every sword was drawn against him [Umb[Umbreit]>
23. Wandereth in anxious search for bread. Famine in Old Testament depicts sore need (Isa 5:13). Contrast the pious manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs lot (Job 5:20-22).
knowethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhas the firm conviction. Contrast the same word applied to the pious (Job 5:24, 25).
ready at his handÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂan Arabic phrase to denote a thingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs complete readiness and full presence, as if in the hand.
24. prevailÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbreak upon him suddenly and terribly, as a king, &c. (Pr 6:11).
25. stretcheth ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ handÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwielding the spear, as a bold rebel against God (Job 9:4; Isa 27:4).
26. on his neckÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwith outstretched neck,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ namely, that of the rebel [Umb[Umbreit] 75:5).
upon ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ bucklersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwithÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhis (the rebelÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs, not GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs) bucklers.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The rebel and his fellows are depicted as joining shields together, to form a compact covering over their heads against the weapons hurled on them from a fortress [Umb[Umbreit and Gesenius]>
27. The well-nourished body of the rebel is the sign of his prosperity.
collopsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmasses of fat. He pampers and fattens himself with sensual indulgences; hence his rebellion against God (De 32:15; 1Sa 2:29).
28. The class of wicked here described is that of robbers who plunder ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcities,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ and seize on the houses of the banished citizens (Isa 13:20). Eliphaz chooses this class because Job had chosen the same (Job 12:6).
29. Rather, he shall not increase his riches; he has reached his highest point; his prosperity shall not continue.
perfectionÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHis acquired wealthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhat he possessesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂshall not be extended,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c.
30. departÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, escape (Job 15:22, 23).
branchesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, his offspring (Job 1:18, 19; Ps 37:35).
dry upÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂflameÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is the sultry wind in the East by which plants most full of sap are suddenly shrivelled.
his mouthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs wrath (Isa 11:4).
31. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlet him not trust in vanity or he will be deceived,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c.
vanityÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat which is unsubstantial. Sin is its own punishment (Pr 1:31; Jer 2:19).
32. Literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂit (the tree to which he is compared, Job 15:30, or else his life) shall not be filled up in its timeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; that is, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhe shall be ended before his time.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
shall not be greenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂimage from a withered tree; the childless extinction of the wicked.
33. Images of incompleteness. The loss of the unripe grapes is poetically made the vine treeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs own act, in order to express more pointedly that the sinnerÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs ruin is the fruit of his own conduct (Isa 3:11; Jer 6:19).
34. Rather, The binding together of the hypocrites (wicked) shall be fruitless [Umb[Umbreit]>
tabernacles of briberyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, dwellings of unjust judges, often reprobated in the Old Testament (Isa 1:23). The ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfire of GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that consumed JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs possessions (Job 1:16) Eliphaz insinuates may have been on account of JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs bribery as an Arab sheik or emir.
35. Bitter irony, illustrating the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂunfruitfulnessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 15:34) of the wicked. Their conceptions and birthgivings consist solely in mischief, &c. (Isa 33:11).
Job 16:1-22. JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs Reply.
2. (Job 13:4).
3. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWords of wind,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Hebrew. He retorts upon Eliphaz his reproach (Job 15:2).
emboldenethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWhat wearies you so that ye contradict?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, What have I said to provoke you? &c. [Sch[Schuttens], as better accords with the first clause, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWherefore do ye weary yourselves contradicting?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Umb[Umbreit]>
4. heap upÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmarshal together (an army of) words against you.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
shake ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ headÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin mockery; it means nodding, rather than shaking; nodding is not with us, as in the East, a gesture of scorn (Isa 37:22; Jer 18:16; Mt 27:39).
5. strengthen ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ with ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ mouthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbitter irony. In allusion to EliphazÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ boasted ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂconsolationsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 15:11). Opposed to strengthening with the heart, that is, with real consolation. Translate, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI also (like you) could strengthen with the mouth,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, with heartless talk: ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAnd the moving of my lips (mere lip comfort) could console (in the same fashion as you do)ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Umb[Umbreit]ÃÂHearty counselÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Pr 27:9) is the opposite.
6. easedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWhat (portion of my sufferings) goes from me?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
7. But nowÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂah!ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
companyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂband of witnesses,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ namely, those who could attest his innocence (his children, servants, &c.). So the same Hebrew is translated in Job 16:8. Umbreit makes his ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂband of witnesses,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ himself, for, alas! he had no other witness for him. But this is too recondite.
8. filled ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ with wrinklesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRather (as also the same Hebrew word in Job 22:16; English Version, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcut downÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ), ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthou hast fettered me, thy witnessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (besides cutting off my ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂband of witnesses,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Job 16:7), that is, hast disabled me by pains from properly attesting my innocence. But another ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwitnessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ arises against him, namely, his ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂleannessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or wretched state of body, construed by his friends into a proof of his guilt. The radical meaning of the Hebrew is ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto draw together,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ whence flow the double meaning ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto bindÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfetter,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ and in Syriac, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto wrinkle.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
leannessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmeaning also ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlieÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; implying it was a ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfalse witness.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
9. Image from a wild beast. So God is represented (Job 10:16).
who hateth meÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂand pursues me hard.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Job would not ascribe ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhatredÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ to God (Ps 50:22).
mine enemyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhe sharpens, &c., as an enemyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ps 7:12). Darts wrathful glances at me, like a foe (Job 13:24).
10. gapedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot in order to devour, but to mock him. To fill his cup of misery, the mockery of his friends (Job 16:10) is added to the hostile treatment from God (Job 16:9).
smitten ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ cheekÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfigurative for contemptuous abuse (La 3:30; Mt 5:39).
gathered themselvesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂconspired unanimouslyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Sch[Schuttens]>
11. the ungodlyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, his professed friends, who persecuted him with unkind speeches.
turned me overÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcast me headlong into the hands of the wicked.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
12. I was at easeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin past times (Job 1:1-3).
by my neckÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas an animal does its prey (so Job 10:16).
shakenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂviolently; in contrast to his former ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂeaseÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ps 102:10). Set me up (again).
markÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Job 7:20; La 3:12). God lets me always recover strength, so as to torment me ceaselessly.
13. his archersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe image of Job 16:12 is continued. God, in making me His ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmark,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is accompanied by the three friends, whose words wound like sharp arrows.
gallÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂput for a vital part; so the liver (La 2:11).
14. The image is from storming a fortress by making breaches in the walls (2Ki 14:13).
a giantÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa mighty warrior.
15. sewedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdenoting the tight fit of the mourning garment; it was a sack with armholes closely sewed to the body.
hornÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂimage from horned cattle, which when excited tear the earth with their horns. The horn was the emblem of power (1Ki 22:11). Here, it is
in the dustÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhich as applied to Job denotes his humiliation from former greatness. To throw oneÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs self in the dust was a sign of mourning; this idea is here joined with that of excited despair, depicted by the fury of a horned beast. The Druses of Lebanon still wear horns as an ornament.
16. foulÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂis red,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, flushed and heated [Umb[Umbreit and Noyes]>
shadow of deathÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, darkening through many tears (La 5:17). Job here refers to ZopharÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs implied charge (Job 11:14). Nearly the same words occur as to Jesus Christ (Isa 53:9). So Job 16:10 above answers to the description of Jesus Christ (Ps 22:13; Isa 50:6, and Job 16:4 to Ps 22:7). He alone realized what Job aspired after, namely, outward righteousness of acts and inward purity of devotion. Jesus Christ as the representative man is typified in some degree in every servant of God in the Old Testament.
18. my bloodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, my undeserved suffering. He compares himself to one murdered, whose blood the earth refuses to drink up until he is avenged (Ge 4:10, 11; Eze 24:1, 8; Isa 26:21). The Arabs say that the dew of heaven will not descend on a spot watered with innocent blood (compare 2Sa 1:21).
no placeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂno resting-place. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂMay my cry never stop!ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ May it go abroad! ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂEarthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in this verse in antithesis to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂheavenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 16:19). May my innocence be as well-known to man as it is even now to God!
19. Also nowÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂEven now, when I am so greatly misunderstood on earth, God in heaven is sensible of my innocence.
recordÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin the high placesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; Hebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmy witness.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Amidst all his impatience, Job still trusts in God.
20. Hebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂare my scornersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; more forcibly, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmy mockersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmy friends!ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ A heart-cutting paradox [Umb[Umbreit]d alone remains to whom he can look for attestation of his innocence; plaintively with tearful eye, he supplicates for this.
21. oneÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (God). ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂOh, that He would plead for a man (namely, me) against God.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Job quaintly says, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGod must support me against God; for He makes me to suffer, and He alone knows me to be innocentÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Umb[Umbreit] God helped Jacob in wrestling against Himself (compare Job 23:6; Ge 32:25). God in Jesus Christ does plead with God for man (Ro 8:26, 27).
as a manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe Son of man.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ A prefiguring of the advocacy of Jesus ChristÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa boon longed for by Job (Job 9:33), though the spiritual pregnancy of his own words, designed for all ages, was but little understood by him (Ps 80:17).
for his neighbourÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfriend.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Job himself (Job 42:8) pleaded as intercessor for his ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfriends,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ though ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhis scornersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 16:20); so Jesus Christ the Son of man (Lu 23:34); ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfor friendsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Joh 15:13-15).
22. fewÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂyears of number,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, few, opposed to numberless (Ge 34:30).
Job 17:1-16. JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs Answer Continued.
1. breath ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ corruptÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂresult of elephantiasis. But Umbreit, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmy strength (spirit) is spent.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
extinctÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂLife is compared to an expiring light. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe light of my day is extinguished.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
gravesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂplural, to heighten the force.
2. Umbreit, more emphatically, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhad I only not to endure mockery, in the midst of their contentions I (mine eye) would remain quiet.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
eye continueÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtarry all nightÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; a figure taken from sleep at night, to express undisturbed rest; opposed to (Job 16:20), when the eye of Job is represented as pouring out tears to God without rest.
3. Lay down nowÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, a pledge or security; that is, be my surety; do Thou attest my innocence, since my friends only mock me (Job 17:2). Both litigating parties had to lay down a sum as security before the trial.
put me in a suretyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂProvide a surety for me (in the trial) with Thee. A presage of the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsuretyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Heb 7:22), or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂone Mediator between God and manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (see on Job 16:21).
strike handsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwho else (save God Himself) could strike hands with me?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, be my security (Ps 119:122). The Hebrew strikes the hand of him for whom he goes security (Pr 6:1).
4. their heartÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe intellect of his friends.
shalt ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ exaltÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRather imperative, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂexalt them notÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; allow them not to conquer [Umb[Umbreit]sa 6:9, 10).
5. The Hebrew for ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂflatteryÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsmoothnessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; then it came to mean a prey divided by lot, because a smooth stone was used in casting the lots (De 18:8), ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa portionÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ge 14:24). Therefore translate, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe that delivers up his friend as a prey (which the conduct of my friends implies that they would do), even the eyes,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c. [Noy[Noyes]b 11:20). Job says this as to the sinnerÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs children, retorting upon their reproach as to the cutting off of his (Job 5:4; 15:30). This accords with the Old Testament dispensation of legal retribution (Ex 20:5).
6. HeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGod. The poet reverentially suppresses the name of God when speaking of calamities inflicted.
by-wordÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(De 28:37; Ps 69:11). My awful punishment makes my name execrated everywhere, as if I must have been superlatively bad to have earned it.
aforetime ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ tabretÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas David was honored (1Sa 18:6). Rather from a different Hebrew root, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI am treated to my face as an object of disgust,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂan object to be spit upon in the faceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Nu 12:14). So Raca means (Mt 5:22) [Umb[Umbreit]>
7. (Ps 6:7; 31:9; De 34:7).
membersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfiguresÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; all the individual members being peculiar forms of the body; opposed to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂshadow,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ which looks like a figure without solidity.
8. astoniedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂat my unmerited sufferings.
against the hypocriteÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe upright shall feel their sense of justice wounded (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwill be indignantÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) because of the prosperity of the wicked. By ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhypocriteÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂungodly,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ he perhaps glances at his false friends.
9. The strength of religious principle is heightened by misfortune. The pious shall take fresh courage to persevere from the example of suffering Job. The image is from a warrior acquiring new courage in action (Isa 40:30, 31; Php 1:14).
10. returnÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIf you have anything to advance really wise, though I doubt it, recommence your speech. For as yet I cannot find one wise man among you all.
11. Only do not vainly speak of the restoration of health to me; for ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmy days are past.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
broken offÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas the threads of the web cut off from the loom (Isa 38:12).
thoughtsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpossessions,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, all the feelings and fair hopes which my heart once nourished. These belong to the heart, as ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpurposesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ to the understanding; the two together here describe the entire inner man.
12. TheyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmy friends.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
change the night into dayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, would try to persuade me of the change of my misery into joy, which is impossible [Umb[Umbreit]b 11:17); (but) the light of prosperity (could it be enjoyed) would be short because of the darkness of adversity. Or better for ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂshort,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ the Hebrew ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnearÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂand the light of new prosperity should be near in the face of (before) the darkness of deathÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; that is, they would persuade me that light is near, even though darkness approaches.
13. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂif I wait for this grave (Sheol, or the unseen world) as my house, and make my bed in the darkness (Job 17:14), and say to corruption,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto the pitÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgrave,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c. (Job 17:15). Where then is my hope? [Umb[Umbreit]e apodosis is at Job 17:15.
14. Thou art my father, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂexpressing most intimate connection (Pr 7:4). His diseased state made him closely akin to the grave and worm.
15. Who shall see it fulfilled? namely, the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhopeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 11:18) which they held out to him of restoration.
16. TheyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, my hopes shall be buried with me.
barsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Isa 38:10). Rather, the wastes or solitudes of the pit (sheol, the unseen world).
rest togetherÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe rest of me and my hope is in, &c. Both expire together. The word ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrestÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ implies that manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs ceaseless hopes only rob him of rest.
Job 18:1-21. Reply of Bildad.
2. yeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe other two friends of Job, whom Bildad charges with having spoken mere ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwords,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, empty speeches; opposed to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmark,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, come to reason, consider the question intelligently; and then let us speak.
3. beastsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂalluding to what Job said (Job 12:7; so Isa 1:3).
vileÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather from a Hebrew root, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto stop up.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂStubborn,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ answering to the stupidity implied in the parallel first clause [Umb[Umbreit]y should we give occasion by your empty speeches for our being mutually reputed, in the sight of Job and one another, as unintelligent? (Job 17:4, 10).
4. Rather, turning to Job, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthou that tearest thyself in angerÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 5:2).
be forsaken?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbecome desolate. He alludes here to JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs words as to the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrock,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ crumbling away (Job 14:18, 19); but in a different application. He says bitterly ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfor thee.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Wert thou not punished as thou art, and as thou art unwilling to bear, the eternal order of the universe would be disturbed and the earth become desolate through unavenged wickedness [Umb[Umbreit]ldad takes it for granted Job is a great sinner (Job 8:3-6; Isa 24:5, 6). ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂShall that which stands fast as a rock be removed for your special accommodation?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
5. That (Job 18:4) cannot be. The decree of God is unalterable, the light (prosperity) of the wicked shall at length be put out.
his fireÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂalluding to Arabian hospitality, which prided itself on welcoming the stranger to the fire in the tent, and even lit fires to direct him to it. The ungodly shall be deprived of the means to show hospitality. His dwelling shall be dark and desolate!
6. candleÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe lamp which in the East is usually fastened to the ceiling. Oil abounds in those regions, and the lamp was kept burning all night, as now in Egypt, where the poorest would rather dispense with food than the night lamp (Ps 18:28). To put out the lamp was an image of utter desolation.
7. steps of his strengthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHebrew, for ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHis strong steps.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ A firm step marks health. To be straitened in steps is to be no longer able to move about at will (Pr 4:12).
his own counselÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂPlans shall be the means of his fall (Job 5:13).
8. he walketh uponÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhe lets himself go into the netÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Umb[Umbreit] the English Version be retained, then understand ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsnareÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ to be the pitfall, covered over with branches and earth, which when walked upon give way (Ps 9:15; 35:8).
9. robberÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather answering to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂginÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in the parallel clause, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe noose shall hold him fastÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Umb[Umbreit]>
11. TerrorsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂoften mentioned in this book (Job 18:14; 24:17; &c.). The terrors excited through an evil conscience are here personified. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂMagor-missabibÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Jer 20:3).
drive ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ to his feetÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂshall pursueÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂscatter,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Hab 3:14) him close ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂat his heelsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂimmediately after his feet,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Hab 3:5; 1Sa 25:42; Hebrew). The image is that of a pursuing conqueror who scatters the enemy [Umb[Umbreit]>
12. The Hebrew is brief and bold, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhis strength is hungry.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
destructionÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, a great calamity (Pr 1:27).
ready at his sideÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂclose at hand to destroy him (Pr 19:29).
13. Umbreit has ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂheÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ for ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂit,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin the rage of hunger he shall devour his own bodyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; or, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhis own childrenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (La 4:10). Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdestructionÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ from Job 18:12 is nominative to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdevour.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
strengthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmembersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (literally, the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbranchesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of a tree).
the first-born of deathÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa personification full of poetical horror. The first-born son held the chief place (Ge 49:3); so here the chiefest (most deadly) disease that death has ever engendered (Isa 14:30; ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfirst-born of the poorÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe poorest). The Arabs call fever, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdaughter of death.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
14. confidenceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂall that the father trusted in for domestic happiness, children, fortune, &c., referring to JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs losses.
rooted outÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsuddenly torn away, it shall bringÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, he shall be brought; or, as Umbreit better has, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThou (God) shalt bring him slowly.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The Hebrew expresses, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto stride slowly and solemnly.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The godless has a fearful death for long before his eyes, and is at last taken by it. Alluding to JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs case. The King of terrors, not like the heathen Pluto, the tabled ruler of the dead, but Death, with all its terrors to the ungodly, personified.
15. ItÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂTerrorÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ shall haunt, &c., and not as Umbreit, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂanother,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ which the last clause of the verse disproves.
none of hisÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIt is his no longer.
brimstoneÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂprobably comparing the calamity of Job by the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfire of GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 1:16) to the destruction of guilty Sodom by fire and brimstone (Ge 19:24).
branchÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhis children (Job 8:12; 15:30; Mal 4:1).
17. streetÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂMen shall not speak of him in meeting in the highways; rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin the fieldÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmeadowÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; the shepherds shall no more mention his nameÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa picture from nomadic life [Umb[Umbreit]>
18. light ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ darknessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂexistenceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnonexistence.
19. nephewÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(so Isa 14:22). But it is translated ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgrandsonÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ge 21:23); translate ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂkinsman.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
20. after ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ beforeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthose in the WestÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthose in the EastÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; that is, all people; literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthose behindÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthose beforeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; for Orientals in geography turn with their faces to the east (not to the north as we), and back to the west; so that beforeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂeast; behindÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnorth (so Zec 14:8).
dayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂof ruin (Ob 12).
affrightedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂseized with terror (Job 21:6; Isa 13:8).
21. (Job 8:22, Margin).
Job 19:1-29. JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs Reply to Bildad.
2. How long, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂretorting BildadÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs words (Job 18:2). Admitting the punishment to be deserved, is it kind thus ever to be harping on this to the sufferer? And yet even this they have not yet proved.
3. TheseÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂprefixed emphatically to numbers (Ge 27:36).
tenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, often (Ge 31:7).
make yourselves strangeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂstun meÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Ges[Gesenius]ee Margin for a different meaning [tha[that is, "harden yourselves against meÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ]p>
4.erredÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe Hebrew expresses unconscious error. Job was unconscious of wilful sin.
remainethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpasseth the night.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ An image from harboring an unpleasant guest for the night. I bear the consequences.
5. magnify, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂSpeak proudly (Ob 12; Eze 35:13).
against meÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂemphatically repeated (Ps 38:16).
plead ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ reproachÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂEnglish Version makes this part of the protasis, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂifÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ being understood, and the apodosis beginning at Job 19:6. Better with Umbreit, If ye would become great heroes against me in truth, ye must prove (evince) against me my guilt, or shame, which you assert. In the English Version ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂreproachÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ will mean JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs calamities, which they ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpleadedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ against him as a ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂreproach,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or proof of guilt.
6. compassed ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ netÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂalluding to BildadÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs words (Job 18:8). Know, that it is not that I as a wicked man have been caught in my ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂown netÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; it is God who has compassed me in HisÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhy, I know not.
7. wrongÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂviolence: brought on him by God.
no judgmentÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGod will not remove my calamities, and so vindicate my just cause; and my friends will not do justice to my past character.
8. Image from a benighted traveller.
9. stripped ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ crownÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂimage from a deposed king, deprived of his robes and crown; appropriate to Job, once an emir with all but royal dignity (La 5:16; Ps 89:39).
10. destroyed ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ on every sideÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂShaken all round, so that I fall in the dustÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; image from a tree uprooted by violent shaking from every side [Umbre[Umbreit]last clause accords with this (Jer 1:10)
mine hopeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas to this life (in opposition to Zophar, Job 11:18); not as to the world to come (Job 19:25; Job 14:15).
11. enemiesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Job 13:24; La 2:5).
12. troopsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂCalamities advance together like hostile troops (Job 10:17).
raise up ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ wayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAn army must cast up a way of access before it, in marching against a city (Isa 40:3).
13. brethrenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnearest kinsmen, as distinguished from ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂacquaintance.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ So ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂkinsfolkÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ and ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfamiliar friendsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 19:14) correspond in parallelism. The Arabic proverb is, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe brother, that is, the true friend, is only known in time of need.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
estrangedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂturn away with disgust.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Job again unconsciously uses language prefiguring the desertion of Jesus Christ (Job 16:10; Lu 23:49; Ps 38:11).
15. They that dwell, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsojournÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ: male servants, sojourning in his house. Mark the contrast. The stranger admitted to sojourn as a dependent treats the master as a stranger in his own house.
16. servantÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂborn in my house (as distinguished from those sojourning in it), and so altogether belonging to the family. Yet even he disobeys my call.
mouthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcalling aloudÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; formerly a nod was enough. Now I no longer look for obedience, I try entreaty.
17. strangeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHis breath by elephantiasis had become so strongly altered and offensive, that his wife turned away as estranged from him (Job 19:13; 17:1).
childrenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ of mine own bodyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbelly.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ But ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂloinsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is what we should expect, not ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbellyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (womb), which applies to the woman. The ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmineÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ forbids it being taken of his wife. Besides their children were dead. In Job 3:10 the same words ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmy wombÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ mean, my motherÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs womb: therefore translate, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂand I must entreat (as a suppliant) the children of my motherÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs wombÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; that is, my own brothersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa heightening of force, as compared with last clause of Job 19:16 [Umbre[Umbreit]only must I entreat suppliantly my servant, but my own brothers (Ps 69:8). Here too, he unconsciously foreshadows Jesus Christ (Joh 7:5).
18. young childrenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂSo the Hebrew means (Job 21:11). Reverence for age is a chief duty in the East. The word means ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwickedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 16:11). So Umbreit has it here, not so well.
I aroseÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRather, supply ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂif,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as Job was no more in a state to stand up. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIf I stood up (arose), they would speak against (abuse) meÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Umbre[Umbreit]
19. inwardÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂconfidential; literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmen of my secretÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto whom I entrusted my most intimate confidence.
20. Extreme meagerness. The bone seemed to stick in the skin, being seen through it, owing to the flesh drying up and falling away from the bone. The Margin, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas to my flesh,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ makes this sense clearer. The English Version, however, expresses the same: ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAnd to my flesh,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ namely, which has fallen away from the bone, instead of firmly covering it.
skin of my teethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂproverbial. I have escaped with bare life; I am whole only with the skin of my teeth; that is, my gums alone are whole, the rest of the skin of my body is broken with sores (Job 7:5; Ps 102:5). Satan left Job his speech, in hope that he might therewith curse God.
21. When God had made him such a piteous spectacle, his friends should spare him the additional persecution of their cruel speeches.
22. as GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhas persecuted me. Prefiguring Jesus Christ (Ps 69:26). That God afflicts is no reason that man is to add to a suffererÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs affliction (Zec 1:15).
satisfied with my fleshÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIt is not enough that God afflicts my flesh literally (Job 19:20), but you must ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂeat my fleshÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ metaphorically (Ps 27:2); that is, utter the worst calumnies, as the phrase often means in Arabic.
