Judah and Tamar - Rembrandt (circa 1650-1660)

Judah left his brothers and went to stay with a man of Adullam named Hirah. It was here that Judah met the daughter of Shua, a Canaanite man. Judah married the daughter (she is unnamed in Genesis) and together they gave birth to a son named Er. She conceived again and gave birth to a son named Onan. Later, she gave birth to another son, Shelah, while in Kezib.

Judah and Tamar - BassanoJudah arranged a wife, Tamar, for Er, his firstborn son but Er was wicked so the Lord put him to death. To accommodate the ancient law known as “levirate marriage”, Judah told Onan,

“Sleep with your brother’s wife and fulfill your duty to her as a brother-in-law to raise up offspring for your brother.”

Onan knew the child would not be his so whenever he slept with his brother’s wife, he spilled his semen on the ground to keep from providing offspring for his brother. What he did was wicked in God’s eye, so the Lord put him to death also.

Judah then told his daughter-in-law Tamar,

“Live as a widow in your father’s household until my son Shelah grows up.”

Judah wanted to protect his youngest son and thought, “He may die just like his brothers.” So Tamar moved into her father’s household.

After a long time, Judah’s wife, the daughter of Shua, died. After a period of grieving, Judah and his friend Hira the Adullamite, went to Timnah to the men who were shearing his sheep.

Meanwhile, Tamar felt betrayed. She believed Shelah had grown up but still had not been given to her as his wife. When Tamar was told Judah was going to Timnah, she removed her widow’s clothes, covered her face with a veil to disguise herself, and sat down at the entrance to Enaim, which is on the road to Timnah.

When Judah saw Tamar, he thought she was a prostitute because she had covered her face. Not realizing she was his daughter-in-law, he approached her by the roadside and said, “Come, let me sleep with you.”

“And what will you give me to sleep with you?”, she asked.

“I’ll give you a young goat from my flock.”

“Will you not give me something as a pledge until you send it?”, she asked.

Judah said, “What pledge should I give you?”

“Your seal and its cord, and the staff in your hand,” she answered.

Judah and Tamar - Artist unknownSo Judah gave Tamar his seal, cord, and the staff in his hand and slept with her – and she became pregnant by him. After she left, she took off her veil and put on her widow’s clothes again.

Later, Judah had his friend (the Adullamite) take the young goat to the woman in order to get his pledge back but he could not find her. He asked the men who lived there, “Where is the shrine prostitute who was beside the road at Enaim?”

“There hasn’t been any shrine prostitute here,” they said.

So he went back to Judah and told him, “I didn’t find her. Besides, the men who lived there said there had been no shrine prostitutes there.”

Then Judah said,

“Let her keep what she has or we will become a laughingstock. After all, I did send her this young goat but you could not find her.”

About three months later, Judah was told, “Your daughter-in-law Tamar has been promiscuous, and as a result, she is now pregnant.”

Judah said, “Bring her out and have her burned to death!”

As Tamar was being brought out, she sent a message to her father-in-law. “I am pregnant by the man who owns these,” she said. She added, “See if you recognize whose seal, cord, and staff these belong to.”

Judah recognized the items as his own and said, “She is more righteous than I, since I wouldn’t give her to my son Shelah.” Judah never slept with Tamar again.

When the time came for Tamar to give birth, it was found she had twins in her womb. As she was giving birth, one of the babies put out his hand. The midwife tied a scarlet thread to his wrist to identify him as firstborn. But when he drew back his hand, his brother came out and she said, “So this is how you have broken out!” He was named Perez. His brother, who had the scarlet thread tied to his wrist, was named Zerah.

What the story means to us today

Judah’s impulsive behavior creates embarrassment and remorse

The narrative clearly depicts Judah’s bad behavior but a point that is particularly critical is his impulsive behavior. There are several clues that tell us Judah’s behavior was impulsive. First, Tamar covers her face which tells us Judah would not have slept with her had he known who she really was. Secondly, Judah has no money to pay the prostitute. We can infer that his decision to hire a prostitute was not planned beforehand but rather was a rash decision made with little thought.