23. Despairing of justice from his friends in his lifetime, he wishes his words could be preserved imperishably to posterity, attesting his hope of vindication at the resurrection.
printedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot our modern printing, but engraven.
leadÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpoured into the engraven characters, to make them better seen [Umbre[Umbreit]on leaden plates; for it was ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin the rockÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that they were engraved. Perhaps it was the hammer that was of ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlead,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as sculptors find more delicate incisions are made by it, than by a harder hammer. FOSTER (One Primeval Language) has shown that the inscriptions on the rocks in Wady-Mokatta, along IsraelÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs route through the desert, record the journeys of that people, as Cosmas Indicopleustes asserted, A.D. 535.
for everÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas long as the rock lasts.
25. redeemerÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂUmbreit and others understand this and Job 19:26, of God appearing as JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs avenger before his death, when his body would be wasted to a skeleton. But Job uniformly despairs of restoration and vindication of his cause in this life (Job 17:15, 16). One hope alone was left, which the Spirit revealedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa vindication in a future life: it would be no full vindication if his soul alone were to be happy without the body, as some explain (Job 19:26) ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂout of the flesh.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ It was his body that had chiefly suffered: the resurrection of his body, therefore, alone could vindicate his cause: to see God with his own eyes, and in a renovated body (Job 19:27), would disprove the imputation of guilt cast on him because of the sufferings of his present body. That this truth is not further dwelt on by Job, or noticed by his friends, only shows that it was with him a bright passing glimpse of Old Testament hope, rather than the steady light of Gospel assurance; with us this passage has a definite clearness, which it had not in his mind (see on Job 21:30). The idea in ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂredeemerÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ with Job is Vindicator (Job 16:19; Nu 35:27), redressing his wrongs; also including at least with us, and probably with him, the idea of the predicted Bruiser of the serpentÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs head. Tradition would inform him of the prediction. Foster shows that the fall by the serpent is represented perfectly on the temple of Osiris at PhilÃÂÃÂ¦; and the resurrection on the tomb of the Egyptian Mycerinus, dating four thousand years back. JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs sacrifices imply sense of sin and need of atonement. Satan was the injurer of JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs body; Jesus Christ his Vindicator, the Living One who giveth life (Joh 5:21, 26).
at the latter dayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe Last,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ the peculiar title of Jesus Christ, though Job may not have known the pregnancy of his own inspired words, and may have understood merely one that comes after (1Co 15:45; Re 1:17). Jesus Christ is the last. The day of Jesus Christ the last day (Joh 6:39).
standÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂariseÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ: as God is said to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂraise upÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ the Messiah (Jer 23:5; De 18:15).
earthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdustÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ: often associated with the body crumbling away in it (Job 7:21; 17:16); therefore appropriately here. Above that very dust wherewith was mingled manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs decaying body shall manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs Vindicator arise. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂArise above the dust,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ strikingly expresses that fact that Jesus Christ arose first Himself above the dust, and then is to raise His people above it (1Co 15:20, 23). The Spirit intended in JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs words more than Job fully understood (1Pe 1:12). Though He seems, in forsaking me, to be as one dead, He now truly ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlivethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in heaven; hereafter He shall appear also above the dust of earth. The Goel or vindicator of blood was the nearest kinsman of the slain. So Jesus Christ took our flesh, to be our kinsman. Man lost life by Satan the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmurdererÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Joh 8:44), here JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs persecutor (Heb 2:14). Compare also as to redemption of the inheritance by the kinsman of the dead (Ru 4:3-5; Eph 1:14).
26. Rather, though after my skin (is no more) this (body) is destroyed (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbodyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ being omitted, because it was so wasted as not to deserve the name), yet from my flesh (from my renewed body, as the starting-point of vision, So 2:9, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlooking out from the windowsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂshall I see God.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Next clause [Job 1[Job 19:27]s bodily vision is meant, for it specifies ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmine eyesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Rosen[Rosenmuller, 2d ed.]Hebrew opposes ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin my flesh.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂskinÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ was the first destroyed by elephantiasis, then the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbody.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
27. for myselfÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfor my advantage, as my friend.
not anotherÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂMine eyes shall behold Him, but no longer as one estranged from me, as now [Benge[Bengel]
my reinsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂinward recesses of the heart.
be consumed within meÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, pine with longing desire for that day (Ps 84:2; 119:81). The Gentiles had but few revealed promises: how gracious that the few should have been so explicit (compare Nu 24:17; Mt 2:2).
28. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂye will then (when the Vindicator cometh) say, Why,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c.
root ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ in meÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe root of pious integrity, which was the matter at issue, whether it could be in one so afflicted, is found in me. Umbreit, with many manuscripts and versions, reads ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin him.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂOr how found we in him ground of contention.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
29. wrathÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe passionate violence with which the friends persecuted Job.
bringeth, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂis sin of the of the swordÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
that ye may knowÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂSupply, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI say this.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
judgmentÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂinseparably connected with the coming of the Vindicator. The ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwrathÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of God at His appearing for the temporal vindication of Job against the friends (Job 42:7) is a pledge of the eternal wrath at the final coming to glorify the saints and judge their enemies (2Th 1:6-10; Isa 25:8).
Job 20:1-29. Reply of Zophar.
2. ThereforeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRather, the more excited I feel by JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs speech, the more for that very reason shall my reply be supplied by my calm consideration. Literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂNotwithstanding; my calm thoughts (as in Job 4:13) shall furnish my answer, because of the excitement (haste) within meÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Umbre[Umbreit]
3. check of my reproachÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, the castigation intended as a reproach (literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂshameÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) to me.
spirit of ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ understandingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmy rational spirit; answering to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcalm thoughtsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 20:2). In spite of thy reproach urging me to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhastiness.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ I will answer in calm reason.
5. the hypocriteÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe ungodlyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ps 37:35, 36).
6. (Isa 14:13; Ob 3, 4).
7. dungÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin contrast to the haughtiness of the sinner (Job 20:6); this strong term expresses disgust and the lowest degradation (Ps 83:10; 1Ki 14:10).
8. (Ps 73:20).
9. Rather ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe eye followeth him, but can discern him no more.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ A sharp-looking is meant (Job 28:7; Job 7:10).
10. seek to pleaseÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAtone to the poorÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (by restoring the property of which they had been robbed by the father) [De We[De Wette]er than English Version, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe childrenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ are reduced to the humiliating condition of ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂseeking the favor of those very poor,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ whom the father had oppressed. But Umbreit translates as Margin.
his handsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtheir (the childrenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs) hands.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
their goodsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe goods of the poor. Righteous retribution! (Ex 20:5).
11. (Ps 25:7), so Vulgate. Gesenius has ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfull of youthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; namely, in the fulness of his youthful strength he shall be laid in the dust. But ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbonesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ plainly alludes to JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs disease, probably to JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs own words (Job 19:20). Umbreit translates, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfull of his secret sins,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as in Ps 90:8; his secret guilt in his time of seeming righteousness, like secret poison, at last lays him in the dust. The English Version is best. Zophar alludes to JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs own words (Job 17:16).
with himÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHis sin had so pervaded his nature that it accompanies him to the grave: for eternity the sinner cannot get rid of it (Re 22:11).
12. beÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtaste sweet.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ SinÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs fascination is like poison sweet to the taste, but at last deadly to the vital organs (Pr 20:17; Job 9:17, 18).
hide ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ tongueÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂseek to prolong the enjoyment by keeping the sweet morsel long in the mouth (so Job 20:13).
14. turnedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHebrew denotes a total change into a disagreeable contrary (Jer 2:21; compare Re 10:9, 10).
gallÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin which the poison of the asp was thought to lie. It rather is contained in a sack in the mouth. Scripture uses popular language, where no moral truth is thereby endangered.
15. He is forced to disgorge his ill-gotten wealth.
16. shall suckÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIt shall turn out that he has sucked the poison, &c.
17. floodsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂstream of floods,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ plentiful streams flowing with milk, &c. (Job 29:6; Ex 3:17). Honey and butter are more fluid in the East than with us and are poured out from jars. These ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂriversÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or water brooks are in the sultry East emblems of prosperity.
18. Image from food which is taken away from one before he can swallow it.
restitutionÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(So Pr 6:31). The parallelism favors the English Version rather than the translation of Gesenius, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAs a possession to be restored in which he rejoices not.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
he shall not rejoiceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHis enjoyment of his ill-gotten gains shall then be at an end (Job 20:5).
19. oppressedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhereas he ought to have espoused their cause (2Ch 16:10).
houseÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthus leaving the poor without shelter (Isa 5:8; Mic 2:2).
20. Umbreit translates, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHis inward parts know no restÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ from desires.
his bellyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, peace inwardly.
not saveÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot escape with that which,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c., alluding to JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs having been stripped of his all.
21. look forÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbecause his goods,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, prosperity shall have no endurance.
22. shall beÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhe is (feeleth) straitened.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The next clause explains in what respect.
wickedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe whole hand of the miserable (whom he had oppressed) cometh upon himÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; namely, the sense of his having oppressed the poor, now in turn comes with all its power (hand) on him. This caused his ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂstraitenedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ feeling even in prosperity.
23. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGod shall cast (may God send) [Umbre[Umbreit]him the fury of His wrath to fill his belly!ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
while ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ eatingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂshall rain it upon him for his food!ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Fiery rain, that is, lightning (Ps 11:6; alluding to JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs misfortune, Job 1:16). The force of the image is felt by picturing to oneÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs self the opposite nature of a refreshing rain in the desert (Ex 16:4; Ps 68:9).
24. steelÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbrass.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ While the wicked flees from one danger, he falls into a greater one from an opposite quarter [Umbre[Umbreit]
25. It is drawnÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe (God) draweth (the sword, Jos 5:13) and (no sooner has He done so, than) it cometh out of (that is, passes right through) the (sinnerÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs) bodyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (De 32:41, 42; Eze 21:9, 10). The glittering sword is a happy image for lightning.
gallÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, his life (Job 16:13). ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂInflicts a deadly wound.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
terrorsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂZophar repeats BildadÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs words (Job 17:11; Ps 88:16; 55:4).
26. All darknessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, every calamity that befalls the wicked shall be hid (in store for him) in His (GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs) secret places, or treasures (Jude 13; De 32:34).
not blownÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot kindled by manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs hands, but by GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs (Isa 30:33; the Septuagint in the Alexandrian Manuscript reads ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂunquenchable fire,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Mt 3:12). Tact is shown by the friends in not expressly mentioning, but alluding under color of general cases, to JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs calamities; here (Job 1:16) Umbreit explains it, wickedness, is a ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂself-igniting fireÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; in it lie the principles of destruction.
ill ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ tabernacleÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂEvery trace of the sinner must be obliterated (Job 18:15).
27. All creation is at enmity with him, and proclaims his guilt, which he would fain conceal.
28. increaseÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂprosperity. Ill gotÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂill gone.
flow awayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlike waters that run dry in summer; using JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs own metaphor against himself (Job 6:15-17; 2Sa 14:14; Mic 1:4).
29. appointedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot as a matter of chance, but by the divine ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdecreeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Margin) and settled principle.
Job 21:1-34. JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs Answer.
2. consolationsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIf you will listen calmly to me, this will be regarded as ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂconsolationsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; alluding to EliphazÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ boasted ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂconsolationsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 15:11), which Job felt more as aggravations (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmockings,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Job 21:3) than consolations (Job 16:2).
3. literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂBegin your mockingsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 17:2).
4. JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs difficulty was not as to man, but as to God, why He so afflicted him, as if he were the guilty hypocrite which the friends alleged him to be. Vulgate translates it, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmy disputation.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
if it wereÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsince this is the case.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
5. lay ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ hand upon ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ mouthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Pr 30:32; Jud 18:19). So the heathen god of silence was pictured with his hand on his mouth. There was enough in JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs case to awe them into silence (Job 17:8).
6. rememberÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThink on it. Can you wonder that I broke out into complaints, when the struggle was not with men, but with the Almighty? Reconcile, if you can, the ceaseless woes of the innocent with the divine justice! Is it not enough to make one tremble? [Umbre[Umbreit]
7. The answer is Ro 2:4; 1Ti 1:16; Ps 73:18; Ec 8:11-13; Lu 2:35-end; Pr 16:4; Ro 9:22.
oldÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin opposition to the friends who asserted that sinners are ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcut offÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ early (Job 8:12, 14).
8. In opposition to Job 18:19; 5:4.
9. Literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpeace from fearÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; with poetic force. Their house is peace itself, far removed from fear. Opposed to the friendsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ assertion, as to the bad (Job 15:21-24; 20:26-28), and conversely, the good (Job 5:23, 24).
10. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtheir cattle conceive.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The first clause of the verse describes an easy conception, the second, a happy birth [Umbre[Umbreit]
11. send forthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, out of doors, to their happy sports under the skies, like a joyful flock sent to the pastures.
little onesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlike lambkins.
childrenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsomewhat older than the former.
danceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot formal dances; but skip, like lambs, in joyous and healthful play.
12. takeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlift up the voiceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (sing) to the note of [Umbre[Umbreit]
organÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot the modern ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂorgan,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ but the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpipeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ge 4:21). The first clause refers to stringed, the latter, to wind instruments; thus, with ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe voiceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ all kinds of music are enumerated.
13. wealthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂOld English Version for ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂprosperity.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
in a momentÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot by a lingering disease. Great blessings! Lengthened life with prosperity, and a sudden painless death (Ps 73:4).
14. ThereforeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAnd yet they are such as say,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c., that is, say, not in so many words, but virtually, by their conduct (so the Gergesenes, Mt 8:34). How differently the godly (Isa 2:3).
waysÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe course of action, which God points out; as in Ps 50:23, Margin.
15. (Compare Jer 2:20; Pr 30:9, Margin, Ex 5:2).
what profitÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Job 35:3; Mal 3:14; Ps 73:13). Sinners ask, not what is right, but what is for the profit of self. They forget, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIf religion cost self something, the want of it will cost self infinitely more.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
16. not in their handÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbut in the hand of God. This is JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs difficulty, that God who has sinners prosperity (good) in His hand should allow them to have it.
isÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmay the counsel of the wicked be far from me!ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Umbre[Umbreit] naturally follows the sentiment of the first clause: Let me not hereby be thought to regard with aught but horror the ways of the wicked, however prosperous.
17. Job in this whole passage down to Job 21:21 quotes the assertion of the friends, as to the short continuance of the sinnerÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs prosperity, not his own sentiments. In Job 21:22 he proceeds to refute them. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHow oft is the candleÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (lamp), &c., quoting BildadÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs sentiment (Job 18:5, 6), in order to question its truth (compare Mt 25:8).
how oftÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGod distributeth,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c. (alluding to Job 20:23, 29).
sorrowsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂUmbreit translates ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsnares,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcords,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ which lightning in its twining motion resembles (Ps 11:6).
18. Job alludes to a like sentiment of Bildad (Job 18:18), using his own previous words (Job 13:25).
19. Equally questionable is the friendsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ assertion that if the godless himself is not punished, the children are (Job 18:19; 20:10); and that God rewardeth him here for his iniquity, and that he shall know it to his cost. So ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂknowÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ho 9:7).
20. Another questionable assertion of the friends, that the sinner sees his own and his childrenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs destruction in his lifetime.
drinkÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Ps 11:6; Isa 51:17; La 4:21).
21. The argument of the friends, in proof of Job 21:20, What pleasure can he have from his house (children) when he is deadÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂafter him,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Ec 3:22).
when the number, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂOr, rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWhat hath he to do with his children?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c. (so the Hebrew in Ec 3:1; 8:6). It is therefore necessary that ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhis eyes should see his and their destructionÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (see Job 14:21).
cut offÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, when the number of his allotted months is fulfilled (Job 14:5). From an Arabic word, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂarrow,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ which was used to draw lots with. Hence ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂarrowÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂinevitable destiny [Umbre[Umbreit]
22. Reply of Job, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIn all these assertions you try to teach God how He ought to deal with men, rather than prove that He does in fact so deal with them. Experience is against you. God gives prosperity and adversity as it pleases Him, not as manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs wisdom would have it, on principles inscrutable to usÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Isa 40:13; Ro 11:34).
those ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ highÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe high ones, not only angels, but men (Isa 2:12-17).
23. Literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin the bone of his perfection,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, the full strength of unimpaired prosperity [Umbre[Umbreit]
24. breastsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂskins,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂvesselsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ for fluids [Lee].[Lee][Umbre[Umbreit]ations or resting-places of his herds near waterÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; in opposition to Zophar (Job 20:17); the first clause refers to his abundant substance, the second to his vigorous health.
moistenedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcomparing manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs body to a well-watered field (Pr 3:8; Isa 58:11).
26. (Ec 9:2).
27. Their wrongful thoughts against Job are stated by him in Job 21:28. They do not honestly name Job, but insinuate his guilt.
28. ye sayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂreferring to Zophar (Job 20:7).
the houseÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂreferring to the fall of the house of JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs oldest son (Job 1:19) and the destruction of his family.
princeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe parallel ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwickedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in the second clause requires this to be taken in a bad sense, tyrant, oppressor (Isa 13:2), the same Hebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnoblesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂoppressors.
dwelling-placesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpavilions,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ a tent containing many dwellings, such as a great emir, like Job, with many dependents, would have.
29. Job, seeing that the friends will not admit him as an impartial judge, as they consider his calamities prove his guilt, begs them to ask the opinion of travellers (La 1:12), who have the experience drawn from observation, and who are no way connected with him. Job opposes this to Bildad (Job 8:8) and Zophar (Job 20:4).
tokensÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂintimationsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (for example, inscriptions, proverbs, signifying the results of their observation), testimony. Literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsignsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or proofs in confirmation of the word spoken (Isa 7:11).
30. Their testimony (referring perhaps to those who had visited the region where Abraham who enjoyed a revelation then lived) is that ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe wicked is (now) spared (reserved) against the day of destruction (hereafter).ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The Hebrew does not so well agree with [Umbre[Umbreit] the day of destruction.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Job does not deny sinnersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ future punishment, but their punishment in this life. They have their ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgood thingsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ now. Hereafter, their lot, and that of the godly, shall be reversed (Lu 16:25). Job, by the Spirit, often utters truths which solve the difficulty under which he labored. His afflictions mostly clouded his faith, else he would have seen the solution furnished by his own words. This answers the objection, that if he knew of the resurrection in Job 19:25, and future retribution (Job 21:30), why did he not draw his reasonings elsewhere from them, which he did not? GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs righteous government, however, needs to be vindicated as to this life also, and therefore the Holy Ghost has caused the argument mainly to turn on it at the same time giving glimpses of a future fuller vindication of GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs ways.
brought forthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcarried away safeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂescapeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (referring to this life), as Umbreit has it.
wrathÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwraths,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, multiplied and fierce wrath.
31. That is, who dares to charge him openly with his bad ways? namely, in this present life. He shall, I grant (Job 21:30), be ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrepaidÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ hereafter.
32. YetÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂand.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
broughtÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwith solemn pomp (Ps 45:15).
graveÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgravesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; that is, the place where the graves are.
remain inÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, watch on the tomb, or sepulchral mound. Even after death he seems still to live and watch (that is, have his ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂremembranceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ preserved) by means of the monument over the grave. In opposition to Bildad (Job 18:17).
33. As the classic saying has it, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe earth is light upon him.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ His repose shall be ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsweet.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
drawÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfollow. He shall share the common lot of mortals; no worse off than they (Heb 9:27). Umbreit not so well (for it is not true of ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂevery manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ). ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂMost men follow in his bad steps, as countless such preceded him.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
34. falsehoodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtransgression.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Your boasted ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂconsolationsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 15:11) are contradicted by facts (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂvainÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ); they therefore only betray your evil intent (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwickednessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) against me.
Job 22:1-30. As Before, Eliphaz Begins.
1. Eliphaz shows that manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs goodness does not add to, or manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs badness take from, the happiness of God; therefore it cannot be that God sends prosperity to some and calamities on others for His own advantage; the cause of the goods and ills sent must lie in the men themselves (Ps 16:2; Lu 17:10; Ac 17:25; 1Ch 29:14). So JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs calamities must arise from guilt. Eliphaz, instead of meeting the facts, tries to show that it could not be so.
2. as he that is wiseÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, yea the pious man profiteth himself. So ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂunderstandingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwiseÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpious (Da 12:3, 10; Ps 14:2) [Micha[Michaelis]
3. pleasureÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂaccession of happiness; God has pleasure in manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs righteousness (Ps 45:7), but He is not dependent on manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs character for His happiness.
4. Is the punishment inflicted on thee from fear of thee, in order to disarm thee? as Job had implied (see on Job 7:12; Job 7:20; and Job 10:17).
will he enter ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ into judgment?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂJob had desired this (Job 13:3, 21). He ought rather to have spoken as in Ps 143:2.
5. Heretofore Eliphaz had only insinuated, now he plainly asserts JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs guilt, merely on the ground of his sufferings.
6. The crimes alleged, on a harsh inference, by Eliphaz against Job are such as he would think likely to be committed by a rich man. The Mosaic law (Ex 22:26; De 24:10) subsequently embodied the feeling that existed among the godly in JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs time against oppression of debtors as to their pledges. Here the case is not quite the same; Job is charged with taking a pledge where he had no just claim to it; and in the second clause, that pledge (the outer garment which served the poor as a covering by day and a bed by night) is represented as taken from one who had not ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂchanges of raimentÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (a common constituent of wealth in the East), but was poorly cladÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnakedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Mt 25:36; Jas 2:15); a sin the more heinous in a rich man like Job.
7. Hospitality to the weary traveller is regarded in the East as a primary duty (Isa 21:14).
8. mightyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂman of armÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ps 10:15; namely, Job).
honourableÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂeminent, or, accepted for countenanceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Isa 3:3; 2Ki 5:1); that is, possessing authority. Eliphaz repeats his charge (Job 15:28; so Zophar, Job 20:19), that it was by violence Job wrung houses and lands from the poor, to whom now he refused relief (Job 22:7, 9) [Micha[Michaelis]
9. emptyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwithout their wants being relieved (Ge 31:42). The Mosaic law especially protected the widow and fatherless (Ex 22:22); the violation of it in their case by the great is a complaint of the prophets (Isa 1:17).
armsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsupports, helps, on which one leans (Ho 7:15). Thou hast robbed them of their only stay. Job replies in Job 29:11-16.
10. snaresÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂalluding to JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs admission (Job 19:6; compare Job 18:10; Pr 22:5).
11. thatÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂso that thou.
abundanceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfloods. Danger by floods is a less frequent image in this book than in the rest of the Old Testament (Job 11:16; 27:20).
12. Eliphaz says this to prove that God can from His height behold all things; gratuitously inferring that Job denied it, because he denied that the wicked are punished here.
heightÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhead of the starsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; that is, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂelevationÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 11:8).
13. Rather, And yet thou sayest, God does not concern Himself with (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂknowÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) human affairs (Ps 73:11).
14. in the circuit of heavenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂonly, not taking any part in earthly affairs. Job is alleged as holding this Epicurean sentiment (La 3:44; Isa 29:15; 40:27; Jer 23:24; Eze 8:12; Ps 139:12).
15. markedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRather, Dost thou keep to? that is, wish to follow (so Hebrew, 2Sa 22:22). If so, beware of sharing their end.
the old wayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe degenerate ways of the world before the flood (Ge 6:5).
16. cut downÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfettered,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as in Job 16:8; that is, arrested by death.
out of timeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂprematurely, suddenly (Job 15:32; Ec 7:17); literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhose foundation was poured out (so as to become) a stream or flood.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The solid earth passed from beneath their feet into a flood (Ge 7:11).
17. Eliphaz designedly uses JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs own words (Job 21:14, 15).
do for themÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThey think they can do everything for themselves.
18. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂYetÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ you say (see on Job 21:16) that it is ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe who filled their houses with goodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtheir good is not in their hand,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ but comes from God.
but the counsel ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ isÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmay the counsel be,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c. Eliphaz sarcastically quotes in continuation JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs words (Job 21:16). Yet, after uttering this godless sentiment, thou dost hypocritically add, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂMay the counsel,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c.
19. Triumph of the pious at the fall of the recent followers of the antediluvian sinners. While in the act of denying that God can do them any good or harm, they are cut off by Him. Eliphaz hereby justifies himself and the friends for their conduct to Job: not derision of the wretched, but joy at the vindication of GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs ways (Ps 107:42; Re 15:3; 16:7; 19:1, 2).
20. The triumphant speech of the pious. If ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsubstanceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ be retained, translate, rather as the Septuagint, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHas not their substance been taken away, and ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ ?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ But the Hebrew is rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂTruly our adversary is cut downÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Gesen[Gesenius]same opposition exists between the godly and ungodly seed as between the unfallen and restored Adam and Satan (adversary); this forms the groundwork of the book (Job 1:1-2:13; Ge 3:15).
remnantÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂall that ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂis leftÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of the sinner; repeated from Job 20:26, which makes UmbreitÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs rendering ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgloryÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Margin), ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂexcellency,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ less probable.
fireÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂalluding to Job (Job 1:16; 15:34; 18:15). First is mentioned destruction by water (Job 22:16); here, by fire (2Pe 3:5-7).
21. Eliphaz takes it for granted, Job is not yet ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂacquaintedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ with God; literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbecome a companion of God.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Turn with familiar confidence to God.
and beÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂSo thou shalt be: the second imperatively expresses the consequence of obeying the first (Ps 37:27).
peaceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂprosperity and restoration to Job; true spiritually also to us (Ro 5:1; Col 1:20).
22. lay upÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Ps 119:11).
23. Built upÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂanew, as a restored house.
thou shalt put awayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIf thou put awayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Micha[Michaelis]
24. Rather, containing the protasis from the last clause of Job 22:23, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIf thou regard the glittering metal as dustÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlay it on on the dustÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; to regard it of as little value as the dust on which it lies. The apodosis is at Job 22:25, Then shall the Almighty be, &c. God will take the place of the wealth, in which thou didst formerly trust.
goldÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpreciousÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂglittering metal,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ parallel to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(gold) of Ophir,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in the second clause [Umbre[Umbreit and Maurer]
OphirÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂderived from a Hebrew word ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdust,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ namely, gold dust. Heeren thinks it a general name for the rich countries of the South, on the African, Indian, and especially the Arabian coast (where was the port Aphar. El Ophir, too, a city of Oman, was formerly the center of Arabian commerce). It is curious that the natives of Malacca still call their mines Ophirs.
stones of the brooksÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIf thou dost let the gold of Ophir remain in its native valley among the stones of the brooks; that is, regard it as of little worth as the stones, &c. The gold was washed down by mountain torrents and lodged among the stones and sand of the valley.
YeaÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, Then shall the Almighty be, &c.
defenceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, as the same Hebrew means in Job 22:24 (see on Job 22:24)ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThy precious metals; God will be to thee in the place of riches.
plenty of silverÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAnd shall be to thee in the place of laboriously-obtained treasures of silverÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Gesen[Gesenius]antly implying, it is less labor to find God than the hidden metals; at least to the humble seeker (Job 28:12-28). But [Maure[Maurer]e shining silver.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
26. lift up ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ face, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrepeated from Zophar (Job 11:15).
27. (Isa 58:9, 14).
pay thy vowsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhich thou hast promised to God in the event of thy prayers being heard: God will give thee occasion to pay the former, by hearing the latter.
29. Rather, When (thy ways; from Job 22:28) are cast down (for a time), thou shalt (soon again have joyful cause to) say, There is lifting up (prosperity returns back to me) [Maure[Maurer]
humbleÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhim that is of low eyes.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Eliphaz implies that Job is not so now in his affliction; therefore it continues: with this he contrasts the blessed effect of being humble under it (Jas 4:6; 1Pe 5:5 probably quote this passage). Therefore it is better, I think, to take the first clause as referred to by ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGod resisteth the proud.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ When (men) are cast down, thou shalt say (behold the effects of) pride. Eliphaz hereby justifies himself for attributing JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs calamities to his pride. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGiveth grace to the humble,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ answers to the second clause.
30. islandÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdwelling.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ But the Hebrew expresses the negative (1Sa 4:21); translate ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThus He (God) shall deliver him who was not guiltless,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ namely, one, who like Job himself on conversion shall be saved, but not because he was, as Job so constantly affirms of himself, guiltless, but because he humbles himself (Job 22:29); an oblique attack on Job, even to the last.
and itÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhe (the one not heretofore guiltless) shall be delivered through the purity (acquired since conversion) of thy handsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; by thy intercession (as Ge 18:26, &c.). [Maure[Maurer]irony is strikingly exhibited in Eliphaz unconsciously uttering words which exactly answer to what happened at last: he and the other two were ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdeliveredÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ by God accepting the intercession of Job for them (Job 42:7, 8).
Job 23:1-17. JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs Answer.
2. to-dayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂimplying, perhaps, that the debate was carried on through more days than one (see Introduction).
bitterÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Job 7:11; 10:1).
my strokeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe hand of God on me (Margin, Job 19:21; Ps 32:4).
heavier thanÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂis so heavy that I cannot relieve myself adequately by groaning.
3. The same wish as in Job 13:3 (compare Heb 10:19-22).
SeatÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe idea in the Hebrew is a well-prepared throne (Ps 9:7).
4. orderÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂstate methodically (Job 13:18; Isa 43:26).
fill, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI would have abundance of arguments to adduce.
5. heÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂemphatic: it little matters what man may say of me, if only I know what God judges of me.
6. An objection suggests itself, while he utters the wish (Job 23:5). Do I hereby wish that He should plead against me with His omnipotence? Far from it! (Job 9:19, 34; 13:21; 30:18).
strengthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂso as to prevail with Him: as in JacobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs case (Ho 12:3, 4). Umbreit and Maurer better translate as in Job 4:20 (I only wish that He) ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwould attend to me,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, give me a patient hearing as an ordinary judge, not using His omnipotence, but only His divine knowledge of my innocence.
7. ThereÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ: if God would ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂattendÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ to me (Job 23:6).
righteousÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, the result of my dispute would be, He would acknowledge me as righteous.
deliveredÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfrom suspicion of guilt on the part of my Judge.
8. But I wish in vain. For ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbehold,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c.
forward ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ backwardÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto the eastÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto the west.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The Hebrew geographers faced the east, that is, sunrise: not the north, as we do. So ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbeforeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ means east: ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbehind,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ west (so the Hindus). Para, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbeforeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂeast: Apara, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbehindÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwest: Daschina, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe right handÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsouth: Bama, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂleftÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnorth. A similar reference to sunrise appears in the name Asia, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsunrise,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Europe, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsunsetÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; pure Babylonian names, as Rawlinson shows.
9. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂTo the north.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
workÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs glorious works are especially seen towards the north region of the sky by one in the northern hemisphere. The antithesis is between God working and yet not being beheld: as in Job 9:11, between ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe goeth by,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ and ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI see Him not.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ If the Hebrew bears it, the parallelism to the second clause is better suited by translating, as Umbreit, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdoth hide himselfÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; but then the antithesis to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbeholdÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ would be lost.
right handÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin the south.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
hidethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂappropriately, of the unexplored south, then regarded as uninhabitable because of its heat (see Job 34:29).
10. ButÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcorrecting himself for the wish that his cause should be known before God. The omniscient One already knoweth the way in me (my inward principles: His outward way or course of acts is mentioned in Job 23:11. So in me, Job 4:21); though for some inscrutable cause He as yet hides Himself (Job 23:8, 9).
whenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlet Him only but try my cause, I shall, &c.
11. heldÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfast by His steps. The law is in Old Testament poetry regarded as a way, God going before us as our guide, in whose footsteps we must tread (Ps 17:5).
12. esteemedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlaid up,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ namely, as a treasure found (Mt 13:44; Ps 119:11); alluding to the words of Eliphaz (Job 22:22). There was no need to tell me so; I have done so already (Jer 15:16).
necessaryÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAppointed portionÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (of food; as in Pr 30:8). Umbreit and Maurer translate, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂMore than my law,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ my own will, in antithesis to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe words of His mouthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Joh 6:38). Probably under the general term, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhat is appointed to meÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (the same Hebrew is in Job 23:14), all that ministers to the appetites of the body and carnal will is included.
13. in one mindÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnotwithstanding my innocence, He is unaltered in His purpose of proving me guilty (Job 9:12).
soulÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHis will (Ps 115:3). GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs sovereignty. He has one great purpose; nothing is haphazard; everything has its proper place with a view to His purpose.
14. many suchÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe has yet many more such ills in store for me, though hidden in His breast (Job 10:13).
15. GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs decrees, impossible to be resisted, and leaving us in the dark as to what may come next, are calculated to fill the mind with holy awe [Barne[Barnes]
16. softÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfaint; hath melted my courage. Here again JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs language is that of Jesus Christ (Ps 22:14).
17. Because I was not taken away by death from the evil to come (literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfrom before the face of the darkness,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Isa 57:1). Alluding to the words of Eliphaz (Job 22:11), ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdarkness,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, calamity.
cut offÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, in the Arabic sense, brought to the land of silence; my sad complaint hushed in death [Umbre[Umbreit]arknessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in the second clause, not the same Hebrew word as in the first, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcloud,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂobscurity.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Instead of ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcovering the cloud (of evil) from my face,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ He ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcoversÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ me with it (Job 22:11).
1. Why is it that, seeing that the times of punishment (Eze 30:3; ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtimeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in the same sense) are not hidden from the Almighty, they who know Him (His true worshippers, Job 18:21) do not see His days (of vengeance; Joe 1:15; 2Pe 3:10)? Or, with Umbreit less simply, making the parallel clauses more nicely balanced, Why are not times of punishment hoarded up (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlaid upÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; Job 21:19; appointed) by the Almighty? that is, Why are they not so appointed as that man may now see them? as the second clause shows. Job does not doubt that they are appointed: nay, he asserts it (Job 21:30); what he wishes is that God would let all now see that it is so.
2-24. Instances of the wicked doing the worst deeds with seeming impunity (Job 24:2-24).
landmarksÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂboundaries between different pastures (De 19:14; Pr 22:28).
3. pledgeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂalluding to Job 22:6. Others really do, and with impunity, that which Eliphaz falsely charges the afflicted Job with.
4. Literally, they push the poor out of their road in meeting them. Figuratively, they take advantage of them by force and injustice (alluding to the charge of Eliphaz, Job 22:8; 1Sa 8:3).
poorÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin spirit and in circumstances (Mt 5:3).
hideÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfrom the injustice of their oppressors, who have robbed them of their all and driven them into unfrequented places (Job 20:19; 30:3-6; Pr 28:28).
5. wild assesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Job 11:12). So Ishmael is called a ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwild ass-manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; Hebrew (Ge 16:12). These Bedouin robbers, with the unbridled wildness of the ass of the desert, go forth thither. Robbery is their lawless ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwork.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The desert, which yields no food to other men, yields food for the robber and his children by the plunder of caravans.
rising betimesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIn the East travelling is begun very early, before the heat comes on.
6. Like the wild asses (Job 24:5) they (these Bedouin robbers) reap (metaphorically) their various grain (so the Hebrew for ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcornÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ means). The wild ass does not let man pile his mixed provender up in a stable (Isa 30:24); so these robbers find their food in the open air, at one time in the desert (Job 24:5), at another in the fields.
the vintage of the wickedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe wicked gather the vintageÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; the vintage of robbery, not of honest industry. If we translate ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbelonging to the wicked,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ then it will imply that the wicked alone have vineyards, the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpious poorÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 24:4) have none. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGatherÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in Hebrew, is ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgather late.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ As the first clause refers to the early harvest of corn, so the second to the vintage late in autumn.
7. Umbreit understands it of the Bedouin robbers, who are quite regardless of the comforts of life, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThey pass the night naked, and uncovered,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c. But the allusion to Job 22:6, makes the English Version preferable (see on Job 24:10). Frost is not uncommon at night in those regions (Ge 31:40).
8. TheyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe plundered travellers.
embrace the rockÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtake refuge under it (La 4:5).
9. from the breastÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂof the widowed mother. Kidnapping children for slaves. Here Job passes from wrongs in the desert to those done among the habitations of men.
pledgeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, the garment of the poor debtor, as Job 24:10 shows.
10. (See on Job 22:6). In Job 24:7 a like sin is alluded to: but there he implies open robbery of garments in the desert; here, the more refined robbery in civilized life, under the name of a ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpledge.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Having stripped the poor, they make them besides labor in their harvest-fields and do not allow them to satisfy their hunger with any of the very corn which they carry to the heap. Worse treatment than that of the ox, according to De 25:4. Translate: ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthey (the poor laborers) hungering carry the sheavesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Umbre[Umbreit]
11. WhichÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThey,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ the poor, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpress the oil within their wallÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; namely, not only in the open fields (Job 24:10), but also in the wall-enclosed vineyards and olive gardens of the oppressor (Isa 5:5). Yet they are not allowed to quench their ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthirstÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ with the grapes and olives. Here, thirsty; Job 24:10, hungry.
12. MenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmortalsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (not the common Hebrew for ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ); so the Masoretic vowel points read as English Version. But the vowel points are modern. The true reading is, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe dying,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ answering to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe woundedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in the next clause, so Syriac. Not merely in the country (Job 24:11), but also in the city there are oppressed sufferers, who cry for help in vain. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂFrom out of the cityÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; that is, they long to get forth and be free outside of it (Ex 1:11; 2:23).
woundedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂby the oppressor (Eze 30:24).
layeth not follyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtakes no account of (by punishing) their sin (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfollyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in Scripture; Job 1:22). This is the gist of the whole previous list of sins (Ac 17:30). Umbreit with Syriac reads by changing a vowel point, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRegards not their supplication.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
13. So far as to openly committed sins; now, those done in the dark. Translate: ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThere are those among them (the wicked) who rebel,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c.
lightÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂboth literal and figurative (Joh 3:19, 20; Pr 2:13).
paths thereofÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂplaces where the light shines.
14. with the lightÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂat early dawn, while still dark, when the traveller in the East usually sets out, and the poor laborer to his work; the murderous robber lies in wait then (Ps 10:8).
is as a thiefÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThieves in the East steal while men sleep at night; robbers murder at early dawn. The same man who steals at night, when light dawns not only robs, but murders to escape detection.
15. (Pr 7:9; Ps 10:11).
disguisethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂputs a veil on.
16. dig throughÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHouses in the East are generally built of sun-dried mud bricks (so Mt 6:19). ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThieves break through,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdig throughÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Eze 12:7).
had markedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRather, as in Job 9:7, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThey shut themselves upÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (in their houses); literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthey seal up.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
for themselvesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfor their own ends, namely, to escape detection.
17. They shrink from the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmorningÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ light, as much as other men do from the blackest darkness (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe shadow of deathÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ).
if one knowÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, recognize them. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThey know well (are familiar with) the terrors of,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c. [Umbre[Umbreit]as Maurer, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThey know the terrors of (this) darkness,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ namely, of morning, the light, which is as terrible to them as darkness (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe shadow of deathÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) is to other men.
18-21. In these verses Job quotes the opinions of his adversaries ironically; he quoted them so before (Job 21:7-21). In Job 24:22-24, he states his own observation as the opposite. You say, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe sinner is swift, that is, swiftly passes away (as a thing floating) on the surface of the watersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ec 11:1; Ho 10:7).
is cursedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂby those who witness their ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂswiftÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ destruction.
beholdeth notÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂturneth not toÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; figuratively, for He cannot enjoy his pleasant possessions (Job 20:17; 15:33).
the way of the vineyardsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂincluding his fields, fertile as vineyards; opposite to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe way of the desert.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
19. Arabian image; melted snow, as contrasted with the living fountain, quickly dries up in the sunburnt sand, not leaving a trace behind (Job 6:16-18). The Hebrew is terse and elliptical to express the swift and utter destruction of the godless; (so) ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe graveÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthey have sinned!ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
20. The wombÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe very mother that bare him, and who is the last to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂforgetÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ the child that sucked her (Isa 49:15), shall dismiss him from her memory (Job 18:17; Pr 10:7). The worm shall suck, that is, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfeed sweetlyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ on him as a delicate morsel (Job 21:33).
wickednessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, the wicked; abstract for concrete (as Job 5:16).
as a treeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂutterly (Job 19:10); Umbreit better, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas a staff.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ A broken staff is the emblem of irreparable ruin (Isa 14:5; Ho 4:12).
21. The reason given by the friends why the sinner deserves such a fate.
barrenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwithout sons, who might have protected her.
widowÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwithout a husband to support her.
22-25. Reply of Job to the opinion of the friends. Experience proves the contrary. Translate: ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂBut He (God) prolongeth the life of (literally, draweth out at length; Ps 36:10, Margin) the mighty with His (GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs) power. He (the wicked) riseth up (from his sick bed) although he had given up hope of (literally, when he no longer believed in) lifeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (De 28:66).
23. Literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe (God omitted, as often; Job 3:20; Ec 9:9; reverentially) giveth to him (the wicked, to be) in safety, or security.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
yetÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂJob means, How strange that God should so favor them, and yet have His eyes all the time open to their wicked ways (Pr 15:3; Ps 73:4)!
24. Job repeats what he said (Job 21:13), that sinners die in exalted positions, not the painful and lingering death we might expect, but a quick and easy death. Join ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfor a whileÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ with ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂare gone,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ not as English Version. Translate: ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂA momentÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂand they are no more! They are brought low, as all (others) gather up their feet to dieÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (so the Hebrew of ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂare taken out of the wayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ). A natural death (Ge 49:33).
ears of cornÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin a ripe and full age, not prematurely (Job 5:26).
25. (So Job 9:24).
Job 25:1-6. BildadÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs Reply.
He tries to show JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs rashness (Job 23:3), by arguments borrowed from Eliphaz (Job 15:15, with which compare Job 11:17.
2. Power and terror, that is, terror-inspiring power.
peace in his high placesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂimplying that His power is such on high as to quell all opposition, not merely there, but on earth also. The Holy Ghost here shadowed forth Gospel truths (Col 1:20; Eph 1:10).
3. armiesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂangels and stars (Isa 40:26; Jer 33:22; Ge 15:5; ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcountless,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Da 7:10).
his lightÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Jas 1:17).
4. (Job 4:17, 18; 14:4; 15:14).
5. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂLook up even unto the moonÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 15:15). ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂStarsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ here answer to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsaintsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (angels) there; ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe moonÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ here to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe heavensÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ there. Even the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂstars,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ the most dazzling object to manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs eye, and the angels, of which the stars are emblems (Job 4:18; Re 9:1), are imperfect in His sight. Theirs is the light and purity but of creatures; His of the Creator.
6. (Job 4:19-21; 15:16).
worm ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ wormÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂTwo distinct Hebrew words. The first, a worm bred in putridity; alluding to manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs corruption. The second a crawling worm; implying that man is weak and grovelling.
Job 26:1-14. JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs Reply.
2, 3. without power ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ no strength ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ no wisdomÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe negatives are used instead of the positives, powerlessness, &c., designedly (so Isa 31:8; De 32:21). Granting I am, as you say (Job 18:17; 15:2), powerlessness itself, &c. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHow hast thou helped such a one?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
3. plentifully ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ the thing as it isÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂabundantlyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwisdom.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Bildad had made great pretensions to abundant wisdom. How has he shown it?
4. For whose instruction were thy words meant? If for me I know the subject (GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs omnipotence) better than my instructor; Job 26:5-14 is a sample of JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs knowledge of it.
whose spiritÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot that of God (Job 32:8); nay, rather, the borrowed sentiment of Eliphaz (Job 4:17-19; 15:14-16).
5-14. As before in the ninth and twelfth chapters, Job had shown himself not inferior to the friendsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ inability to describe GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs greatness, so now he describes it as manifested in hell (the world of the dead), Job 26:5, 6; on earth, Job 26:7; in the sky, Job 26:8-11; the sea, Job 26:12; the heavens, Job 26:13.
Dead things are formedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe souls of the dead (Rephaim) tremble.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Not only does GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs power exist, as Bildad says (Job 25:2), ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin high placesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (heaven), but reaches to the region of the dead. Rephaim here, and in Pr 21:16 and Isa 14:9, is from a Hebrew root, meaning ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto be weak,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ hence ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdeceasedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; in Ge 14:5 it is applied to the Canaanite giants; perhaps in derision, to express their weakness, in spite of their gigantic size, as compared with Jehovah [Umbre[Umbreit]as the imagination of the living magnifies apparitions, the term originally was applied to ghosts, and then to giants in general [Magee[Magee]
from underÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂUmbreit joins this with the previous word ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtremble from beneathÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (so Isa 14:9). But the Masoretic text joins it to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂunder the waters.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Thus the place of the dead will be represented as ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂunder the watersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ps 18:4, 5); and the waters as under the earth (Ps 24:2). Magee well translates thus: ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe souls of the dead tremble; (the places) under the waters, and their inhabitants.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Thus the Masoretic connection is retained; and at the same time the parallel clauses are evenly balanced. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe inhabitants of the places under the watersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ are those in Gehenna, the lower of the two parts into which Sheol, according to the Jews, is divided; they answer to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdestruction,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, the place of the wicked in Job 26:6, as ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRephaimÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 26:5) to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHellÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Sheol) (Job 26:6). ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂSheolÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ comes from a Hebrew rootÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂask,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ because it is insatiable (Pr 27:20); or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂask as a loan to be returned,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ implying Sheol is but a temporary abode, previous to the resurrection; so for English Version ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂformed,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ the Septuagint and Chaldee translate; shall be born, or born again, implying the dead are to be given back from Sheol and born again into a new state [Magee[Magee]
6. (Job 38:17; Ps 139:8; Pr 5:11).
destructionÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe abode of destruction, that is, of lost souls. Hebrew, Abaddon (Re 9:11).
no coveringÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfrom GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs eyes.
7. Hint of the true theory of the earth. Its suspension in empty space is stated in the second clause. The north in particular is specified in the first, being believed to be the highest part of the earth (Isa 14:13). The northern hemisphere or vault of heaven is included; often compared to a stretched-out canopy (Ps 104:2). The chambers of the south are mentioned (Job 9:9), that is, the southern hemisphere, consistently with the earthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs globular form.
8. in ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ cloudsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas if in airy vessels, which, though light, do not burst with the weight of water in them (Pr 30:4).
9. Rather, He encompasseth or closeth. God makes the clouds a veil to screen the glory not only of His person, but even of the exterior of His throne from profane eyes. His agency is everywhere, yet He Himself is invisible (Ps 18:11; 104:3).
10. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe hath drawn a circular bound round the watersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Pr 8:27; Ps 104:9). The horizon seems a circle. Indication is given of the globular form of the earth.
until the day, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto the confines of light and darkness. When the light falls on our horizon, the other hemisphere is dark. Umbreit and Maurer translate ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe has most perfectly (literally, to perfection) drawn the bound (taken from the first clause) between light and darknessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (compare Ge 1:4, 6, 9): where the bounding of the light from darkness is similarly brought into proximity with the bounding of the waters.
11. pillarsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpoetically for the mountains which seem to bear up the sky (Ps 104:32).
astonishedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, from terror. Personification.
his reproofÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Ps 104:7). The thunder, reverberating from cliff to cliff (Hab 3:10; Na 1:5).
12. dividethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Ps 74:13). Perhaps at creation (Ge 1:9, 10). The parallel clause favors Umbreit, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe stilleth.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ But the Hebrew means ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe moves.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Probably such a ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmovingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is meant as that at the assuaging of the flood by the wind which ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGod made to pass overÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ it (Ge 8:1; Ps 104:7).
the proudÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂits pride,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ namely, of the sea (Job 9:13).