Impulsive behavior often results in negative consequences. In Judah’s case, he sets himself up to be bribed when he hands over, as collateral, personally identifiable items to Tamar and commits the unthinkable act of impregnating his dead son’s wife.

Additional thoughts and considerations

Holding nothing back, the Bible transparently portrays Judah’s sin as it really happened

As we see so many times in the Bible, the story is presented with no excuse for the participant’s behavior, even for a character as integral to the biblical narrative as Judah (a forefather of the Messiah).

Initially we find that Judah believes Tamar is a prostitute (which hints at Judah’s moral inclination). Later we see her description refined to describe her as a shrine prostitute. Although temple (aka cult) prostitution was common in Canaanite culture, the Old Testament clearly condemns any form of prostitution. But the Bible makes no excuses for Judah’s behavior – Judah’s story is told just as the events happened, warts and all.

Why the verses mention Judah’s wife is a Canaanite

The scripture tells us Judah married the daughter of Shua and describes her as a Canaanite. This is important because marriages between Israelites and foreigners was discouraged. For instance, Isaac rejected Esau’s marriages to foreigners. Later the law will explicitly forbid marriage with Canaanites for fear of foreigners introducing idolatry into the home.

The ancient practice of sleeping with a deceased brother’s wife (levirate marriage)

Tamar confronts Juday - Artist unknownJudah tells Onan to sleep with his deceased brother’s wife to “fulfill his duty to her as a brother-in-law.” The practice of sleeping with a deceased brother’s wife was customary at that time. The custom, known as levirate marriage, is described fully in Deuteronomy 25:5.

According to the tradition of levirate marriage, if a brother dies without a son, the widow would remarry her deceased husband’s brother. This provided support for the widow while ensuring the first son born would carry the name of the dead brother allowing the familial line to continue. This meant of course, inheritance and leadership rights transferred to the son too, a costly sacrifice for the living brother and his heirs.

Onan’s choice to reject the custom was clearly explained – he understood the child would not be considered his. His actions would eliminate Er’s name from the familial line, a selfish and dastardly act, and ensure Onan’s family did not receive his deceased brother’s estate. Onan’s attempt is foiled by God who ensures Tamar will bear a son.

Tamar’s harsh punishment (death) for adultery

Judah rules that Tamar’s punishment for adultery is death. At the time of her ploy, Tamar was awaiting conclusion of the levirate marriage (a brother assumes the deceased brother’s husbandly duties). Sleeping with someone else during this time could have resulted in a pregnancy which would corrupt the deceased husband’s familial line. Even though it may seem harsh today, an indiscretion such as this was considered adultery, punishable by death.

Judah sins and is humiliated – twice

Judah tells his friend, “Let her keep what she has or we will become a laughingstock.” Public shame in the ancient Near East was to be avoided at all costs. A male, tribal leader outwitted by a prostitute would be especially humiliating.

Depiction of the birth of Perez - copperplate engraving - Hermann Muller after Marten van Heemskerk (1498-1574)Ultimately, Judah recognizes his actions were wrong (“She is more righteous than I”), and regrets both the hiring of a prostitute and the delay in allowing his last son, Shelah, to complete the levirate marriage. In both instances, he shamelessly neglected the wellbeing of his deceased son’s wife.

The importance of identifying the firstborn son

In the ancient Near East, the firstborn son had special rights and thus, it was important to correctly identify the eldest of Tamar’s unborn twins. Tying a red thread around the infant’s exposed wrist allowed the handmaid the means to identify the baby when he was born.

Was Onan killed for practicing birth control?

Onan’s spilling of his semen rather than fulfilling the levirate marriage, was an affront to his deceased brother. His sin however, was not the act of birth control but the selfishness (and greed) in refusing to complete the levirate marriage practice. By refusing to assume the duties of his deceased brother, Onan effectively stole from his brother’s estate.