13. Umbreit less simply, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂBy His breath He maketh the heavens to reviveÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ: namely, His wind dissipates the clouds, which obscured the shining stars. And so the next clause in contrast, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHis hand doth strangle,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, obscures the north constellation, the dragon. Pagan astronomy typified the flood trying to destroy the ark by the dragon constellation, about to devour the moon in its eclipsed crescent-shape like a boat (Job 3:8, Margin). But better as English Version (Ps 33:6).
crookedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂimplying the oblique course, of the stars, or the ecliptic. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂFleeingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂswiftÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Umbre[Umbreit]27:1). This particular constellation is made to represent the splendor of all the stars.
14. partsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂonly the extreme boundaries of,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c., and how faint is the whisper that we hear of Him!
thunderÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe entire fulness. In antithesis to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhisperÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (1Co 13:9, 10, 12).
It was now ZopharÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs turn to speak. But as he and the other two were silent, virtually admitting defeat, after a pause Job proceeds.
1. parableÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂapplied in the East to a figurative sententious embodiment of wisdom in poetic form, a gnome (Ps 49:4).
continuedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂproceeded to put forth; implying elevation of discourse.
2. (1Sa 20:3).
taken away ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ judgmentÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwords unconsciously foreshadowing Jesus Christ (Isa 53:8; Ac 8:33). God will not give Job his right, by declaring his innocence.
vexedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmade bitterÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ru 1:20).
3. Implying JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs knowledge of the fact that the living soul was breathed into man by God (Ge 2:7). ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAll the while.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ But Maurer, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAs yet all my breath is in meÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (notwithstanding my trials): the reason why I can speak so boldly.
4. (Job 6:28, 30). The ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdeceitÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ would be if he were to admit guilt against the witness of his conscience.
5. justify youÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂapprove of your views.
mine integrityÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhich you deny, on account of my misfortunes.
6. Rather, my ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂheartÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (conscience) reproaches ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot one of my days,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, I do not repent of any of my days since I came into existence [Maure[Maurer]
7. Let ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ beÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂLet mine enemy be accounted as wicked, that is, He who opposes my asseveration of innocence must be regarded as actuated by criminal hostility. Not a curse on his enemies.
8. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWhat hope hath the hypocrite, notwithstanding all his gains, when?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGainedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is antithetic to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtaketh away.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ UmbreitÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs translation is an unmeaning tautology. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWhen God cuts off, when He taketh away his life.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
taketh awayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdraws outÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ the soul from the body, which is, as it were, its scabbard (Job 4:21; Ps 104:29; Da 7:15). Job says that he admits what Bildad said (Job 8:13) and Zophar (Job 20:5). But he says the very fact of his still calling upon God (Job 27:10) amid all his trials, which a hypocrite would not dare to do, shows he is no ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhypocrite.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
9. (Ps 66:18).
10. Alluding to Job 22:26.
always callÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe may do so in times of prosperity in order to be thought religious. But he will not, as I do, call on God in calamities verging on death. Therefore I cannot be a ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhypocriteÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 19:25; 20:5; Ps 62:8).
11-23. These words are contrary to JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs previous sentiments (see on Job 21:22-33; Job 24:22-25). Job 21:22-33; 24:22-25). They therefore seem to be JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs statement, not so much of his own sentiments, as of what Zophar would have said had he spoken when his turn came (end of the twenty-sixth chapter). So Job stated the friendsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ opinion (Job 21:17-21; 24:18-21). The objection is, why, if so, does not Job answer ZopharÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs opinion, as stated by himself? The fact is, it is probable that Job tacitly, by giving, in the twenty-eighth chapter, only a general answer, implies, that in spite of the wicked often dying, as he said, in prosperity, he does not mean to deny that the wicked are in the main dealt with according to right, and that God herein vindicates His moral government even here. Job therefore states ZopharÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs argument more strongly than Zophar would have done. But by comparing Job 27:13 with Job 20:29 (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂportion,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂheritageÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ), it will be seen, it is ZopharÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs argument, rather than his own, that Job states. Granting it to be true, implies Job, you ought not to use it as an argument to criminate me. For (Job 28:1-28) the ways of divine wisdom in afflicting the godly are inscrutable: all that is sure to man is, the fear of the Lord is wisdom (Job 28:28).
by the handÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, concerning the hand of God, namely, what God does in governing men.
with the AlmightyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe counsel or principle which regulates GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs dealings.
12. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂYe yourselves seeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that the wicked often are afflicted (though often the reverse, Job 21:33). But do you ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂvainlyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ make this an argument to prove from my afflictions that I am wicked?
13. (See on Job 27:11).
14. His family only increases to perish by sword or famine (Jer 18:21; Job 5:20, the converse).
15. Those that escape war and famine (Job 27:14) shall be buried by the deadly plagueÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdeathÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 18:13; Jer 15:2; Re 6:8). The plague of the Middle Ages was called ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe black death.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Buried by it implies that they would have none else but the death plague itself (poetically personified) to perform their funeral rites, that is, would have no one.
hisÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtheir widows.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Transitions from singular to plural are frequent. Polygamy is not implied.
16. dust ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ clayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂimages of multitudes (Zec 9:3). Many changes of raiment are a chief constituent of wealth in the East.
17. Introverted parallelism. (See Introduction). Of the four clauses in the two verses, one answers to four, two to three (so Mt 7:6).
18. (Job 8:14; 4:19). The transition is natural from ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂraimentÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 27:16) to the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhouseÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmothÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in it, and of it, when in its larva state. The moth wormÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs house is broken whenever the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂraimentÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is shaken out, so frail is it.
boothÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa bough-formed hut which the guard of a vineyard raises for temporary shelter (Isa 1:8).
19. gatheredÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂburied honorably (Ge 25:8; 2Ki 22:20). But Umbreit, agreeably to Job 27:18, which describes the short continuance of the sinnerÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs prosperity, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe layeth himself rich in his bed, and nothing is robbed from him, he openeth his eyes, and nothing more is there.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ If English Version be retained, the first clause probably means, rich though he be in dying, he shall not be honored with a funeral; the second, When he opens his eyes in the unseen world, it is only to see his destruction: the Septuagint reads for ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot gathered,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ He does not proceed, that is, goes to his bed no more. So Maurer.
20. (Job 18:11; 22:11, 21). Like a sudden violent flood (Isa 8:7, 8; Jer 47:2): conversely (Ps 32:6).
21. (Job 21:18; 15:2; Ps 58:9).
22. castÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, thunderbolts (Job 6:4; 7:20; 16:13; Ps 7:12, 13).
23. clap ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ handsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfor joy at his downfall (La 2:15; Na 3:19).
hissÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂderide (Jer 25:9). Job alludes to BildadÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs words (Job 18:18).
Job 28:1-28. JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs Speech Continued.
In the twenty-seventh chapter Job had tacitly admitted that the statement of the friends was often true, that God vindicated His justice by punishing the wicked here; but still the affliction of the godly remained unexplained. Man has, by skill, brought the precious metals from their concealment. But the Divine Wisdom, which governs human affairs, he cannot similarly discover (Job 28:12, &c.). However, the image from the same metals (Job 23:10) implies Job has made some way towards solving the riddle of his life; namely, that affliction is to him as the refining fire is to gold.
1. veinÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa mine, from which it goes forth, Hebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂis dug.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
place for goldÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa place where gold may be found, which men refine. Not as English Version, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂA placeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhere,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Mal 3:3). Contrasted with gold found in the bed and sand of rivers, which does not need refining; as the gold dug from a mine does. Golden ornaments have been found in Egypt, of the times of Joseph.
2. brassÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, copper; for brass is a mixed metal of copper and zinc, of modern invention. Iron is less easily discovered, and wrought, than copper; therefore copper was in common use long before iron. Copper-stone is called ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcadmiumÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ by Pliny [Natur[Natural History, 34:1; 36:21] is fitly said to be taken out of the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂearthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (dust), for ore looks like mere earth.
3. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂMan makes an end of darkness,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ by exploring the darkest depths (with torches).
all perfectionÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, carries out his search to the utmost perfection; most thoroughly searches the stones of darkness and of the shadow of death (thickest gloom); that is, the stones, whatever they be, embedded in the darkest bowels of the earth [Umbre[Umbreit]26:10).
4. Three hardships in mining: 1. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂA stream (flood) breaks out at the side of the strangerÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; namely, the miner, a strange newcomer into places heretofore unexplored; his surprise at the sudden stream breaking out beside him is expressed (English Version, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfrom the inhabitantÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ). 2. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂForgotten (unsupported) by the foot they hang,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ namely, by ropes, in descending. In the Hebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂLo thereÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ precedes this clause, graphically placing it as if before the eyes. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe watersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is inserted by English Version. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAre dried up,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ought to be, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhang,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂare suspended.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ English Version perhaps understood, waters of whose existence man was previously unconscious, and near which he never trod; and yet manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs energy is such, that by pumps, &c., he soon causes them to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdry up and go awayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [So He[So Herder]ÃÂÃÂFar away from men, they move with uncertain stepÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; they stagger; not ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthey are goneÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Umbre[Umbreit]
5. Its fertile surface yields food; and yet ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbeneath it is turned up as it were with fire.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ So Pliny [Natur[Natural History, 33]ves on the ingratitude of man who repays the debt he owes the earth for food, by digging out its bowels. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂFireÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ was used in mining [Umbre[Umbreit]ish Version is simpler, which means precious stones which glow like fire; and so Job 28:6 follows naturally (Eze 28:14).
6. Sapphires are found in alluvial soil near rocks and embedded in gneiss. The ancients distinguished two kinds: 1. The real, of transparent blue: 2. That improperly so called, opaque, with gold spots; that is, lapis lazuli. To the latter, looking like gold dust, Umbreit refers ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdust of gold.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ English Version better, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe stones of the earth are, &c., and the clods of it (Vulgate) are goldÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; the parallel clauses are thus neater.
7. fowlÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂravenous bird,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂeagle,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ which is the most sharp-sighted of birds (Isa 46:11). A vulture will spy a carcass at an amazing distance. The miner penetrates the earth by a way unseen by birds of keenest sight.
8. lionÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs whelpsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe sons of pride,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, the fiercest beasts.
passedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe Hebrew implies the proud gait of the lion. The miner ventures where not even the fierce lion dares to go in pursuit of his prey.
9. rockÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂflint. He puts forth his hand to cleave the hardest rock.
by the rootsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfrom their foundations, by undermining them.
10. He cuts channels to drain off the waters, which hinder his mining; and when the waters are gone, he he is able to see the precious things in the earth.
11. floodsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe restrains the streams from weepingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; a poetical expression for the trickling subterranean rills, which impede him; answering to the first clause of Job 28:10; so also the two latter clauses in each verse correspond.
12. Can man discover the Divine Wisdom by which the world is governed, as he can the treasures hidden in the earth? Certainly not. Divine Wisdom is conceived as a person (Job 28:12-27) distinct from God (Job 28:23; also in Pr 8:23, 27). The Almighty Word, Jesus Christ, we know now, is that Wisdom. The order of the world was originated and is maintained by the breathing forth (Spirit) of Wisdom, unfathomable and unpurchasable by man. In Job 28:28, the only aspect of it, which relates to, and may be understood by, man, is stated.
understandingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂinsight into the plan of the divine government.
13. Man can fix no price upon it, as it is nowhere to be found in manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs abode (Isa 38:11). Job implies both its valuable worth, and the impossibility of buying it at any price.
15. Not the usual word for ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgoldÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; from a Hebrew root, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto shut upÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ with care; that is, purest gold (1Ki 6:20, Margin).
weighedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe precious metals were weighed out before coining was known (Ge 23:16).
16. gold of OphirÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe most precious (See on Job 22:24 and Ps 45:9).
onyxÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Ge 2:12). More valued formerly than now. The term is Greek, meaning ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthumb nail,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ from some resemblance in color. The Arabic denotes, of two colors, white preponderating.
17. crystalÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂOr else glass, if then known, very costly. From a root, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto be transparent.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
18. Red coral (Eze 27:16).
pearlsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhat is frozen.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Probably crystal; and Job 28:17 will then be glass.
rubiesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂUmbreit translates ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpearlsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (see La 4:1; Pr 3:15). The Urim and Thummim, the means of consulting God by the twelve stones on the high priestÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs breastplate, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe stones of the sanctuaryÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (La 4:1), have their counterpart in this chapter; the precious stones symbolizing the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlightÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ and ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂperfectionÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of the divine wisdom.
19. EthiopiaÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂCush in the Hebrew. Either Ethiopia, or the south of Arabia, near the Tigris.
20. Job 28:12 repeated with great force.
21. None can tell whence or where, seeing it, &c.
fowlsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe gift of divination was assigned by the heathen especially to birds. Their rapid flight heavenwards and keen sight originated the superstition. Job may allude to it. Not even the boasted divination of birds has an insight into it (Ec 10:20). But it may merely mean, as in Job 28:7, It escapes the eye of the most keen-sighted bird.
22. That is, the abodes of destruction and of the dead. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂDeathÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ put for Sheol (Job 30:23; 26:6; Ps 9:13).
We have [only][only]ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe report of her. We have not seen her. In the land of the living (Job 28:13) the workings of Wisdom are seen, though not herself. In the regions of the dead she is only heard of, her actings on nature not being seen (Ec 9:10).
23. God hath, and is Himself, wisdom.
24. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂSeeth (all that is) under,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c.
25. God has adjusted the weight of the winds, so seemingly imponderable, lest, if too weighty, or too light, injury should be caused. He measureth out the waters, fixing their bounds, with wisdom as His counsellor (Pr 8:27-31; Isa 40:12).
26. The decree regulating at what time and place, and in what quantity, the rain should fall.
a wayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthrough the parted clouds (Job 38:25; Zec 10:1).
27. declareÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmanifest her, namely, in His works (Ps 19:1, 2). So the approval bestowed by the Creator on His works (Ge 1:10, 31); compare the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrejoicingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of wisdom at the same (Pr 8:30; which Umbreit translates; ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI was the skilful artificer by His sideÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ).
preparedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot created, for wisdom is from everlasting (Pr 8:22-31); but ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂestablishedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ her as Governor of the world.
searched ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ outÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂexamined her works to see whether she was adequate to the task of governing the world [Maure[Maurer]
28. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂBut unto man,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c. My wisdom is that whereby all things are governed; Thy wisdom is in fearing God and shunning evil, and in feeling assured that My wisdom always acts aright, though thou dost not understand the principle which regulates it; for example, in afflicting the godly (Joh 7:17). The friends, therefore, as not comprehending the Divine Wisdom, should not infer JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs guilt from his sufferings. Here alone in Job the name of God, Adonai, occurs; ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂLordÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmaster,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ often applied to Messiah in Old Testament. Appropriately here, in speaking of the Word or Wisdom, by whom the world was made (Pr 8:22-31; Joh 1:3; Ecclesiasticus 24:1-34).
1. Job pauses for a reply. None being made, he proceeds to illustrate the mysteriousness of GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs dealings, as set forth (Job 28:1-28) by his own case.
2. preserved meÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfrom calamity.
3. candleÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhen His favor shone on me (see on Job 18:6 and Ps 18:28).
darknessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂBy His safeguard I passed secure through dangers. Perhaps alluding to the lights carried before caravans in nightly travels through deserts [Noyes[Noyes]
4. youthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂautumnÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; the time of the ripe fruits of my prosperity. Applied to youth, as the Orientalists began their year with autumn, the most temperate season in the East.
secretÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhen the intimate friendship of God rested on my tent (Pr 3:32; Ps 31:20; Ge 18:17; Joh 15:15). The Hebrew often means a divan for deliberation.
6. butterÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcream,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthick milk.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Wherever I turned my steps, the richest milk and oil flowed in to me abundantly. Image from pastoral life.
When I washed my stepsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂLiteral washing of the feet in milk is not meant, as the second clause shows; Margin, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwith me,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnearÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ my path, wherever I walked (De 32:13). Olives amidst rocks yield the best oil. Oil in the East is used for food, light, anointing, and medicine.
7-10. The great influence Job had over young and old, and noblemen.
through ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ street!ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, When I went out of my house, in the country (see Job 1:1, prologue) to the gate (ascending), up to the city (which was on elevated ground), and when I prepared my (judicial) seat in the market place. The market place was the place of judgment, at the gate or propylÃÂÃÂ¦a of the city, such as is found in the remains of Nineveh and Persepolis (Isa 59:14; Ps 55:11; 127:5).
8. hidÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot literally; rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂstepped backwards,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ reverentially. The aged, who were already seated, arose and remained standing (Hebrew) until Job seated himself. Oriental manners.
9. (Job 4:2; see on Job 21:5).
Refrained talkingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂstopped in the middle of their speech.
10. Margin, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂvoiceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhid,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhushedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Eze 3:26).
Tongue cleaved, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, awed by my presence, the emirs or sheiks were silent.
11. blessedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂextolled my virtues (Pr 31:28). Omit ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ after ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂheardÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; whoever heard of me (in general, not in the market place, Job 29:7-10) praised me.
gave witnessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto my honorable character. Image from a court of justice (Lu 4:22).
the eyeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂface to faceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; antithesis to
earÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, report of me.
12-17. The grounds on which Job was praised (Job 29:11), his helping the afflicted (Ps 72:12) who cried to him for help, as a judge, or as one possessed of means of charity. Translate: ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe fatherless who had none to help him.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
13. So far was I from sending ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwidowsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ away empty (Job 22:9).
ready to perishÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Pr 31:6).
14. (Isa 61:10; 1Ch 12:18).
diademÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtiara. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂturban,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhead-dress.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ It and the full flowing outer mantle or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrobe,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ are the prominent characteristics of an Oriental grandeeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs or high priestÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs dress (Zec 3:5). So JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs righteousness especially characterized him.
15. Literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe blindÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (De 27:18); ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlameÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (2Sa 9:13); figuratively, also the spiritual support which the more enlightened gives to those less so (Job 4:3; Heb 12:13; Nu 10:31).
16. So far was I from ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbreaking the arms of the fatherless,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as Eliphaz asserts (Job 22:9), I was a ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfatherÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ to such.
the cause which I knew notÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂof him whom I knew not,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ the stranger (Pr 29:7 [Umbre[Umbreit]rast Lu 18:1, &c.). Applicable to almsgiving (Ps 41:1); but here primarily, judicial conscientiousness (Job 31:13).
17. Image from combating with wild beasts (Job 4:11; Ps 3:7). So compassionate was Job to the oppressed, so terrible to the oppressor!
jawsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂJob broke his power, so that he could do no more hurt, and tore from him the spoil, which he had torn from others.
18. I saidÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin my heart (Ps 30:6).
inÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwith my nestÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; as the second clause refers to long life. Instead of my family dying before me, as now, I shall live so long as to die with them: proverbial for long life. Job did realize his hope (Job 42:16). However, in the bosom of my family, gives a good sense (Nu 24:21; Ob 4). Use ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnestÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ for a secure dwelling.
sandÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Ge 22:17; Hab 1:9). But the Septuagint and Vulgate, and Jewish interpreters, favor the translation, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe phoenix bird.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂNestÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in the parallel clause supports the reference to a bird. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂSandÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ for multitude, applies to men, rather than to years. The myth was, that the phoenix sprang from a nest of myrrh, made by his father before death, and that he then came from Arabia (JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs country) to Heliopolis (the city of the Sun) in Egypt, once in every five hundred years, and there burnt his father [Herod[Herodotus, 2:73]rn research has shown that this was the Egyptian mode of representing hieroglyphically a particular chronological era or cycle. The death and revival every five hundred years, and the reference to the sun, implies such a grand cycle commencing afresh from the same point in relation to the sun from which the previous one started. Job probably refers to this.
19. Literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂopened to the waters.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Opposed to Job 18:16. Vigorous health.
20. My renown, like my bodily health, was continually fresh.
bowÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂMetaphor from war, for, my strength, which gains me ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrenown,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ was ever renewed (Jer 49:35).
21. Job reverts with peculiar pleasure to his former dignity in assemblies (Job 29:7-10).
22. not againÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdid not contradict me.
droppedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂaffected their minds, as the genial rain does the soil on which it gently drops (Am 7:16; De 32:2; So 4:11).
23. Image of Job 29:22 continued. They waited for my salutary counsel, as the dry soil does for the refreshing rain.
opened ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ mouthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpanted for; Oriental image (Ps 119:131). The ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂearly rainÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is in autumn and onwards, while the seed is being sown. The ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlatter rainÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is in March, and brings forward the harvest, which ripens in May or June. Between the early and latter rains, some rain falls, but not in such quantities as those rains. Between March and October no rain falls (De 11:14; Jas 5:7).
24. When I relaxed from my wonted gravity (a virtue much esteemed in the East) and smiled, they could hardly credit it; and yet, notwithstanding my condescension, they did not cast aside reverence for my gravity. But the parallelism is better in UmbreitÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs translation, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI smiled kindly on those who trusted not,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, in times of danger I cheered those in despondency. And they could not cast down (by their despondency) my serenity of countenance (flowing from trust in God) (Pr 16:15; Ps 104:15). The opposite phrase (Ge 4:5, 6). ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGravityÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ cannot well be meant by ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlight of countenance.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
25. I chose out their wayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, I willingly went up to their assembly (from my country residence, Job 29:7).
in the armyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas a king supreme in the midst of his army.
comforteth the mournersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHere again Job unconsciously foreshadows Jesus Christ (Isa 61:2, 3). JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs afflictions, as those of Jesus Christ, were fitting him for the office hereafter (Isa 50:4; Heb 2:18).
1. youngerÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot the three friends (Job 15:10; 32:4, 6, 7). A general description: Job 30:1-8, the lowness of the persons who derided him; Job 30:9-15, the derision itself. Formerly old men rose to me (Job 29:8). Now not only my juniors, who are bound to reverence me (Le 19:32), but even the mean and base-born actually deride me; opposed to, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsmiled uponÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 29:24). This goes farther than even the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmockeryÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of Job by relations and friends (Job 12:4; 16:10, 20; 17:2, 6; 19:22). Orientals feel keenly any indignity shown by the young. Job speaks as a rich Arabian emir, proud of his descent.
dogsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂregarded with disgust in the East as unclean (1Sa 17:43; Pr 26:11). They are not allowed to enter a house, but run about wild in the open air, living on offal and chance morsels (Ps 59:14, 15). Here again we are reminded of Jesus Christ (Ps 22:16). ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂTheir fathers, my coevals, were so mean and famished that I would not have associated them with (not to say, set them over) my dogs in guarding my flock.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
2. If their fathers could be of no profit to me, much less the sons, who are feebler than their sires; and in whose case the hope of attaining old age is utterly gone, so puny are they (Job 5:26) [Maure[Maurer] if they had ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂstrength of hands,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that could be now of no use to me, as all I want in my present affliction is sympathy.
3. solitaryÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhard as a rockÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; so translate, rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdried up,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ emaciated with hunger. Job describes the rudest race of Bedouins of the desert [Umbre[Umbreit]
fleeingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂSo the Septuagint. Better, as Syriac, Arabic, and Vulgate, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgnawers of the wilderness.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ What they gnaw follows in Job 30:4.
in former timeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂyesternight of desolation and wasteÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (the most utter desolation; Eze 6:14); that is, those deserts frightful as night to man, and even there from time immemorial. I think both ideas are in the words darkness [Gesen[Gesenius]ntiquity [Umbre[Umbreit] 30:33, Margin).
4. mallowsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsalt-wort,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ which grows in deserts and is eaten as a salad by the poor [Maure[Maurer]
by the bushesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂamong the bushes.
juniperÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, a kind of broom, Spartium junceum [LinnÃÂ[LinnÃÂÃÂ¦us]l called in Arabia, as in the Hebrew of Job, retem, of which the bitter roots are eaten by the poor.
5. they criedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa cry is raised.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Expressing the contempt felt for this race by civilized and well-born Arabs. When these wild vagabonds make an incursion on villages, they are driven away, as thieves would be.
6. They are forced ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto dwell.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
cliffs of the valleysÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin the gloomy valleysÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin the gloom of the valleys,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or wadies. To dwell in valleys is, in the East, a mark of wretchedness. The troglodytes, in parts of Arabia, lived in such dwellings as caves.
7. brayedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlike the wild ass (Job 6:5 for food). The inarticulate tones of this uncivilized rabble are but little above those of the beast of the field.
gathered togetherÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, sprinkled here and there. Literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpoured out,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ graphically picturing their disorderly mode of encampment, lying up and down behind the thorn bushes.
nettlesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂor brambles [Umbre[Umbreit]
8. foolsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, the impious and abandoned (1Sa 25:25).
baseÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnameless, low-born rabble.
viler than, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, they were driven or beaten out of the land. The Horites in Mount Seir (Ge 14:6 with which compare Ge 36:20, 21; De 2:12, 22) were probably the aborigines, driven out by the tribe to which JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs ancestors belonged; their name means troglodytÃÂÃÂ¦, or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdwellers in caves.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ To these Job alludes here (Job 30:1-8, and Ge 24:4-8, which compare together).
9. (Job 17:6). Strikingly similar to the derision Jesus Christ underwent (La 3:14; Ps 69:12). Here Job returns to the sentiment in Job 30:1. It is to such I am become a song of ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂderision.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
10. in my faceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, refrain not to spit in deliberate contempt before my face. To spit at all in presence of another is thought in the East insulting, much more so when done to mark ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂabhorrence.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Compare the further insult to Jesus Christ (Isa 50:6; Mt 26:67).
11. HeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; antithetical to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtheyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; English Version here follows the marginal reading (Keri).
my cordÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂimage from a bow unstrung; opposed to Job 29:20. The text (Chetib), ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHis cordÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂreinsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is better; ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂyea, each lets loose his reinsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Umbre[Umbreit]
12. youthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, a (low) brood. To rise on the right hand is to accuse, as that was the position of the accuser in court (Zec 3:1; Ps 109:6).
push ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ feetÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂjostle me out of the way (Job 24:4).
ways ofÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, their ways of (that is, with a view to my) destruction. Image, as in Job 19:12, from a besieging army throwing up a way of approach for itself to a city.
13. Image of an assailed fortress continued. They tear up the path by which succor might reach me.
set forwardÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Zec 1:15).
they have no helperÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂArabic proverb for contemptible persons. Yet even such afflict Job.
14. watersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(So 2Sa 5:20). But it is better to retain the image of Job 30:12, 13. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThey came [upon [upon me]rough a wide breach,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ namely, made by the besiegers in the wall of a fortress (Isa 30:13) [Maure[Maurer]
in the desolationÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAmidst the crashÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of falling masonry, or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwith a shout like the crashÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of, &c.
soulÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmy dignityÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Umbre[Umbreit]
cloudÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Job 7:9; Isa 44:22).
16-23. JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs outward calamities affect his mind.
poured outÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin irrepressible complaints (Ps 42:4; Jos 7:5).
17. In the Hebrew, night is poetically personified, as in Job 3:3: ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnight pierceth my bones (so that they fall) from meÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (not as English Version, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin meÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; see Job 30:30).
sinewsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂso the Arabic, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂveins,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ akin to the Hebrew; rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgnawersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (see on Job 30:3), namely, my gnawing pains never cease. Effects of elephantiasis.
18. of my diseaseÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂof GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 23:6).
garment changedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfrom a robe of honor to one of mourning, literally (Job 2:8; Joh 3:6) and metaphorically [Umbre[Umbreit]ather, as Schuttens, following up Job 30:17, My outer garment is changed into affliction; that is, affliction has become my outer garment; it also bindeth me fast round (my throat) as the collar of the inner coat; that is, it is both my inner and outer garment. Observe the distinction between the inner and outer garments. The latter refers to his afflictions from without (Job 30:1-13); the former his personal afflictions (Job 30:14-23). Umbreit makes ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ subject to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbindeth,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as in Job 30:19.
19. God is poetically said to do that which the mourner had done to himself (Job 2:8). With lying in the ashes he had become, like them, in dirty color.
20. stand upÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe reverential attitude of a suppliant before a king (1Ki 8:14; Lu 18:11-13).
notÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsupplied from the first clause. But the intervening affirmative ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂstandÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ makes this ellipsis unlikely. Rather, as in Job 16:9 (not only dost thou refuse aid to me ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂstandingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as a suppliant, but), thou dost regard me with a frown: eye me sternly.
22. liftest ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ to windÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas a ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂleafÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂstubbleÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 13:25). The moving pillars of sand, raised by the wind to the clouds, as described by travellers, would happily depict JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs agitated spirit, if it be to them that he alludes.
dissolvest ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ substanceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe marginal Hebrew reading (Keri), ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmy wealth,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or else ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwisdom,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, sense and spirit, or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmy hope of deliverance.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ But the text (Chetib) is better: Thou dissolvest me (with fear, Ex 15:15) in the crash (of the whirlwind; see on Job 30:14) [Maure[Maurer]eit translates as a verb, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThou terrifiest me.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
23. This shows Job 19:25 cannot be restricted to JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs hope of a temporal deliverance.
deathÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas in Job 28:22, the realm of the dead (Heb 9:27; Ge 3:19).
24. Expressing JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs faith as to the state after death. Though one must go to the grave, yet He will no more afflict in the ruin of the body (so Hebrew for ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgraveÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) there, if one has cried to Him when being destroyed. The ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂstretching of His handÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ to punish after death answers antithetically to the raising ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe cryÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of prayer in the second clause. Maurer gives another translation which accords with the scope of Job 30:24-31; if it be natural for one in affliction to ask aid, why should it be considered (by the friends) wrong in my case? ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂNevertheless does not a man in ruin stretch out his handÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (imploring help, Job 30:20; La 1:17)? If one be in his calamity (destruction) is there not therefore a ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcryÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (for aid)? Thus in the parallelism ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcryÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ answers to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂstretchÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhandÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin his calamity,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin ruin.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The negative of the first clause is to be supplied in the second, as in Job 30:25 (Job 28:17).
25. May I not be allowed to complain of my calamity, and beg relief, seeing that I myself sympathized with those ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin troubleÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhard of dayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; those who had a hard time of it).
26. I may be allowed to crave help, seeing that, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhen I looked for good (on account of my piety and charity), yet evil,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c.
27. bowelsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂregarded as the seat of deep feeling (Isa 16:11).
boiledÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂviolently heated and agitated.
preventedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂOld English for ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂunexpectedly came uponÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ me, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsurprisedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ me.
28. mourningÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, I move about blackened, though not by the sun; that is, whereas many are blackened by the sun, I am, by the heat of GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs wrath (so ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂboiled,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Job 30:27); the elephantiasis covering me with blackness of skin (Job 30:30), as with the garb of mourning (Jer 14:2). This striking enigmatic form of Hebrew expression occurs, Isa 29:9.
stood upÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas an innocent man crying for justice in an assembled court (Job 30:20).
29. dragons ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ owlsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂjackals,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂostriches,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ both of which utter dismal screams (Mic 1:8); in which respect, as also in their living amidst solitudes (the emblem of desolation), Job is their brother and companion; that is, resembles them. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂDragon,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Hebrew, tannim, usually means the crocodile; so perhaps here, its open jaws lifted towards heaven, and its noise making it seem as if it mourned over its fate [Bocha[Bochart]
30. upon meÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, as in Job 30:17 (see on Job 30:17), ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmy skin is black (and falls away) from me.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
my bonesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Job 19:20; Ps 102:5).
31. organÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpipeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 21:12). ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂMy joy is turned into the voice of weepingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (La 5:15). These instruments are properly appropriated to joy (Isa 30:29, 32), which makes their use now in sorrow the sadder by contrast.
1. Job proceeds to prove that he deserved a better lot. As in the twenty-ninth chapter, he showed his uprightness as an emir, or magistrate in public life, so in this chapter he vindicates his character in private life.
1-4. He asserts his guarding against being allured to sin by his senses.
thinkÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcast a (lustful) look.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ He not merely did not so, but put it out of the question by covenanting with his eyes against leading him into temptation (Pr 6:25; Mt 5:28).
2. Had I let my senses tempt me to sin, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhat portion (would there have been to me, that is, must I have expected) from (literally, of) God above, and what inheritance from (literally, of) the Almighty,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c. [Maure[Maurer]20:29; 27:13).
3. Answer to the question in Job 31:2.
4. Doth not he see? &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂKnowing this, I could only have expected ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdestructionÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 31:3), had I committed this sin (Pr 5:21).
5. JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs abstinence from evil deeds.
vanityÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, falsehood (Ps 12:2).
6. Parenthetical. Translate: ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂOh, that God would weigh me ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ then would He know,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c.
7. Connected with Job 31:6.
the wayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂof God (Job 23:11; Jer 5:5). A godly life.
heart ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ after ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ eyesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂif my heart coveted, what my eyes beheld (Ec 11:9; Jos 7:21).
8. Apodosis to Job 31:5, 7; the curses which he imprecates on himself, if he had done these things (Le 26:16; Am 9:14; Ps 128:2).
offspringÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhat I plant,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ my harvests.
9-12. Job asserts his innocence of adultery.
deceivedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhath let itself be seduced (Pr 7:8; Ge 39:7-12).
laid waitÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂuntil the husband went out.
10. grindÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂturn the handmill. Be the most abject slave and concubine (Isa 47:2; 2Sa 12:11).
11. In the earliest times punished with death (Ge 38:24). So in later times (De 22:22). Heretofore he had spoken only of sins against conscience; now, one against the community, needing the cognizance of the judge.
12. (Pr 6:27-35; 8:6-23, 26, 27). No crime more provokes God to send destruction as a consuming fire; none so desolates the soul.
13-23. Job affirms his freedom from unfairness towards his servants, from harshness and oppression towards the needy.
despise the causeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrefused to do them justice.
14, 15. Parenthetical; the reason why Job did not despise the cause of his servants. Translate: What then (had I done so) could I have done, when God arose (to call me to account); and when He visited (came to enquire), what could I have answered Him?
15. Slaveholders try to defend themselves by maintaining the original inferiority of the slave. But Mal 2:10; Ac 17:26; Eph 6:9 make the common origin of masters and servants the argument for brotherly love being shown by the former to the latter.
16. failÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin the vain expectation of relief (Job 11:20).
17. Arabian rules of hospitality require the stranger to be helped first, and to the best.
18. Parenthetical: asserting that he did the contrary to the things in Job 31:16, 17.
guided herÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, the widow, by advice and protection. On this and ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa father,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ see Job 29:16.
19. perishÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, ready to perish (Job 29:13).
20. loinsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe parts of the body benefited by Job are poetically described as thanking him; the loins before naked, when clad by me, wished me every blessing.
21. whenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbecause.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
I sawÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat I might calculate on the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhelpÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of a powerful party in the court of justiceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgateÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ), if I should be summoned by the injured fatherless.
22. Apodosis to Job 31:13, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21. If I had done those crimes, I should have made a bad use of my influence (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmy arm,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ figuratively, Job 31:21): therefore, if I have done them let my arm (literally) suffer. Job alludes to EliphazÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ charge (Job 22:9). The first ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂarmÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is rather the shoulder. The second ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂarmÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is the forearm.
from the boneÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa reedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; hence the upper arm, above the elbow.
23. ForÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, the reason why Job guarded against such sins. Fear of God, though he could escape manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs judgment (Ge 39:9). Umbreit more spiritedly translates, Yea, destruction and terror from God might have befallen me (had I done so): mere fear not being the motive.
endureÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI could have availed nothing against it.
24, 25. Job asserts his freedom from trust in money (1Ti 6:17). Here he turns to his duty towards God, as before he had spoken of his duty towards himself and his neighbor. Covetousness is covert idolatry, as it transfers the heart from the Creator to the creature (Col 3:5). In Job 31:26, 27 he passes to overt idolatry.
26. If I looked unto the sun (as an object of worship) because he shined; or to the moon because she walked, &c. Sabaism (from tsaba, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe heavenly hostsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) was the earliest form of false worship. God is hence called in contradistinction, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂLord of Sabaoth.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The sun, moon, and stars, the brightest objects in nature, and seen everywhere, were supposed to be visible representatives of the invisible God. They had no temples, but were worshipped on high places and roofs of houses (Eze 8:16; De 4:19; 2Ki 23:5, 11). The Hebrew here for ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsunÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is light. Probably light was worshipped as the emanation from God, before its embodiments, the sun, &c. This worship prevailed in Chaldea; wherefore JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs exemption from the idolatry of his neighbors was the more exemplary. Our ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂSun-day,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂMon-day,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or Moon-day, bear traces of Sabaism.
27. enticedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂaway from God to idolatry.
kissed ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ handÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂadoration,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ literally means this. In worshipping they used to kiss the hand, and then throw the kiss, as it were, towards the object of worship (1Ki 19:18; Ho 13:2).
28. The Mosaic law embodied subsequently the feeling of the godly from the earliest times against idolatry, as deserving judicial penalties: being treason against the Supreme King (De 13:9; 17:2-7; Eze 8:14-18). This passage therefore does not prove Job to have been subsequent to Moses.
29. lifted up myselfÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin malicious triumph (Pr 17:5; 24:17; Ps 7:4).
30. mouthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpalate.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (See on Job 6:30).
wishingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂso as to demand his (my enemyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs) soul,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlife by a curse.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ This verse parenthetically confirms Job 31:30. Job in the patriarchal age of the promise, anterior to the law, realizes the Gospel spirit, which was the end of the law (compare Le 19:18; De 23:6, with Mt 5:43, 44).
31. That is, JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs household said, Oh, that we had JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs enemy to devour, we cannot rest satisfied till we have! But Job refrained from even wishing revenge (1Sa 26:8; 2Sa 16:9, 10). So Jesus Christ (Lu 9:54, 55). But, better (see Job 31:32), translated, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWho can show (literally, give) the man who was not satisfied with the flesh (meat) provided by Job?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ He never let a poor man leave his gate without giving him enough to eat.
32. travellerÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂway,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, wayfarers; so expressed to include all of every kind (2Sa 12:4).
33. AdamÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtranslated by Umbreit, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas men doÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ho 6:7, where see Margin). But English Version is more natural. The very same word for ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhidingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is used in Ge 3:8, 10, of Adam hiding himself from God. Job elsewhere alludes to the flood. So he might easily know of the fall, through the two links which connect Adam and Abraham (about JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs time), namely, Methuselah and Shem. Adam is representative of fallen manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs propensity to concealment (Pr 28:13). It was from God that Job did not ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhide his iniquity in his bosom,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as on the contrary it was from God that ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAdamÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ hid in his lurking-place. This disproves the translation, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas menÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; for it is from their fellow men that ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ are chiefly anxious to hide their real character as guilty. Magee, to make the comparison with Adam more exact, for my ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbosomÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ translates, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlurking-place.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
34. Rather, the apodosis to Job 31:33, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThen let me be fear-stricken before a great multitude, let the contempt, &c., let me keep silence (the greatest disgrace to a patriot, heretofore so prominent in assemblies), and not go out,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c. A just retribution that he who hides his sin from God, should have it exposed before man (2Sa 12:12). But Job had not been so exposed, but on the contrary was esteemed in the assemblies of the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtribesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfamiliesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ); a proof, he implies, that God does not hold him guilty of hiding sin (Job 24:16, contrast with Job 29:21-25).
35. Job returns to his wish (Job 13:22; 19:23). Omit ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂisÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂBehold my sign,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, my mark of subscription to the statements just given in my defense: the mark of signature was originally a cross; and hence the letter Tau or T. Translate, also ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂOh, that the Almighty,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c. He marks ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂOneÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ meant in the first clause.
adversaryÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, he who contends with me, refers also to God. The vagueness is designed to express ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhoever it be that judicially opposes meÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe Almighty if it be He.
had written a bookÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwould write down his charge.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
36. So far from hiding the adversaryÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂanswerÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂchargeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ through fear,
I would take it on my shouldersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas a public honor (Isa 9:6).
a crownÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot a mark of shame, but of distinction (Isa 62:3).
37. A good conscience imparts a princely dignity before man and free assurance in approaching God. This can be realized, not in JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs way (Job 42:5, 6); but only through Jesus Christ (Heb 10:22).
38. Personification. The complaints of the unjustly ousted proprietors are transferred to the lands themselves (Job 31:20; Ge 4:10; Hab 2:11). If I have unjustly acquired lands (Job 24:2; Isa 5:8).
furrowsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe specification of these makes it likely, he implies in this, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIf I paid not the laborer for tillageÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; as Job 31:39, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIf I paid him not for gathering in the fruits.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Thus of the four clauses in Job 31:38, 39, the first refers to the same subject as the fourth, the second is connected with the third by introverted parallelism. Compare Jas 5:4, which plainly alludes to this passage: compare ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂLord of SabaothÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ with Job 31:26 here.
39. lose ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ lifeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot literally, but ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂharassed to deathÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; until he gave me up his land gratis [Maure[Maurer]n Jud 16:16; ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsuffered him to languishÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ by taking away his means of living [Umbre[Umbreit]21:19).
40. thistlesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂor brambles, thorns.
cockleÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnoxious weeds.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
The words ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ endedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, in the controversy with the friends. He spoke in the book afterwards, but not to them. At Job 31:37 would be the regular conclusion in strict art. But Job 31:38-40 are naturally added by one whose mind in agitation recurs to its sense of innocence, even after it has come to the usual stopping point; this takes away the appearance of rhetorical artifice. Hence the transposition by Eichorn of Job 31:38-40 to follow Job 31:25 is quite unwarranted.
Job 32:1-37:24. Speech of Elihu.
1-6. Prose (poetry begins with ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI am youngÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ).
because, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂand because they could not prove to him that he was unrighteous.
2. ElihuÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmeaning ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGod is Jehovah.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ In his name and character as messenger between God and Job, he foreshadows Jesus Christ (Job 33:23-26).
BarachelÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmeaning ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGod blesses.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Both names indicate the piety of the family and their separation from idolaters.
BuziteÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂBuz was son of Nahor, brother of Abraham. Hence was named a region in Arabia-Deserta (Jer 25:23).
RamÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAram, nephew of Buz. Job was probably of an older generation than Elihu. However, the identity of names does not necessarily prove the identity of persons. The particularity with which ElihuÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs descent is given, as contrasted with the others, led Lightfoot to infer Elihu was the author of the book. But the reason for particularity was, probably, that Elihu was less known than the three called ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfriendsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of Job; and that it was right for the poet to mark especially him who was mainly to solve the problem of the book.
rather than GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, was more eager to vindicate himself than God. In Job 4:17, Job denies that man can be more just than God. Umbreit translates, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂBefore (in the presence of) God.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
3. Though silenced in argument, they held their opinion still.
4. had spokenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin words,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ referring rather to his own ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwordsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of reply, which he had long ago ready, but kept back in deference to the seniority of the friends who spoke.
6. was afraidÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe root meaning in Hebrew is ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto crawlÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (De 32:24).
7. DaysÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, the aged (Job 15:10).
8. Elihu claims inspiration, as a divinely commissioned messenger to Job (Job 33:6, 23); and that claim is not contradicted in Job 42:4, 5. Translate: ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂBut the spirit (which God puts) in man, and the inspiration ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ is that which giveth,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c.; it is not mere ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂyearsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ which give understanding (Pr 2:6; Joh 20:22).
9. GreatÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂoldÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 32:6). So Hebrew, in Ge 25:23. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGreater, lessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ for the older, the younger.
judgmentÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhat is right.
10. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI say.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
11. Therefore Elihu was present from the first.
reasonsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂunderstandings,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, the meaning intended by words.
whilstÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI waited until you should discover a suitable reply to Job.
13. This has been so ordered, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlest you shouldÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ pride yourselves on having overcome him by your ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwisdomÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Jer 9:23, the great aim of the Book of Job); and that you may see, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGod alone can thrust him down,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, confute him, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot man.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ So Elihu grounds his confutation, not on the maxims of sages, as the friends did, but on his special commission from God (Job 32:8; 33:4, 6).
14. I am altogether unprejudiced. For it is not I, whom he addressed. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂYour speechesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ have been influenced by irritation.
15. Here Elihu turns from the friends to Job: and so passes from the second person to the third; a transition frequent in a rebuke (Job 18:3, 4).
they left offÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWords were taken from them.
17. my partÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfor my part.
18. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI am full of words,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ whereas the friends have not a word more to say.
the spiritÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Job 32:8; 33:4; Jer 20:9; Ac 18:5).
19. bellyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbosom: from which the words of Orientalists in speaking seem to come more than with us; they speak gutturally. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂLike (new) wine (in fermentation) without a vent,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ to work itself off. New wine is kept in new goatskin bottles. This fittingly applies to the young Elihu, as contrasted with the old friends (Mt 9:7).
20. refreshedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat there may be air to meÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (1Sa 16:23).
21. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂMay I never accept,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c. Elihu alludes to JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs words (Job 13:8, 10), wherein he complains that the friends plead for God partially, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂaccepting His person.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Elihu says he will not do so, but will act impartially between God and Job. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAnd I will not give flattery,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c. (Pr 24:23).
22. take me awayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas a punishment (Ps 102:24).
Job 33:1-33. Address to Job, as (Job 32:1-22) TO THE Friends.
2. mouthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpalate,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ whereby the taste discerns. Every man speaks with his mouth, but few, as Elihu, try their words with discrimination first, and only say what is really good (Job 6:30; 12:11).
hath spokenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂproceeds to speak.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
3. I will speak according to my inward conviction.
clearlyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpurelyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; sincerely, not distorting the truth through passion, as the friends did.
4. The Spirit of God hath made meÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas He did thee: latter clause of Job 33:6 (Ge 2:7). Therefore thou needest not fear me, as thou wouldest God (Job 33:7; Job 9:34). On the other hand, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe breath of the Almighty hath inspired meÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (as Job 32:8); not as English Version, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgiven me lifeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; therefore ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI am according to thy wish (Job 9:32, 33) in GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs steadÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ to thee; a ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdaysman,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ umpire, or mediator, between God and thee. So Elihu was designed by the Holy Ghost to be a type of Jesus Christ (Job 33:23-26).
5. Images from a court of justice.
stand upÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂalluding to JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs words (Job 30:20).
6. (See on Job 33:4; Job 31:35; 13:3, 20, 21).
formedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThough acting as GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs representative, I am but a creature, like thyself. Arabic, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpressed together,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as a mass of clay by the potter, in forming a vessel [Umbre[Umbreit]ew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcut off,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as the portion taken from the clay to form it [Maure[Maurer]
7. handÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂalluding to JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs words (Job 13:21).
8. thy wordsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Job 10:7; 16:17; 23:11, 12; 27:5, 6; 29:14). In Job 9:30; 13:23, Job had acknowledged sin; but the general spirit of his words was to maintain himself to be ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂclean,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ and to charge God with injustice. He went too far on the opposite side in opposing the friendsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ false charge of hypocrisy. Even the godly, though willing to confess themselves sinners in general, often dislike sin in particular to be brought as a charge against them. Affliction is therefore needed to bring them to feel that sin in them deserves even worse than they suffer and that God does them no injustice. Then at last humbled under God they find, affliction is for their real good, and so at last it is taken away either here, or at least at death. To teach this is ElihuÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs mission.
10. occasionsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfor hostility; literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂenmitiesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 13:24; 16:9; 19:11; 30:21).
11. (Job 13:27).
markethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnarrowly watches (Job 14:16; 7:12; 31:4).
12. in thisÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂview of God and His government. It cannot be that God should jealously ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwatchÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ man, though ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂspotless,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as an ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂenemy,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or as one afraid of him as an equal. For ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGod is greater than man!ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ There must be sin in man, even though he be no hypocrite, which needs correction by suffering for the suffererÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs good.
13. (Isa 45:9).
his mattersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂways. Our part is, not to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂstriveÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ with God, but to submit. To believe it is right because He does it, not because we see all the reasons for His doing it.
14. Translate, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂYet, man regardeth it notÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; or rather, as Umbreit, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂYea, twice (He repeats the warning)ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂif man gives no heedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ to the first warning. Elihu implies that GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs reason for sending affliction is because, when God has communicated His will in various ways, man in prosperity has not heeded it; God therefore must try what affliction will effect (Joh 15:2; Ps 62:11; Isa 28:10, 13).
15. slumberingsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlight is opposed to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdeep sleep.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Elihu has in view Eliphaz (Job 4:13), and also Job himself (Job 7:14). ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂDreamsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in sleep, and ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂvisionsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of actual apparitions, were among the ways whereby God then spake to man (Ge 20:3).
16. Literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsealeth (their ears) to Himself by warnings,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, with the sureness and secrecy of a seal He reveals His warnings [Umbre[Umbreit]eal up securely (Job 37:7).
17. purposeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂMargin, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwork.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ So Job 36:9. So ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbusinessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in a bad sense (1Sa 20:19). Elihu alludes to JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs words (Job 17:11). ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂPride,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ an open ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpitÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 33:18) which God hides or covers up, lest man should fall into it. Even the godly need to learn the lesson which trials teach, to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhumble themselves under the mighty hand of God.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
18. his soulÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhis life.
the pitÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe grave; a symbol of hell.
perishing by the swordÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, a violent death; in the Old Testament a symbol of the future punishment of the ungodly.
19. When man does not heed warnings of the night, he is chastened, &c. The new thought suggested by Elihu is that affliction is disciplinary (Job 36:10); for the good of the godly.
multitudeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂso the Margin, Hebrew (Keri). Better with the text (Chetib), ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAnd with the perpetual (strong) contest of his bonesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; the never-resting fever in his bones (Ps 38:3) [Umbre[Umbreit]
20. lifeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, the appetite, which ordinarily sustains ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlifeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 38:39; Ps 107:18; Ec 12:5). The taking away of desire for food by sickness symbolizes the removal by affliction of lust, for things which foster the spiritual fever of pride.
21. His flesh once prominent ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcan no more be seen.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ His bones once not seen now appear prominent.
stick outÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂare bare.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The Margin, Hebrew (Keri) reading. The text (Chetib) reads it a noun ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(are become) bareness.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The Keri was no doubt an explanatory reading of transcribers.
22. destroyersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂangels of death commissioned by God to end manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs life (2Sa 24:16; Ps 78:49). The death pains personified may, however, be meant; so ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgnawersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (see on Job 30:17).
23. Elihu refers to himself as the divinely-sent (Job 32:8; 33:6) ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmessenger,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂinterpreterÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ to explain to Job and vindicate GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs righteousness; such a one Eliphaz had denied that Job could look for (Job 5:1), and Job (Job 9:33) had wished for such a ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdaysmanÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or umpire between him and God. The ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmessengerÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of good is antithetical to the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdestroyersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 33:23).
with himÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂif there be vouchsafed to the sufferer. The office of the interpreter is stated ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto show unto man GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs uprightnessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in His dealings; or, as Umbreit, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmanÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs upright course towards GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Pr 14:2). The former is better; Job maintained his own ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂuprightnessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 16:17; 27:5, 6); Elihu on the contrary maintains GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs, and that manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs true uprightness lies in submission to God. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂOne among a thousandÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is a man rarely to be found. So Jesus Christ (So 5:10). Elihu, the God-sent mediator of a temporal deliverance, is a type of the God-man Jesus Christ the Mediator of eternal deliverance: ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe messenger of the covenantÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Mal 3:1). This is the wonderful work of the Holy Ghost, that persons and events move in their own sphere in such a way as unconsciously to shadow forth Him, whose ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtestimony is the Spirit of prophecyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; as the same point may be center of a small and of a vastly larger concentric circle.
24. Apodosis to Job 33:23.
DeliverÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂredeemÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; in it and ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂransomÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ there is reference to the consideration, on account of which God pardons and relieves the sufferers; here it is primarily the intercession of Elihu. But the language is too strong for its full meaning to be exhausted by this. The Holy Ghost has suggested language which receives its full realization only in the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂeternal redemption foundÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ by God in the price paid by Jesus Christ for it; that is, His blood and meritorious intercession (Heb 9:12). ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂObtained,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfoundÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; implying the earnest zeal, wisdom, and faithfulness of the finder, and the newness and joyousness of the finding. Jesus Christ could not but have found it, but still His seeking it was needed [Benge[Bengel]15:8). God the Father, is the Finder (Ps 89:19). Jesus Christ the Redeemer, to whom He saith, Redeem (so Hebrew) him from going, &c. (2Co 5:19).
ransomÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂused in a general sense by Elihu, but meant by the Holy Ghost in its strict sense as applied to Jesus Christ, of a price paid for deliverance (Ex 21:30), an atonement (that is, means of selling at once, that is, reconciling ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtwoÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ who are estranged), a covering, as of the ark with pitch, typical of what covers us sinners from wrath (Ge 6:14; Ps 32:1). The pit is primarily here the grave (Isa 38:17), but the spiritual pit is mainly shadowed forth (Zec 9:11).
25-28. Effects of restoration to GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs favor; literally, to Job a temporal revival; spiritually, an eternal regeneration. The striking words cannot be restricted to their temporal meaning, as used by Elihu (1Pe 1:11, 12).
his flesh shall be fresher than a childÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂso Naaman, 2Ki 5:14, spiritually, Joh 3:3-7.
26. Job shall no longer pray to God, as he complains, in vain (Job 23:3, 8, 9). True especially to the redeemed in Jesus Christ (Joh 16:23-27).
shall see his faceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂor, God shall make Job to see His face [Maure[Maurer]shall no longer ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhide His faceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 13:24). True to the believer now (Joh 14:21, 22); eternally (Ps 17:15; Joh 17:24).
righteousnessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGod will again make the restored Job no longer (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI perverted ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ right,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Job 33:27) doubt GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs justice, but to justify Him in His dealings. The penitent justifies God (Ps 51:4). So the believer is made to see GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs righteousness in Jesus Christ (Isa 45:24; 46:13).
27. he lookethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGod. Rather, with Umbreit, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂNow he (the restored penitent) singeth joyfully (answering to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂjoy,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Job 33:26; Ps 51:12) before men, and saith,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c. (Pr 25:20; Ps 66:16; 116:14).
pervertedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmade the straight crooked: as Job had misrepresented GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs character.
profitedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwas made evenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ to me; rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂMy punishment was not commensurate with my sinÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (so Zophar, Job 11:6); the reverse of what Job heretofore said (Job 16:17; Ps 103:10; Ezr 9:13).
28. (See on Job 33:24); rather, as Hebrew text (English Version reads as the Margin, Hebrew, Keri, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhis soul, his lifeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ), ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe hath delivered my soul ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ my life.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Continuation of the penitentÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs testimony to the people.
lightÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Job 33:30; Job 3:16, 20; Ps 56:13; Ec 11:7).
29. Margin, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtwice and thrice,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ alluding to Job 33:14; once, by visions, Job 33:15-17; secondly, by afflictions, Job 33:19-22; now, by the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmessenger,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ thirdly, Job 33:23.
30. Referring to Job 33:28 (Ps 50:13).
32. justifyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto do thee justice; and, if I can, consistently with it, to declare thee innocent. At Job 33:33 Elihu pauses for a reply; then proceeds in Job 34:1.
2. This chapter is addressed also to the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfriendsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as the thirty-third chapter to Job alone.
3. palateÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(See on Job 12:11; Job 33:2).
4. judgmentÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂLet us select among the conflicting sentiments advanced, what will stand the test of examination.
5. judgmentÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmy right. JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs own words (Job 13:18; 27:2).
6. Were I to renounce my right (that is, confess myself guilty), I should die. Job virtually had said so (Job 27:4, 5; 6:28). Maurer, not so well, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂNotwithstanding my right (innocence) I am treated as a liar,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ by God, by His afflicting me.
my woundÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmine arrow,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ namely, by which I am pierced. So ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmy strokeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhand,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Job 23:2, Margin). My sickness (Job 6:4; 16:13).
without transgressionÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwithout fault of mine to deserve it (Job 16:17).
7. (Job 15:16). Image from the camel.
scorningÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂagainst God (Job 15:4).
8. Job virtually goes in company (makes common cause) with the wicked, by taking up their sentiments (Job 9:22, 23, 30; 21:7-15), or at least by saying, that those who act on such sentiments are unpunished (Mal 3:14). To deny GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs righteous government because we do not see the reasons of His acts, is virtually to take part with the ungodly.
9. with GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin intimacy (Ps 50:18, Margin).
10. The true answer to Job, which God follows up (Job 38:1-41). Man is to believe GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs ways are right, because they are His, not because we fully see they are so (Ro 9:14; De 32:4; Ge 18:25).
11. Partly here; fully, hereafter (Jer 32:19; Ro 2:6; 1Pe 1:17; Re 22:12).
12. (Job 8:3). In opposition to Job, Job 34:5, will notÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcannot.
13. If the world were not GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs property, as having been made by Him, but committed to His charge by some superior, it might be possible for Him to act unjustly, as He would not thereby be injuring Himself; but as it is, for God to act unjustly would undermine the whole order of the world, and so would injure GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs own property (Job 36:23).
disposedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhath founded (Isa 44:7), established the circle of the globe.
14, 15. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIf He were to set His heart on man,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ either to injure him, or to take strict account of his sins. The connection supports rather [Umbre[Umbreit]f He had regard to himself (only), and were to gather unto Himself (Ps 104:29) manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs spirit, &c. (which he sends forth, Ps 104:30; Ec 12:7), all flesh must perish together,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c. (Ge 3:19). GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs loving preservation of His creatures proves He cannot be selfish, and therefore cannot be unjust.
16. In Job 34:2, Elihu had spoken to all in general, now he calls JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs special attention.
17. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂCan even He who (in thy view) hateth right (justice) govern?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The government of the world would be impossible if injustice were sanctioned. God must be just, because He governs (2Sa 23:3).
governÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbind,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ namely, by authority (so ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂreign,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ 1Sa 9:17, Margin). Umbreit translates for ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgovern, repress wrath, namely, against Job for his accusations.
most justÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHim who is at once mighty and justÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (in His government of the world).
18. Literally, (Is it fit) to be said to a king? It would be a gross outrage to reproach thus an earthly monarch, much more the King of kings (Ex 22:28). But Maurer with the Septuagint and Vulgate reads, (It is not fit to accuse of injustice Him) who says to a king, Thou art wicked; to princes, Ye are ungodly; that is, who punishes impartially the great, as the small. This accords with Job 34:19.
19. (Ac 10:34; 2Ch 19:7; Pr 22:2; Job 31:15).
20. theyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe richÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ and ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂprincesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ who offend God.
the peopleÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, of the guilty princes: guilty also themselves.
at midnightÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂimage from a night attack of an enemy on a camp, which becomes an easy prey (Ex 12:29, 30).
without handÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwithout visible agency, by the mere word of God (so Job 20:26; Zec 4:6; Da 2:34).
21. GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs omniscience and omnipotence enable Him to execute immediate justice. He needs not to be long on the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwatch,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as Job thought (Job 7:12; 2Ch 16:9; Jer 32:19).
22. shadow of deathÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthick darkness (Am 9:2, 3; Ps 139:12).
23. (1Co 10:13; La 3:32; Isa 27:8). Better, as Umbreit, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe does not (needs not to) regard (as in Job 34:14; Isa 41:20) man long (so Hebrew, Ge 46:29) in order that he may go (be brought by God) into judgment.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlest his (attention) upon menÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 11:10, 11). So Job 34:24, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwithout numberÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ought to be translated, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwithout [needi[needing any]hing out,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ such as has to be made in human judgments.
24. break in piecesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Ps 2:9; Job 12:18; Da 2:21).
25. ThereforeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbecause He knows all things (Job 34:21). He knows their works, without a formal investigation (Job 34:24).
in the nightÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsuddenly, unexpectedly (Job 34:20). Fitly in the night, as it was in it that the godless hid themselves (Job 34:22). Umbreit, less simply, for ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂoverturneth,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ translates, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwalkethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; that is, God is ever on the alert, discovering all wickedness.
26. He striketh themÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂchasteneth.
asÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, because they are wicked.
sight of othersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂSinners hid themselves in darkness; therefore they are punished before all, in open day. Image from the place of public execution (Job 40:12; Ex 14:30; 2Sa 12:12).
27, 28. The grounds of their punishment in Job 34:26. Job 34:28 states in what respect they ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂconsidered not GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs ways,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ namely, by oppression, whereby ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthey caused the cry,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c.
29. (Pr 16:7; Isa 26:3).
make troubleÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcondemnÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ro 8:33, 34). Maurer, from the reference being only to the godless, in the next clause, and Job 34:20 translates, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWhen God keeps quietÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (leaves men to perish) Ps 83:1; [Umbre[Umbreit]the Arabic (strikes to the earth), ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwho shall condemn Him as unjust?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Job 34:17.
hideth ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ faceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Job 23:8, 9; Ps 13:1).
it be doneÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWhether it be against a guilty nation (2Ki 18:9-12) or an individual, that God acts so.
30. EnsnaredÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂinto sin (1Ki 12:28, 30). Or rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂenthralled by further oppression,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Job 34:26-28.
31. Job accordingly says so (Job 40:3-5; Mic 7:9; Le 26:41). It was to lead him to this that Elihu was sent. Though no hypocrite, Job, like all, had sin; therefore through affliction he was to be brought to humble himself under God. All sorrow is a proof of the common heritage of sin, in which the godly shares; and therefore he ought to regard it as a merciful correction. Umbreit and Maurer lose this by translating, as the Hebrew will bear, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHas any a right to say to God, I have borne chastisement and yet have not sinned?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (so Job 34:6).
borneÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, the penalty of sin, as in Le 5:1, 17.
offendÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto deal destructively or corruptlyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ne 1:7).
32. (Job 10:2; Ps 32:8; 19:12; 139:23, 24).
no moreÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Pr 28:13; Eph 4:22).
33. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂshould God recompense (sinners) according to thy mind? Then it is for thee to reject and to choose, and not meÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Umbre[Umbreit]s Maurer, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂFor thou hast rejected GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs way of recompensing; state therefore thy way, for thou must choose, not I,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, it is thy part, not mine, to show a better way than GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs.
34, 35. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmen ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ will say to me, and the wise man (Job 34:2, 10) who hearkens to me (will say), ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂJob hath spoken,'ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c.
36. Margin, not so well, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂMy father,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Elihu addressing God. This title does not elsewhere occur in Job.
answers for wicked menÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(See on Job 34:8). Trials of the godly are not removed until they produce the effect designed.
37. clappeth ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ handsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin scorn (Job 27:23; Eze 21:17).
multiplieth ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ wordsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Job 11:2; 35:16). To his original ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsinÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ to correct which trials have been sent, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhe adds rebellion,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, words arraigning GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs justice.
2. more thanÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather as in Job 9:2; 25:4: ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI am righteous (literally, my righteousness is) before God.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The English Version, however, agrees with Job 9:17; 16:12-17; 27:2-6. Job 4:17 is susceptible of either rendering. Elihu means Job said so, not in so many words, but virtually.
3. Rather, explanatory of ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthisÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in Job 35:2, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThat thou sayest (to thyself, as if a distinct person) What advantage is it (thy integrity) to thee? What profit have I (by integrity) more than (I should have) by my sin?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, more than if I had sinned (Job 34:9). Job had said that the wicked, who use these very words, do not suffer for it (Job 21:13-15); whereby he virtually sanctioned their sentiments. The same change of persons from oblique to direct address occurs (Job 19:28; 22:17).
4. companionsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthose entertaining like sentiments with thee (Job 34:8, 36).
5-8. Elihu like Eliphaz (Job 22:2, 3, 12) shows that God is too exalted in nature to be susceptible of benefit or hurt from the righteousness or sin of men respectively; it is themselves that they benefit by righteousness, or hurt by sin.
behold the clouds, which are higher than thouÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂspoken with irony. Not only are they higher than thou, but thou canst not even reach them clearly with the eye. Yet these are not as high as GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs seat. God is therefore too exalted to be dependent on man. Therefore He has no inducement to injustice in His dealings with man. When He afflicts, it must be from a different motive; namely, the good of the sufferer.
6. what doestÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhow canst thou affect Him?
unto himÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat can hurt Him? (Jer 7:19; Pr 8:36).
7. (Ps 16:2; Pr 9:12; Lu 17:10).
9. (Ec 4:1.) Elihu states in JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs words (Job 24. 12; 30. 20) the difficulty; the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcriesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe oppressedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ not being heard might lead man to think that wrongs are not punished by Him.
10-13. But the reason is that the innocent sufferers often do not humbly seek God for succor; so to their ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂprideÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is to be laid the blame of their ruin; also because (Job 35:13-16) they, as Job, instead of waiting GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs time in pious trust, are prone to despair of His justice, when it is not immediately visible (Job 33:19-26). If the sufferer would apply to God with a humbled, penitent spirit, He would hear.
Where, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Jer 2:6, 8; Isa 51:13).
songsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂof joy at deliverance (Ps 42:8; 149:5; Ac 16:25).
in the nightÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂunexpectedly (Job 34:20, 25). Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin calamity.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
11. ManÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs spirit, which distinguishes him from the brute, is the strongest proof of GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs beneficence; by the use of it we may understand that God is the Almighty helper of all sufferers who humbly seek Him; and that they err who do not so seek Him.
fowlsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(see on Job 28:21).
12. ThereÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (when none humbly casts himself on God, Job 35:10). They cry proudly against God, rather than humbly to God. So, as the design of affliction is to humble the sufferer, there can be no answer until ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂprideÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ gives place to humble, penitent prayer (Ps 10:4; Jer 13:17).
13. vanityÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, cries uttered in an unhumbled spirit, Job 35:12, which applies in some degree to JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs cries; still more to those of the wicked (Job 27:9; Pr 15:29).
14. Although thou sayest thou shalt not see himÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(as a temporal deliverer; for he did look for a Redeemer after death, Job 19:25-27; which passage cannot consistently with ElihuÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs assertion here be interpreted of ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂseeingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ a temporal ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂredeemerÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ), Job 7:7; 9:11; 23:3, 8, 9; yet, judgment ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ ; therefore trust ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ But the Hebrew favors Maurer, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHow much less (will God ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ regard, Job 35:13), since thou sayest, that He does not regard thee.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ So in Job 4:19. Thus Elihu alludes to JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs words (Job 19:7; 30:20).
judgmentÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, thy cause, thy right; as in Ps 9:16; Pr 31:5, 8.
trustÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwait thouÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ on Him, patiently, until He take up thy cause (Ps 37:7).
15. As it is, because Job waited not trustingly and patiently (Job 35:14; Nu 20:12; Zep 3:2; Mic 7:9), God hath visited ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ ; yet still he has not taken (severe) cognizance of the great multitude (English Version wrongly, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂextremityÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) of sins; therefore Job should not complain of being punished with undue severity (Job 7:20; 11:6). Maurer translates: ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂBecause His anger hath not visited (hath not immediately punished Job for his impious complaints), nor has He taken strict (great) cognizance of his folly (sinful speeches); therefore,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c. For ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfolly,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Umbreit translates with the Rabbins, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmultitude.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Gesenius reads with the Septuagint and Vulgate needlessly, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtransgression.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
16. Apodosis to Job 35:15.
1, 2. Elihu maintains that afflictions are to the godly disciplinary, in order to lead them to attain a higher moral worth, and that the reason for their continuance is not, as the friends asserted, on account of the suffererÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs extraordinary guilt, but because the discipline has not yet attained its object, namely, to lend him to humble himself penitently before God (Isa 9:13; Jer 5:3). This is ElihuÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs fourth speech. He thus exceeds the ternary number of the others. Hence his formula of politeness (Job 36:2). Literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWait yet but a little for me.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Bear with me a little farther. I have yet (much, Job 32:18-20). There are Chaldeisms in this verse, agreeably to the view that the scene of the book is near the Euphrates and the Chaldees.
3. from afarÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot trite commonplaces, but drawn from GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs mighty works.
ascribe righteousnessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhereas Job ascribed unrighteousness (Job 34:10, 12). A man, in enquiring into GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs ways, should at the outset presume they are all just, be willing to find them so, and expect that the result of investigation will prove them to be so; such a one will never be disappointed [Barne[Barnes]
4. I will not ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂspeak wickedly for God,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as the friends (Job 13:4, 7, 8)ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, vindicate God by unsound arguments.
he that is perfect, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRather, as the parallelism requires, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa man of integrity in sentiments is with theeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (is he with whom thou hast to do). Elihu means himself, as opposed to the dishonest reasonings of the friends (Job 21:34).
5. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂstrength of understandingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (heart) the force of the repetition of ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmightyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; as ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmightyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as God is, none is too low to be ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdespisedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ by Him; for His ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmightÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ lies especially in ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHis strength of understanding,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ whereby He searches out the most minute things, so as to give to each his right. Elihu confirms his exhortation (Job 35:14).
6. right ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ poorÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe espouses the cause of the afflicted.
7. (1Pe 3:12). God does not forsake the godly, as Job implied, but ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂestablishes,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or makes them sit on the throne as kings (1Sa 2:8; Ps 113:7, 8). True of believers in the highest sense, already in part (1Pe 2:9; Re 1:6); hereafter fully (Re 5:10; Job 22:5).
and they areÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat they may be.
8-10. If they be afflicted, it is no proof that they are hypocrites, as the friends maintain, or that God disregards them, and is indifferent whether men are good or bad, as Job asserts: God is thereby ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdisciplining them,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ and ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂshowing them their sins,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ and if they bow in a right spirit under GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs visiting hand, the greatest blessings ensue.
that ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ exceededÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIn that they behaved themselves mightilyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgreatÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ); that is, presumptuously, or, at least, self-confidently.
10. (Job 33:16-18, 23).
11. serveÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, worship; as in Isa 19:23. God is to be supplied (compare Isa 1:19, 20).
12. (Job 33:18).
without knowledgeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, on account of their foolishness (Job 4:20, 21).
13-15. Same sentiment as Job 36:11, 12, expanded.
hypocritesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂor, the ungodly [Maure[Maurer]ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhypocritesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is perhaps a distinct class from the openly wicked (Job 36:12).
heap up wrathÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂof God against themselves (Ro 2:5). Umbreit translates, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnourish their wrath against God,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ instead of ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcryingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ unto Him. This suits well the parallelism and the Hebrew. But the English Version gives a good parallelism, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhypocritesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ answering to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcry notÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 27:8, 10); ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂheap up wrathÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ against themselves, to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe bindeth themÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ with fetters of affliction (Job 36:8).
14. Rather (De 23:17), Their life is (ended) as that of (literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂamongÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) the unclean, prematurely and dishonorably. So the second clause answers to the first. A warning that Job make not common cause with the wicked (Job 34:36).
15. poorÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe afflicted pious.
openeth ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ earsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Job 36:10); so as to be admonished in their straits (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂoppressionÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) to seek God penitently, and so be ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdeliveredÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 33:16, 17, 23-27).
16. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe will lead forth thee also out of the jaws of a straitÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ps 18:19; 118:5).
broad placeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂexpresses the liberty, and the well-supplied ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtableÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ the abundance of the prosperous (Ps 23:5; Isa 25:6).
17. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂBut if thou art fulfilled (that is, entirely filled) with the judgment of the wicked (that is, the guilt incurring judgmentÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Maure[Maurer]ather, as Umbreit, referring to Job 34:5-7, 36, the judgment pronounced on God by the guilty in misfortunes), judgment (GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs judgment on the wicked, Jer 51:9, playing on the double meaning of ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂjudgmentÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) and justice shall closely follow each other [Umbre[Umbreit]
18. (Nu 16:45; Ps 49:6, 7; Mt 16:26). Even the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂransomÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ by Jesus Christ (Job 33:24) will be of no avail to wilful despisers (Heb 10:26-29).
with his strokeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Job 34:26). Umbreit translates, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂBeware lest the wrath of God (thy severe calamity) lead thee to scornÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 34:7; 27:23). This accords better with the verb in the parallel clause, which ought to be translated, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂLet not the great ransom (of money, which thou canst give) seduce thee (Margin, turn thee aside, as if thou couldst deliver thyself from ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwrathÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ by it). As the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂscornÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in the first clause answers to the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂjudgment of the wickedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 36:17), so ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂransomÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂseduceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwill he esteem richesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 36:19). Thus, Job 36:18 is the transition between Job 36:17 and Job 36:19.