The science and history behind the story

Widow’s clothing and donning of a veil

The scriptures tell us before donning a veil and disguising herself as a prostitute, Tamar removed her “widow’s clothes”. The verse makes it clear that Israelite women did not normally wear veils. However, it is unknown what “widow’s clothes” would have looked like. Possibly women in mourning wore black clothing or alternatively, some sort of robe or covering over their clothes.

Kassite Green agate cylinder seal - Circa 1400-1100 BCJudah’s seal

Seals in the ancient Near East were used in an official capacity to identify a person and ratify legal documents. Seals were typically a small cylinder-shaped object (occasionally a ring) with a person’s name or symbol engraved on it. The cylinder would be rolled over clay to create an impression, or signature, on the clay document.

Seals were often secured around the neck, tied by a cord. Tens of thousands of cylinder seals have been discovered by archaeologists.

Judah’s staff

Judah’s staff was likely engraved with his name. Staffs could serve as symbols of leadership and each tribal leader in Israel had their own personal staff. The prominence of the article would make it easily recognizable and its uniqueness could be used to identify its owner.

Cult (temple) prostitutes in the ancient Near East

The area along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers featured many temples dedicated to various deities. Around these temples could be found cult prostitutes (aka sacred prostitute, temple prostitute, or religious prostitute).

Historians are unsure what a cult prostitute’s duties were. Sex with a temple prostitute may have been a religious rite or possibly a means to secure money for the religious organization coffers. Whatever the purpose, the practice was vile to many citizens. Ancient historian Herodotus wrote:

“The foulest Babylonian custom is that which compels every woman of the land to sit in the temple of Aphrodite and have intercourse with some stranger at least once in her life. Once a woman has taken her place there, she does not go away to her home before some stranger has cast money into her lap, and had intercourse with her outside the temple. There is a custom like this in some parts of Cyprus.”

Surprisingly, the practice continues today in some areas, most notably within fringe religious cults.

Notes on Biblical translation

“Er” was evil

The verses say Er, Judah’s firstborn, was evil (and the Lord put him to death). As commonly incorporated in biblical text, wordplay was used. In Hebrew, the reverse of the name “Er” is “ra”, meaning “wicked”. In Hebrew, the wordplay (“ra” equals “ar”) would be easily recognizable. It loses its meaning however, in modern-day translations.

Bible Text

Judah And Tamar - Aert de Gelder (1667)NIV

38 At that time, Judah left his brothers and went down to stay with a man of Adullam named Hirah. 2 There Judah met the daughter of a Canaanite man named Shua. He married her and made love to her; 3 she became pregnant and gave birth to a son, who was named Er. 4 She conceived again and gave birth to a son and named him Onan. 5 She gave birth to still another son and named him Shelah. It was at Kezib that she gave birth to him.

6 Judah got a wife for Er, his firstborn, and her name was Tamar. 7 But Er, Judah’s firstborn, was wicked in the LORD’s sight; so the LORD put him to death.

8 Then Judah said to Onan, “Sleep with your brother’s wife and fulfill your duty to her as a brother-in-law to raise up offspring for your brother.” 9 But Onan knew that the child would not be his; so whenever he slept with his brother’s wife, he spilled his semen on the ground to keep from providing offspring for his brother. 10 What he did was wicked in the LORD’s sight; so the LORD put him to death also.

11 Judah then said to his daughter-in-law Tamar, “Live as a widow in your father’s household until my son Shelah grows up.” For he thought, “He may die too, just like his brothers.” So Tamar went to live in her father’s household.

12 After a long time Judah’s wife, the daughter of Shua, died. When Judah had recovered from his grief, he went up to Timnah, to the men who were shearing his sheep, and his friend Hirah the Adullamite went with him.

13 When Tamar was told, “Your father-in-law is on his way to Timnah to shear his sheep,” 14 she took off her widow’s clothes, covered herself with a veil to disguise herself, and then sat down at the entrance to Enaim, which is on the road to Timnah. For she saw that, though Shelah had now grown up, she had not been given to him as his wife.