19. forces of strengthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, resources of wealth (Ps 49:7; Pr 11:4).
20. DesireÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpant for. Job had wished for death (Job 3:3-9, &c.).
cut offÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂascend,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as the corn cut and lifted upon the wagon or stack (Job 36:26); so ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcut off,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdisappear.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
in their placeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂunder themselvesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; so, without moving from their place, on the spot, suddenly (Job 40:12) [Maure[Maurer]eitÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs translation: ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂTo ascend (which is really, as thou wilt find to thy cost, to descend) to the people belowÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂunder themselvesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ), answers better to the parallelism and the Hebrew. Thou pantest for death as desirable, but it is a ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnightÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or region of darkness; thy fancied ascent (amelioration) will prove a descent (deterioration) (Job 10:22); therefore desire it not.
21. regardÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂturn thyself to.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
iniquityÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, presumptuous speaking against God (Job 34:5, and above, see on Job 36:17, 18).
rather thanÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto bear ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂafflictionÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ with pious patience. Men think it an alleviation to complain against God, but this is adding sin to sorrow; it is sin, not sorrow, which can really hurt us (contrast Heb 11:25).
22-25. God is not to be impiously arraigned, but to be praised for His might, shown in His works.
exaltethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, doeth lofty things, shows His exalted power [Umbre[Umbreit]1:13).
teachethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Ps 94:12, &c.). The connection is, returning to Job 36:5, GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmightÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is shown in His ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwisdomÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; He alone can teach; yet, because He, as a sovereign, explains not all His dealings, forsooth Job must presume to teach Him (Isa 40:13, 14; Ro 11:34; 1Co 2:16). So the transition to Job 36:23 is natural. Umbreit with the Septuagint translates, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWho is Lord,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ wrongly, as this meaning belongs to later Hebrew.
23. Job dared to prescribe to God what He should do (Job 34:10, 13).
24. Instead of arraigning, let it be thy fixed principle to magnify God in His works (Ps 111:2-8; Re 15:3); these, which all may ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsee,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ may convince us that what we do not see is altogether wise and good (Ro 1:20).
beholdÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAs ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂseeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 36:25), shows; not, as Maurer, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsing,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ laud (see on Job 33:27).
25. SeeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, with wondering admiration [Maure[Maurer]
man may beholdÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(yet) mortals (a different Hebrew word from ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmanÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) behold it (only) from afar off,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ see but a small ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpartÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 26:14).
26. (Job 37:13). GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs greatness in heaven and earth: a reason why Job should bow under His afflicting hand.
know him notÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂonly in part (Job 36:25; 1Co 13:12).
his yearsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Ps 90:2; 102:24, 27); applied to Jesus Christ (Heb 1:12).
27, 28. The marvellous formation of rain (so Job 5:9, 10).
maketh smallÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe draweth (up) to Him, He attracts (from the earth below) the drops of water; they (the drops of water) pour down rain, (which is) His vapor.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂVaporÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is in apposition with ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrain,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ marking the way in which rain is formed; namely, from the vapor drawn up by God into the air and then condensed into drops, which fall (Ps 147:8). The suspension of such a mass of water, and its descent not in a deluge, but in drops of vapory rain, are the marvel. The selection of this particular illustration of GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs greatness forms a fit prelude to the storm in which God appears (Job 40:1).
28. abundantlyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂupon many men.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
29. (Job 37:5). GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs marvels in thunder and lightnings.
spreadings, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe canopy of thick clouds, which covers the heavens in a storm (Ps 105:39).
the noiseÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcrashingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; namely, thunder.
of his tabernacleÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGod being poetically said to have His pavilion amid dark clouds (Ps 18:11; Isa 40:22).
itÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHis tabernacle (Job 36:29). The light, in an instant spread over the vast mass of dark clouds, forms a striking picture.
spreadÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂis repeated from Job 36:29 to form an antithesis. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe spreads not only clouds, but light.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
covereth the bottomÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂroots.
of the seaÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, with the light. In the storm the depths of ocean are laid bare; and the light ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcoversÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ them, at the same moment that it ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂspreadsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ across the dark sky. So in Ps 18:14, 15, the discovering of ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe channels of watersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ follows the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlightnings.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Umbreit translates: ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe spreadeth His light upon Himself, and covereth Himself with the roots of the seaÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ps 104:2). GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs garment is woven of celestial light and of the watery depths, raised to the sky to form His cloudy canopy. The phrase, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcover Himself with the roots of the sea,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is harsh; but the image is grand.
31. These (rain and lightnings) are marvellous and not to be understood (Job 36:29), yet necessary. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂFor by them He judgeth (chastiseth on the one hand), &c. (and on the other, by them) He giveth meatÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (food), &c. (Job 37:13; 38:23, 27; Ac 14:17).
32. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe covereth (both) His hands with light (lightning, Job 37:3, Margin), and giveth it a command against his adversaryÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (literally, the one ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂassailingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Him, Ps 8:2; 139:20; Job 21:19). Thus, as in Job 36:31, the twofold effects of His waters are set forth, so here, of His light; in the one hand, destructive lightning against the wicked; in the other, the genial light for good to His friends, &c. (Job 36:33) [Umbre[Umbreit]
33. noiseÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, He revealeth it (literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂannounceth concerning itÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) to His friend (antithesis to adversary, Job 36:32, so the Hebrew is translated, Job 2:11); also to cattle and plants (literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat which shooteth upÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; Ge 40:10; 41:22). As the genial effect of ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwaterÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in the growth of food, is mentioned, Job 36:31, so here that of ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlightÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in cherishing cattle and plants [Umbre[Umbreit]nglish Version, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnoiseÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ be retained, translate, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHis noise (thunder) announces concerning Him (His coming in the tempest), the cattle (to announce) concerning Him when He is in the act of rising upÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (in the storm). Some animals give various intimations that they are sensible of the approach of a storm [Virgi[Virgil, Georgics, I.373, &c.]
1. At thisÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhen I hear the thundering of the Divine Majesty. Perhaps the storm already had begun, out of which God was to address Job (Job 38:1).
2. Hear attentivelyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe thunder (noise), &c., and then you will feel that there is good reason to tremble.
soundÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmuttering of the thunder.
3. directeth itÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhowever zigzag the lightningÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs course; or, rather, it applies to the pealing roll of the thunder. GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs all-embracing power.
endsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwings,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂskirts,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ the habitable earth being often compared to an extended garment (Job 38:13; Isa 11:12).
4. The thunderclap follows at an interval after the flash.
stay themÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe will not hold back the lightnings (Job 37:3), when the thunder is heard [Maure[Maurer]er, take ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthemÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as the usual concomitants of thunder, namely, rain and hail [Umbre[Umbreit]40:9).
5. (Job 36:26; Ps 65:6; 139:14). The sublimity of the description lies in this, that God is everywhere in the storm, directing it whither He will [Barne[Barnes]Ps 29:1-11, where, as here, the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂvoiceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of God is repeated with grand effect. The thunder in Arabia is sublimely terrible.
6. BeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmore forcible than ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfall,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as Umbreit translates Ge 1:3.
to the small rain, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe saith, Be on the earth. The shower increasing from ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsmallÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgreat,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is expressed by the plural ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂshowersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Margin), following the singular ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂshower.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Winter rain (So 2:11).
7. In winter God stops manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs out-of-doors activity.
sealethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcloseth up (Job 9:7). ManÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhandsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ are then tied up.
his workÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin antithesis to manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs own work (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhandÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) which at other times engages men so as to make them liable to forget their dependence on God. Umbreit more literally translates, That all men whom He has made (literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂof His makingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) may be brought to acknowledgment.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
8. remainÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrest in their lairs. It is beautifully ordered that during the cold, when they could not obtain food, many lie torpid, a state wherein they need no food. The desolation of the fields, at GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs bidding, is poetically graphic.
9. southÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂchambersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; connected with the south (Job 9:9). The whirlwinds are poetically regarded as pent up by God in His southern chambers, whence He sends them forth (so Job 38:22; Ps 135:7). As to the southern whirlwinds (see Isa 21:1; Zec 9:14), they drive before them burning sands; chiefly from February to May.
the northÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂscatteringÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; the north wind scatters the clouds.
10. the breath of GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpoetically, for the ice-producing north wind.
straitenedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂphysically accurate; frost compresses or contracts the expanded liquid into a congealed mass (Job 38:29, 30; Ps 147:17, 18).
11-13. How the thunderclouds are dispersed, or else employed by God, either for correction or mercy.
by wateringÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂby loading it with water.
weariethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂburdeneth it, so that it falls in rain; thus ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂweariethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ answers to the parallel ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂscatterethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (compare, see on Job 37:9); a clear sky resulting alike from both.
bright cloudÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcloud of his light,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, of His lightning. Umbreit for ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwatering,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c., translates; ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂBrightness drives away the clouds, His light scattereth the thick cloudsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; the parallelism is thus good, but the Hebrew hardly sanctions it.
12. itÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe cloud of lightning.
counselsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂguidance (Ps 148:8); literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsteeringÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; the clouds obey GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs guidance, as the ship does the helmsman. So the lightning (see on Job 36:31, 32); neither is haphazard in its movements.
theyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe clouds, implied in the collective singular ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂit.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
face of the world, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin the face of the earthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs circle.
13. Literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe maketh it (the rain-cloud) find place,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ whether for correction, if (it be destined) for His land (that is, for the part inhabited by man, with whom God deals, as opposed to the parts uninhabited, on which rain is at other times appointed to fall, Job 38:26, 27) or for mercy. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIf it be destined for His landÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is a parenthetical supposition [Maure[Maurer]nglish Version, this clause spoils the even balance of the antithesis between the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Margin) and ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmercyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ps 68:9; Ge 7:1-24).
14. (Ps 111:2).
15. whenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhow.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
disposed themÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlays His charge on these ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwondersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 37:14) to arise.
shineÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂflash. How is it that light arises from the dark thundercloud?
16. Hebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHast thou understanding of the balancings,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c., how the clouds are poised in the air, so that their watery gravity does not bring them to the earth? The condensed moisture, descending by gravity, meets a warmer temperature, which dissipates it into vapor (the tendency of which is to ascend) and so counteracts the descending force.
perfect in knowledgeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGod; not here in the sense that Elihu uses it of himself (Job 36:4).
dost thou knowÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhow, &c.
17. thy garments, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, dost thou know how thy body grows warm, so as to affect thy garments with heat?
south windÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂregion of the south.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWhen He maketh still (and sultry) the earth (that is, the atmosphere) by (during) the south windÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (So 4:16).
18. with himÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlike as He does (Job 40:15).
spread outÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgiven expanse to.
strong piecesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfirm; whence the term ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfirmamentÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂexpansion,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Ge 1:6, Margin; Isa 44:24).
molten looking glassÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂimage of the bright smiling sky. Mirrors were then formed of molten polished metal, not glass.
19. Men cannot explain GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs wonders; we ought, therefore, to be dumb and not contend with God. If Job thinks we ought, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlet him teach us, what we shall say.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
darknessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂof mind; ignorance. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe eyes are bewilderingly blinded, when turned in bold controversy with God towards the sunny heavensÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 37:18) [Umbre[Umbreit]
20. What I a mortal say against GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs dealings is not worthy of being told Him. In opposition to JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs wish to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂspeakÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ before God (Job 13:3, 18-22).
if ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ surely he shall be swallowed upÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe parallelism more favors Umbreit, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂDurst a man speak (before Him, complaining) that he is (without cause) being destroyed?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
21. cleansethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, cleareth the air of clouds. When the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbright lightÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of the sun, previously not seen through ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂclouds,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ suddenly shines out from behind them, owing to the wind clearing them away, the effect is dazzling to the eye; so if GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs majesty, now hidden, were suddenly revealed in all its brightness, it would spread darkness over JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs eyes, anxious as he is for it (compare, see on Job 37:19) [Umbre[Umbreit]s because now man sees not the bright sunlight (GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs dazzling majesty), owing to the intervening ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcloudsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 26:9), that they dare to wish to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂspeakÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ before God (Job 37:20). Prelude to GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs appearance (Job 38:1). The words also hold true in a sense not intended by Elihu, but perhaps included by the Holy Ghost. Job and other sufferers cannot see the light of GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs countenance through the clouds of trial: but the wind will soon clear them off, and God shall appear again: let them but wait patiently, for He still shines, though for a time they see Him not (see on Job 37:23).
22. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgolden splendor.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Maurer translates ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgold.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ It is found in northern regions. But God cannot be ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfound out,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ because of His ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂMajestyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 37:23). Thus the twenty-eighth chapter corresponds; English Version is simpler.
the northÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂBrightness is chiefly associated with it (see on Job 23:9). Here, perhaps, because the north wind clears the air (Pr 25:23). Thus this clause answers to the last of Job 37:21; as the second of this verse to the first of Job 37:21. Inverted parallelism. (See Isa 14:13; Ps 48:2).
with GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂupon God,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as a garment (Ps 104:1, 2).
23. afflictÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂoppressively, so as to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpervert judgmentÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as Job implied (see on Job 8:3); but see on Job 37:21, end of note. The reading, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe answereth not,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, gives no account of His dealings, is like a transcriberÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs correction, from Job 33:13, Margin.
24. doÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂought.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
wiseÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin their own conceits.
1. Jehovah appears unexpectedly in a whirlwind (already gathering Job 37:1, 2), the symbol of ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂjudgmentÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Ps 50:3, 4, &c.), to which Job had challenged Him. He asks him now to get himself ready for the contest. Can he explain the phenomena of GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs natural government? How can he, then, hope to understand the principles of His moral government? God thus confirms ElihuÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs sentiment, that submission to, not reasonings on, GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs ways is manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs part. This and the disciplinary design of trial to the godly is the great lesson of this book. He does not solve the difficulty by reference to future retribution: for this was not the immediate question; glimpses of that truth were already given in the fourteenth and nineteenth chapters, the full revelation of it being reserved for Gospel times. Yet even now we need to learn the lesson taught by Elihu and God in Job.
counselÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂimpugning My divine wisdom in the providential arrangements of the universe. Such ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwordsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (including those of the friends) rather obscure, than throw light on My ways. God is about to be JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs Vindicator, but must first bring him to a right state of mind for receiving relief.
3. a manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhero, ready for battle (1Co 16:13), as he had wished (Job 9:35; 13:22; 31:37). The robe, usually worn flowing, was girt up by a girdle when men ran, labored, or fought (1Pe 1:13).
4. To understand the cause of things, man should have been present at their origin. The finite creature cannot fathom the infinite wisdom of the Creator (Job 28:12; 15:7, 8).
5. measuresÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂof its proportions. Image from an architectÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs plans of a building.
lineÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂof measurement (Isa 28:17). The earth is formed on an all-wise plan.
6. foundationsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsockets,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as Margin.
fastenedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmade to sink,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as a foundation-stone let down till it settles firmly in the clay (Job 26:7). Gravitation makes and keeps the earth a sphere.
7. So at the founding of ZerubbabelÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs temple (Ezr 3:10-13). So hereafter at the completion of the Church, the temple of the Holy Ghost (Zec 4:7); as at its foundation (Lu 2:13, 14).
morning starsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂespecially beautiful. The creation morn is appropriately associated with these, it being the commencement of this worldÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs day. The stars are figuratively said to sing GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs praises, as in Ps 19:1; 148:3. They are symbols of the angels, bearing the same relation to our earth, as angels do to us. Therefore they answer to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsons of God,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or angels, in the parallel. See on Job 25:5.
8. doorsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfloodgates; these when opened caused the flood (Ge 8:2); or else, the shores.
wombÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂof chaos. The bowels of the earth. Image from childbirth (Job 38:8, 9; Eze 32:2; Mic 4:10). Ocean at its birth was wrapped in clouds as its swaddling bands.
10. brake up forÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, appointed it. Shores are generally broken and abrupt cliffs. The Greek for ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂshoreÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ means ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa broken place.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ I broke off or measured off for it my limit, that is, the limit which I thought fit (Job 26:10).
11. stayedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa limit shall be set to.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
12-15. Passing from creation to phenomena in the existing inanimate world.
Hast thouÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas God daily does.
commanded the morningÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto rise.
since thy daysÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsince thou hast come into being.
his placeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIt varies in its place of rising from day to day, and yet it has its place each day according to fixed laws.
13. take hold of the ends, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂspread itself over the earth to its utmost bounds in a moment.
wickedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwho hate the light, and do their evil works in the dark (Job 24:13).
shaken out of itÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe corners (Hebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwingsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂskirtsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) of it, as of a garment, are taken hold of by the dayspring, so as to shake off the wicked.
14. Explaining the first clause of Job 38:13, as Job 38:15 does the second clause. As the plastic clay presents the various figures impressed on it by a seal, so the earth, which in the dark was void of all form, when illuminated by the dayspring, presents a variety of forms, hills, valleys, &c.
turnedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Hebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂturns itselfÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) alludes to the rolling cylinder seal, such as is found in Babylon, which leaves its impressions on the clay, as it is turned about; so the morning light rolling on over the earth.
they standÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe forms of beauty, unfolded by the dawn, stand forth as a garment, in which the earth is clad.
15. their lightÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂby which they work; namely, darkness, which is their day (Job 24:17), is extinguished by daylight.
highÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe arm upliftedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ for murder or other crime is broken; it falls down suddenly, powerless, through their fear of light.
16. springsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfountains beneath the sea (Ps 95:4, 5).
searchÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe inmost recessesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat which is only found by searching,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ the deep caverns of ocean.
17. seenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe second clause heightens the thought in the first. Man during life does not even ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂseeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ the gates of the realm of the dead (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdeath,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Job 10:21); much less are they ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂopenedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ to him. But those are ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnaked before GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 26:6).
18. Hast thouÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas God doth (Job 28:24).
19-38. The marvels in heaven. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWhat is the way (to the place wherein) light dwelleth?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The origin of light and darkness. In Ge 1:3-5, 14-18, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlightÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is created distinct from, and previous to, light-emitting bodies, the luminaries of heaven.
20. Dost thou know its place so well as to be able to guide, (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtakeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as in Isa 36:17) it to (but Umbreit, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂreach it inÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) its own boundary, that is, the limit between light and darkness (Job 26:10)?
21. Or without the interrogation, in an ironical sense [Umbre[Umbreit]
thenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhen I created light and darkness (Job 15:7).
22. treasuresÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂstorehouses, from which God draws forth snow and hail. Snow is vapor congealed in the air before it is collected in drops large enough to form hail. Its shape is that of a crystal in endless variety of beautiful figures. Hail is formed by rain falling through dry cold air.
23. against the time of troubleÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe time when I design to chastise men (Ex 9:18; Jos 10:11; Re 16:21; Isa 28:17; Ps 18:12, 13; Hag 2:17).
24. is ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ partedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂparts, so as to diffuse itself over the whole earth, though seeming to come from one point. Light travels from the sun to the earth, ninety millions of miles, in eight minutes.
which scatterethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAnd by what way the east wind (personified) spreads (scattereth) itself.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ The light and east wind are associated together, as both come from one quarter, and often arise together (Jon 4:8).
25. watersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂRain falls, not in a mass on one spot, but in countless separate canals in the air marked out for them.
way for the lightningÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Job 28:26).
26. Since rain fails also on places uninhabited by man, it cannot be that man guides its course. Such rain, though man cannot explain the reason for it, is not lost. God has some wise design in it.
27. As though the desolate ground thirsted for GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs showers. Personification. The beauty imparted to the uninhabited desert pleases God, for whom primarily all things exist, and He has ulterior designs in it.
28. Can any visible origin of rain and dew be assigned by man? Dew is moisture, which was suspended in the air, but becomes condensed on reaching theÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin the nightÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlower temperature of objects on the earth.
29. Job 37:10.
30. The unfrozen waters are hid under the frozen, as with a covering of stone.
frozenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂis takenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; the particles take hold of one another so as to cohere.
31. sweet influencesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe joy diffused by spring, the time when the Pleiades appear. The Eastern poets, Hafiz, Sadi, &c., describe them as ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbrilliant rosettes.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Gesenius translates: ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbandsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂknot,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ which answers better the parallelism. But English Version agrees better with the Hebrew. The seven stars are closely ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂboundÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ together (see on Job 9:9). ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂCanst thou bind or loose the tie?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂCanst thou loose the bonds by which the constellation Orion (represented in the East as an impious giant chained to the sky) is held fast?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (See on Job 9:9).
32. Canst thou bring forth from their places or houses (Mazzaloth, 2Ki 23:5, Margin; to which Mazzaroth here is equivalent) into the sky the signs of the Zodiac at their respective seasonsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe twelve lodgings in which the sun successively stays, or appears, in the sky?
his sons?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe three stars in his tail. Canst thou make them appear in the sky? (Job 9:9). The great and less Bear are called by the Arabs ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂDaughters of the Bier,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ the quadrangle being the bier, the three others the mourners.
33. ordinancesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhich regulate the alternations of seasons, &c. (Ge 8:22).
dominionÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcontrolling influence of the heavenly bodies, the sun, moon, &c., on the earth (on the tides, weather) (Ge 1:16; Ps 136:7-9).
34. Jer 14:22; above Job 22:11, metaphorically.
35. Here we areÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂat thy disposal (Isa 6:8).
36. inward parts ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ heartÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂBut ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdark cloudsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂshining phenomenaÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ) [Umbre[Umbreit]eteorÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Maure[Maurer]rring to the consultation of these as signs of weather by the husbandman (Ec 11:4). But Hebrew supports English Version. The connection is, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWho hath given thee the intelligence to comprehend in any degree the phenomena just specified?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
heartÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot the usual Hebrew word, but one from a root ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂto viewÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; perception.
37. Who appoints by his wisdom the due measure of the clouds?
stayÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂemptyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlay downÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂinclineÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ so as to pour out.
bottles of heavenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrain-filled clouds.
38. groweth, &c.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, pour itself into a mass by the rain, like molten metal; then translate Job 38:38, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWho is it that empties,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c., ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhen,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c.? The English Version, however, is tenable: ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIs caked into a massÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ by heat, like molten metal, before the rain falls; ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWho is it that can empty the rain vessels, and bring down rain at such a time?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 38:38).
39. At Job 38:39-39:30, the instincts of animals. Is it thou that givest it the instinct to hunt its prey? (Ps 104:21).
appetiteÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlife,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ which depends on the appetiteÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 33:20).
40. lie in wait?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfor their prey (Ps 10:9).
41. Lu 12:24. Transition from the noble lioness to the croaking raven. Though man dislikes it, as of ill omen, God cares for it, as for all His creatures.
1. Even wild beasts, cut off from all care of man, are cared for by God at their seasons of greatest need. Their instinct comes direct from God and guides them to help themselves in parturition; the very time when the herdsman is most anxious for his herds.
wild goatsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂibex (Ps 104:18; 1Sa 24:2).
hindsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfawns; most timid and defenseless animals, yet cared for by God.
2. They bring forth with ease and do not need to reckon the months of pregnancy, as the shepherd does in the case of his flocks.
3. bow themselvesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin parturition; bend on their knees (1Sa 4:19).
bring forthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcause their young to cleave the womb and break forth.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
sorrowsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtheir young ones, the cause of their momentary pains.
4. are in good likingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin good condition, grow up strong.
with cornÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin the field,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ without manÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs care.
return notÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbeing able to provide for themselves.
5. wild assÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂTwo different Hebrew words are here used for the same animal, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe ass of the woodsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ and ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe wild ass.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (See on Job 6:5; Job 11:12; Job 24:5; and Jer 2:24).
loosed the bandsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgiven its liberty to. Man can rob animals of freedom, but not, as God, give freedom, combined with subordination to fixed laws.
6. barrenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsalt,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, unfruitful. (So Ps 107:34, Margin.)
7. multitudeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdinÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; he sets it at defiance, being far away from it in the freedom of the wilderness.
driverÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwho urges on the tame ass to work. The wild ass is the symbol of uncontrolled freedom in the East; even kings have, therefore, added its name to them.
8. The rangeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsearching,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat which it finds by searching is his pasture.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
9. unicornÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂPliny [Natur[Natural History, 8.21]ions such an animal; its figure is found depicted in the ruins of Persepolis. The Hebrew reem conveys the idea of loftiness and power (compare Ramah; Indian, Ram; Latin, Roma). The rhinoceros was perhaps the original type of the unicorn. The Arab rim is a two-horned animal. Sometimes ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂunicornÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or reem is a mere poetical symbol or abstraction; but the buffalo is the animal referred to here, from the contrast to the tame ox, used in ploughing (Job 39:10, 12).
abideÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpass the night.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
10. his bandÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfastened to the horns, as its chief strength lies in the head and shoulders.
after theeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂobedient to thee; willing to follow, instead of being goaded on before thee.
11. thy labourÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrustic work.
seedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂproduce (1Sa 8:15).
into thy barnÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgather (the contents of) thy threshing-floorÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Maure[Maurer]corn threshed on it.
13. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe wing of the ostrich henÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe crying birdÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; as the Arab name for it means ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsongÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; referring to its night cries (Job 30:29; Mic 1:8) vibrating joyously. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIs it not like the quill and feathers of the pious birdÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (the stork)? [Umbre[Umbreit]vibrating, quivering wing, serving for sail and oar at once, is characteristic of the ostrich in full course. Its white and black feathers in the wing and tail are like the storkÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs. But, unlike that bird, the symbol of parental love in the East, it with seeming want of natural (pious) affection deserts its young. Both birds are poetically called by descriptive, instead of their usual appellative, names.
14, 15. Yet (unlike the stork) she ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂleaveth,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c. Hence called by the Arabs ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe impious bird.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ However, the fact is, she lays her eggs with great care and hatches them, as other birds do; but in hot countries the eggs do not need so constant incubation; she therefore often leaves them and sometimes forgets the place on her return. Moreover, the outer eggs, intended for food, she feeds to her young; these eggs, lying separate in the sand, exposed to the sun, gave rise to the idea of her altogether leaving them. God describes her as she seems to man; implying, though she may seem foolishly to neglect her young, yet really she is guided by a sure instinct from God, as much as animals of instincts widely different.
16. On a slight noise she often forsakes her eggs, and returns not, as if she were ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhardened towards her young.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
her labourÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin producing eggs, is in vain, (yet) she has not disquietude (about her young), unlike other birds, who, if one egg and another are taken away, will go on laying till their full number is made up.
17. wisdomÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsuch as God gives to other animals, and to man (Job 35:11). The Arab proverb is, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfoolish as an ostrich.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Yet her very seeming want of wisdom is not without wise design of God, though man cannot see it; just as in the trials of the godly, which seem so unreasonable to Job, there lies hid a wise design.
18. Notwithstanding her deficiencies, she has distinguishing excellences.
lifteth ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ herselfÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfor running; she cannot mount in the air. Gesenius translates: ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlashes herselfÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ up to her course by flapping her wings. The old versions favor English Version, and the parallel ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂscornethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ answers to her proudly ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlifting up herself.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
19. The allusion to ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe horseÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 39:18), suggests the description of him. Arab poets delight in praising the horse; yet it is not mentioned in the possessions of Job (Job 1:3; 42:12). It seems to have been at the time chiefly used for war, rather than ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdomestic purposes.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
thunderÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpoetically for, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhe with arched neck inspires fear as thunder does.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Translate, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmajestyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Umbre[Umbreit]er ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe trembling, quivering mane,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ answering to the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂvibrating wingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of the ostrich (see on Job 39:13) [Maure[Maurer]aneÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ in Greek also is from a root meaning ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfear.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ English Version is more sublime.
20. make ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ afraidÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcanst thou (as I do) make him spring as the locust?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ So in Joe 2:4, the comparison is between locusts and war-horses. The heads of the two are so similar that the Italians call the locusts cavaletta, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlittle horse.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
21. valleyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhere the battle is joined.
goeth onÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂgoeth forth (Nu 1:3; 21:23).
23. quiverÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfor the arrows, which they contain, and which are directed ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂagainst him.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
glittering spearÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂglittering of the spear,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ like ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlightning of the spearÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Hab 3:11).
24. swallowethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂFretting with impatience, he draws the ground towards him with his hoof, as if he would swallow it. The parallelism shows this to be the sense; not as Maurer, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂscours over it.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
neither believethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfor joy. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhe will not stand still, when the note of the trumpet (soundeth).ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
25. saithÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpoetically applied to his mettlesome neighing, whereby he shows his love of the battle.
smellethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsnuffeth; discerneth (Isa 11:3, Margin).
26. The instinct by which some birds migrate to warmer climes before winter. Rapid flying peculiarly characterizes the whole hawk genus.
27. eagleÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIt flies highest of all birds: thence called ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe bird of heaven.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
28. abidethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsecurely (Ps 91:1); it occupies the same abode mostly for life.
cragÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtoothÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (1Sa 14:5, Margin).
strong placeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcitadel, fastness.
29. seekethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂis on the lookout for.
beholdÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe eagle descries its prey at an astonishing distance, by sight, rather than smell.
30. Quoted partly by Jesus Christ (Mt 24:28). The food of young eagles is the blood of victims brought by the parent, when they are still too feeble to devour flesh.
slainÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAs the vulture chiefly feeds on carcasses, it is included probably in the eagle genus.
Job 40:1-24. GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs Second Address.
He had paused for a reply, but Job was silent.
1. the LordÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂJehovah.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
2. he that contendethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas Job had so often expressed a wish to do. Or, rebuketh. Does Job now still (after seeing and hearing of GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs majesty and wisdom) wish to set God right?
answer itÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, the questions I have asked.
4. I am (too) vile (to reply). It is a very different thing to vindicate ourselves before God, from what it is before men. Job could do the latter, not the former.
lay ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ hand ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ upon ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ mouthÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI have no plea to offer (Job 21:5; Jud 18:19).
5. Once ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ twiceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂoftentimes, more than once (Job 33:14, compare with Job 33:29; Ps 62:11):
I have spokenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, against God.
not answerÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot plead against Thee.
6. the LordÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂJehovah.
7. (See on Job 38:3). Since Job has not only spoken against God, but accused Him of injustice, God challenges him to try, could he govern the world, as God by His power doth, and punish the proud and wicked (Job 40:7-14).
8. Wilt thou not only contend with, but set aside My judgment or justice in the government of the world?
condemnÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdeclare Me unrighteous, in order that thou mayest be accounted righteous (innocent; undeservingly afflicted).
9. armÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs omnipotence (Isa 53:1).
thunderÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂGodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs voice (Job 37:4).
10. See, hast thou power and majesty like GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs, to enable thee to judge and govern the world?
11. rageÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, pour out the redundant floods of, &c.
beholdÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂTry, canst thou, as God, by a mere glance abase the proud (Isa 2:12, &c.)?
12. proudÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhigh (Da 4:37).
in their placeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂon the spot; suddenly, before they can move from their place. (See on Job 34:26; Job 36:20).
13. (Isa 2:10). Abase and remove them out of the sight of men.
bind ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ facesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, shut up their persons [Maure[Maurer]it refers rather to the custom of binding a cloth over the faces of persons about to be executed (Job 9:24; Es 7:8).
in secretÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂconsign them to darkness.
14. confessÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂextolÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI also,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ who now censure thee. But since thou canst not do these works, thou must, instead of censuring, extol My government.
thine own ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ hand ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ saveÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Ps 44:3). So as to eternal salvation by Jesus Christ (Isa 59:16; 63:5).
15-24. God shows that if Job cannot bring under control the lower animals (of which he selects the two most striking, behemoth on land, leviathan in the water), much less is he capable of governing the world.
behemothÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe description in part agrees with the hippopotamus, in part with the elephant, but exactly in all details with neither. It is rather a poetical personification of the great Pachydermata, or Herbivora (so ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhe eateth grassÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ), the idea of the hippopotamus being predominant. In Job 40:17, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe tail like a cedar,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ hardly applies to the latter (so also Job 40:20, 23, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂJordan,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ a river which elephants alone could reach, but see on Job 40:23). On the other hand, Job 40:21, 22 are characteristic of the amphibious river horse. So leviathan (the twisting animal), Job 41:1, is a generalized term for cetacea, pythons, saurians of the neighboring seas and rivers, including the crocodile, which is the most prominent, and is often associated with the river horse by old writers. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂBehemothÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ seems to be the Egyptian Pehemout, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwater-ox,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Hebraized, so-called as being like an ox, whence the Italian bombarino.
with theeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas I made thyself. Yet how great the difference! The manifold wisdom and power of God!
he eateth grassÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmarvellous in an animal living so much in the water; also strange, that such a monster should not be carnivorous.
16. navelÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂmusclesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of his belly; the weakest point of the elephant, therefore it is not meant.
17. like a cedarÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAs the tempest bends the cedar, so it can move its smooth thick tail [Umbre[Umbreit]the cedar implies straightness and length, such as do not apply to the river horseÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs short tail, but perhaps to an extinct species of animal (see on Job 40:15).
wrappedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfirmly twisted together, like a thick rope.
18. strongÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtubesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of copper [Umbre[Umbreit]
19. Chief of the works of God; so ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwaysÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 26:14; Pr 8:22).
can make his sword to approachÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhas furnished him with his swordÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (harpe), namely, the sickle-like teeth with which he cuts down grain. English Version, however, is literally right.
20. The mountain is not his usual haunt. Bochart says it is sometimes found there (?).
beasts ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ playÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa graphic trait: though armed with such teeth, he lets the beasts play near him unhurt, for his food is grass.
21. liethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHe leads an inactive life.
shady treesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlotus bushesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; as Job 40:22 requires.
22. shady treesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂTranslate: ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂlotus bushes.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
23. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Though) a river be violent (overflow), he trembleth notÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; (for though living on land, he can live in the water, too); he is secure, though a Jordan swell up to his mouth. ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂJordanÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is used for any great river (consonant with the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbehemothÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ), being a poetical generalization (see on Job 40:15). The author cannot have been a Hebrew as Umbreit asserts, or he would not adduce the Jordan, where there were no river horses. He alludes to it as a name for any river, but not as one known to him, except by hearsay.
24. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂWill any take him by open forceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbefore his eyesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ), ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂor pierce his nose with cords?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ No; he can only be taken by guile, and in a pitfall (Job 41:1, 2).
1. leviathanÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe twisted animal,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ gathering itself in folds: a synonym to the Thannin (Job 3:8, Margin; see Ps 74:14; type of the Egyptian tyrant; Ps 104:26; Isa 27:1; the Babylon tyrant). A poetical generalization for all cetacean, serpentine, and saurian monsters (see on Job 40:15, hence all the description applies to no one animal); especially the crocodile; which is naturally described after the river horse, as both are found in the Nile.
tongue ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ lettest down?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe crocodile has no tongue, or a very small one cleaving to the lower jaw. But as in fishing the tongue of the fish draws the baited hook to it, God asks, Canst thou in like manner take leviathan?
2. hookÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa rope of rushes.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
thornÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, a ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂringÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ or ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhook.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ So wild beasts were led about when caught (Isa 37:29; Eze 29:4); fishes also were secured thus and thrown into the water to keep them alive.
3. soft wordsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat thou mayest spare his life. No: he is untamable.
4. Can he be tamed for domestic use (so Job 39:10-12)?
5. a bird?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthat is, tamed.
6. Rather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpartnersÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (namely, in fishing).
make a banquetÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe parallelism rather supports Umbreit, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂDo partners (in trade) desire to purchase him?ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ So the Hebrew (De 2:6).
merchantsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂCanaanites,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ who were great merchants (Ho 12:7, Margin).
7. His hide is not penetrable, as that of fishes.
8. If thou lay ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ thou wilt have reason ever to remember ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ and thou wilt never try it again.
9. the hopeÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂof taking him.
cast downÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwith fear ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂat the (mere) sight of him.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
10. fierceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcourageous. If a man dare attack one of My creatures (Ge 49:9; Nu 24:9), who will dare (as Job has wished) oppose himself (Ps 2:2) to Me, the Creator? This is the main drift of the description of leviathan.
11. preventedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdone Me a favor first: anticipated Me with service (Ps 21:3). None can call Me to account (ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂstand before Me,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Job 41:10) as unjust, because I have withdrawn favors from him (as in JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs case): for none has laid Me under a prior obligation by conferring on Me something which was not already My own. What can man give to Him who possesses all, including man himself? Man cannot constrain the creature to be his ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂservantÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 41:4), much less the Creator.
12. I will not concealÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa resumption of the description broken off by the digression, which formed an agreeable change.
his powerÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe way,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, true proportion or expression of his strength (so Hebrew, De 19:4).
comely proportionÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe comeliness of his structureÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (his apparatus: so ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsuit of apparelÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Jud 17:10) [Maure[Maurer]eit translates, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhis armor.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ But that follows after.
13. discoverÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂuncover the surfaceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of his garment (skin, Job 10:11): strip off the hard outer coat with which the inner skin is covered.
withÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwithin his double jawsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbridleÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; hence that into which the bridle is put, the double row of teeth; but ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbridleÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ is used to imply that none dare put his hand in to insert a bridle where in other animals it is placed (Job 41:4; 39:10).
14. doors of ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ faceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhis mouth. His teeth are sixty in number, larger in proportion than his body, some standing out, some serrated, fitting into each other like a comb [Bocha[Bochart]
15. Rather, his ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfurrows of shieldsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (as ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtubes,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂchannels,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ see on Job 40:18), are, &c., that is, the rows of scales, like shields covering him: he has seventeen such rows.
shut upÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfirmly closed together. A musket ball cannot penetrate him, save in the eye, throat, and belly.
18. Translate: ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhis sneezing, causeth a light to shine.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Amphibious animals, emerging after having long held their breath under water, respire by violently expelling the breath like one sneezing: in the effort the eyes which are usually directed towards the sun, seem to flash fire; or it is the expelled breath that, in the sun, seems to emit light.
eyelids of morningÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂThe Egyptian hieroglyphics paint the eyes of the crocodile as the symbol for morning, because the eyes appear the first thing, before the whole body emerges from the deep [HorÃÂÃÂ¦[HorÃÂÃÂ¦ HierogliphicÃÂÃÂ¦ 1.65. Bochart]
19. burning lampsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtorchesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; namely, in respiring (Job 41:18), seem to go out.
20. seethingÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂboiling: literally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂblown under,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ under which a fire is blown.
21. kindleth coalsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpoetical imagery (Ps 18:8).
22. remainethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂabideth permanently. His chief strength is in the neck.
sorrowÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂanxiety or dismay personified.
is turned into joyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdanceth,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂexultethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; wherever he goes, he spreads terror ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbefore him.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
23. flakesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdewlapsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; that which falls down (Margin). They are ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂjoinedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ fast and firm, together, not hanging loose, as in the ox.
are firmÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂUmbreit and Maurer, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂare spread.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
in themselvesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂupon him.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
24. heartÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIn large beasts which are less acute in feeling, there is great firmness of the heart, and slower motionÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Bocha[Bochart]nether millstone, on which the upper turns, is especially hard.
25. heÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe crocodile; a type of the awe which the Creator inspires when He rises in wrath.
breakingsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, of the mind, that is, terror.
purify themselvesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthey wander from the way,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, flee away bewildered [Maure[Maurer and Umbreit]
26. cannot holdÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂon his hard skin.
habergeonÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcoat of mail; avail must be taken by zeugma out of ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhold,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as the verb in the second clause: ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂholdÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ cannot apply to the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcoat of mail.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
27. iron ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ brassÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnamely, weapons.
28. arrowÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂson of the bowÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; Oriental imagery (La 3:13; Margin).
stubbleÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂArrows produce no more effect than it would to throw stubble at him.
29. DartsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂclubsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; darts have been already mentioned (Job 41:26).
30. stonesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpotsherds,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ that is, the sharp and pointed scales on the belly, like broken pieces of pottery.
sharp-pointed thingsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa threshing instrument,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ but not on the fruits of the earth, but ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂon the mireÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ; irony. When he lies on the mire, he leaves the marks of his scales so imprinted on it, that one might fancy a threshing instrument with its sharp teeth had been drawn over it (Isa 28:27).
31. Whenever he moves.
seaÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe Nile (Isa 19:5; Na 3:8).
pot of ointmentÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe vessel in which it is mixed. Appropriate to the crocodile, which emits a musky smell.
32. pathÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe foam on his track.
hoaryÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas hair of the aged.
33. whoÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbeing one who, &c.
34. beholdethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂas their superior.
children of prideÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂthe proud and fierce beasts. So Job 28:8; Hebrew, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂsons of pride.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ To humble the pride of man and to teach implicit submission, is the aim of JehovahÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs speech and of the book; therefore with this as to leviathan, the type of God in His lordship over creation, He closes.
Job 42:1-6. JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs Penitent Reply.
2. In the first clause he owns God to be omnipotent over nature, as contrasted with his own feebleness, which God had proved (Job 40:15; 41:34); in the second, that God is supremely just (which, in order to be governor of the world, He must needs be) in all His dealings, as contrasted with his own vileness (Job 42:6), and incompetence to deal with the wicked as a just judge (Job 40:8-14).
thoughtÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpurpose,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ as in Job 17:11; but it is usually applied to evil devices (Job 21:27; Ps 10:2): the ambiguous word is designedly chosen to express that, while to JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs finite view, GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs plans seem bad, to the All-wise One they continue unhindered in their development, and will at last be seen to be as good as they are infinitely wise. No evil can emanate from the Parent of good (Jas 1:13, 17); but it is His prerogative to overrule evil to good.
3. I am the man! Job in GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs own words (Job 38:2) expresses his deep and humble penitence. GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs word concerning our guilt should be engraven on our hearts and form the groundwork of our confession. Most men in confessing sin palliate rather than confess. Job in omitting ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂby wordsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 38:2), goes even further than GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs accusation. Not merely my words, but my whole thoughts and ways were ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwithout knowledge.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
too wonderfulÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI rashly denied that Thou hast any fixed plan in governing human affairs, merely because Thy plan was ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂtoo wonderfulÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ for my comprehension.
4. When I said, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHear,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c., JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs demand (Job 13:22) convicted him of being ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwithout knowledge.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ God alone could speak thus to Job, not Job to God: therefore he quotes again GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs words as the groundwork of retracting his own foolish words.
5. hearing of the earÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(Ps 18:44, Margin). Hearing and seeing are often in antithesis (Job 29:11; Ps 18:8).
seethÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnot GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs face (Ex 33:20), but His presence in the veil of a dark cloud (Job 38:1). Job implies also that, besides this literal seeing, he now saw spiritually what he had indistinctly taken on hearsay before GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs infinite wisdom. He ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnowÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ proves this; he had seen in a literal sense before, at the beginning of GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs speech, but he had not seen spiritually till ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnowÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ at its close.
6. myselfÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂI abhor,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ and retract the rash speeches I made against thee (Job 42:3, 4) [Umbre[Umbreit]
Job 42:7-17. Epilogue, in prose.
7. to EliphazÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbecause he was the foremost of the three friends; their speeches were but the echo of his.
rightÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂliterally, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwell-grounded,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ sure and true. Their spirit towards Job was unkindly, and to justify themselves in their unkindliness they used false arguments (Job 13:7); (namely, that calamities always prove peculiar guilt); therefore, though it was ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfor GodÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ they spake thus falsely, God ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂreprovesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ them, as Job said He would (Job 13:10).
as ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ Job hathÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂJob had spoken rightly in relation to them and their argument, denying their theory, and the fact which they alleged, that he was peculiarly guilty and a hypocrite; but wrongly in relation to God, when he fell into the opposite extreme of almost denying all guilt. This extreme he has now repented of, and therefore God speaks of him as now altogether ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂright.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
8. sevenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ(See Introduction). The number offered by the Gentile prophet (Nu 23:1). Job plainly lived before the legal priesthood, &c. The patriarchs acted as priests for their families; and sometimes as praying mediators (Ge 20:17), thus foreshadowing the true Mediator (1Ti 2:5), but sacrifice accompanies and is the groundwork on which the mediation rests.
himÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂrather, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂHis person [face][face]ÃÂÃÂ (see on Job 22:30). The ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂperson,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ must be first accepted, before God can accept his offering and work (Ge 4:4); that can be only through Jesus Christ.
follyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂimpiety (Job 1:22; 2:10).
9. The forgiving spirit of Job foreshadows the love of Jesus Christ and of Christians to enemies (Mt 5:44; Lu 23:34; Ac 7:60; 16:24, 28, 30, 31).
10. turned ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ captivityÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂproverbial for restored, or amply indemnified him for all he had lost (Eze 16:53; Ps 14:7; Ho 6:11). Thus the future vindication of man, body and soul, against Satan (Job 1:9-12), at the resurrection (Job 19:25-27), has its earnest and adumbration in the temporal vindication of Job at last by Jehovah in person.
twiceÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂso to the afflicted literal and spiritual Jerusalem (Isa 40:2; 60:7; 61:7; Zec 9:12). As in JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs case, so in that of Jesus Christ, the glorious recompense follows the ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂintercessionÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ for enemies (Isa 53:12).
11. It was JobÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs complaint in his misery that his ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂbrethren,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ were ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂestrangedÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ from him (Job 19:13); these now return with the return of his prosperity (Pr 14:20; 19:6, 7); the true friend loveth at all times (Pr 17:17; 18:24). ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂSwallow friends leave in the winter and return with the springÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Henry[Henry]
eat breadÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂin token of friendship (Ps 41:9).
piece of moneyÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂPresents are usual in visiting a man of rank in the East, especially after a calamity (2Ch 32:23). Hebrew, kesita. Magee translates ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa lambÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (the medium of exchange then before money was used), as it is in Margin of Ge 33:19; Jos 24:32. But it is from the Arabic kasat, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂweighed outÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ [Umbre[Umbreit]coined; so Ge 42:35; 33:19; compare with Ge 23:15, makes it likely it was equal to four shekels; Hebrew kashat, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂpure,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ namely, metal. The term, instead of the usual ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂshekel,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ &c., is a mark of antiquity.
earringÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂwhether for the nose or ear (Ge 35:4; Isa 3:21). Much of the gold in the East, in the absence of banks, is in the shape of ornaments.
12. Probably by degrees, not all at once.
13. The same number as before, Job 1:2; perhaps by a second wife; in Job 19:17 his wife is last mentioned.
14. Names significant of his restored prosperity (Ge 4:25; 5:29).
JemimaÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂdaylight,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ after his ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂnightÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ of calamity; but Maurer, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa dove.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ
KeziaÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂcassia,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ an aromatic herb (Ps 45:8), instead of his offensive breath and ulcers.
Keren-happuchÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhorn of stibium,ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ a paint with which females dyed their eyelids; in contrast to his ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂhorn defiled in the dustÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ (Job 16:15). The names also imply the beauty of his daughters.
15. inheritance among ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ¦ brethrenÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂAn unusual favor in the East to daughters, who, in the Jewish law, only inherited, if there were no sons (Nu 27:8), a proof of wealth and unanimity.
16. The Septuagint makes Job live a hundred seventy years after his calamity, and two hundred forty in all. This would make him seventy at the time of his calamity, which added to a hundred forty in Hebrew text makes up two hundred ten; a little more than the age (two hundred five) of Terah, father of Abraham, perhaps his contemporary. ManÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂs length of life gradually shortened, till it reached threescore and ten in MosesÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ time (Ps 90:10).
sonsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ sonsÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂa proof of divine favor (Ge 50:23; Ps 128:6; Pr 17:6).
17. full of daysÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂfully sated and contented with all the happiness that life could give him; realizing what Eliphaz had painted as the lot of the godly (Job 5:26; Ps 91:16; Ge 25:8; 35:29). The Septuagint adds, ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂIt is written, that he will rise again with those whom the Lord will raise up.ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ Compare Mt 27:52, 53, from which it perhaps was derived spuriously.