15 When Judah saw her, he thought she was a prostitute, for she had covered her face. 16 Not realizing that she was his daughter-in-law, he went over to her by the roadside and said, “Come now, let me sleep with you.”

“And what will you give me to sleep with you?” she asked.

17 “I’ll send you a young goat from my flock,” he said.

Judah and Tamar - Horace Vernet (1789-1863)“Will you give me something as a pledge until you send it?” she asked.

18 He said, “What pledge should I give you?”

“Your seal and its cord, and the staff in your hand,” she answered. So he gave them to her and slept with her, and she became pregnant by him. 19 After she left, she took off her veil and put on her widow’s clothes again.

20 Meanwhile Judah sent the young goat by his friend the Adullamite in order to get his pledge back from the woman, but he did not find her. 21 He asked the men who lived there, “Where is the shrine prostitute who was beside the road at Enaim?”

“There hasn’t been any shrine prostitute here,” they said.

22 So he went back to Judah and said, “I didn’t find her. Besides, the men who lived there said, ‘There hasn’t been any shrine prostitute here.’ ”

23 Then Judah said, “Let her keep what she has, or we will become a laughingstock. After all, I did send her this young goat, but you didn’t find her.”

24 About three months later Judah was told, “Your daughter-in-law Tamar is guilty of prostitution, and as a result she is now pregnant.”

Judah said, “Bring her out and have her burned to death!”

25 As she was being brought out, she sent a message to her father-in-law. “I am pregnant by the man who owns these,” she said. And she added, “See if you recognize whose seal and cord and staff these are.”

26 Judah recognized them and said, “She is more righteous than I, since I wouldn’t give her to my son Shelah.” And he did not sleep with her again.

27 When the time came for her to give birth, there were twin boys in her womb. 28 As she was giving birth, one of them put out his hand; so the midwife took a scarlet thread and tied it on his wrist and said, “This one came out first.” 29 But when he drew back his hand, his brother came out, and she said, “So this is how you have broken out!” And he was named Perez. u 30 Then his brother, who had the scarlet thread on his wrist, came out. And he was named Zerah.

The New International Version. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2011. Print.

The Message

5 38 About that time, Judah separated from his brothers and hooked up with a man in Adullam named Hirah. While there, Judah met the daughter of a Canaanite named Shua. He married her, they went to bed, she became pregnant and had a son named Er. She got pregnant again and had a son named Onan. She had still another son; she named this one Shelah. They were living at Kezib when she had him.

6–7 Judah got a wife for Er, his firstborn. Her name was Tamar. But Judah’s firstborn, Er, grievously offended GOD and GOD took his life.

8–10 So Judah told Onan, “Go and sleep with your brother’s widow; it’s the duty of a brother-in-law to keep your brother’s line alive.” But Onan knew that the child wouldn’t be his, so whenever he slept with his brother’s widow he spilled his semen on the ground so he wouldn’t produce a child for his brother. GOD was much offended by what he did and also took his life.

11 So Judah stepped in and told his daughter-in-law Tamar, “Live as a widow at home with your father until my son Shelah grows up.” He was worried that Shelah would also end up dead, just like his brothers. So Tamar went to live with her father.

12 Time passed. Judah’s wife, Shua’s daughter, died. When the time of mourning was over, Judah with his friend Hirah of Adullam went to Timnah for the sheep shearing.

13–14 Tamar was told, “Your father-in-law has gone to Timnah to shear his sheep.” She took off her widow’s clothes, put on a veil to disguise herself, and sat at the entrance to Enaim which is on the road to Timnah. She realized by now that even though Shelah was grown up, she wasn’t going to be married to him.

Judah and Tamar - Figures de la Bible, Gerard Hoet (1728)15 Judah saw her and assumed she was a prostitute since she had veiled her face. He left the road and went over to her. He said, “Let me sleep with you.” He had no idea that she was his daughter-in-law.

16 She said, “What will you pay me?”

17 “I’ll send you,” he said, “a kid goat from the flock.”

She said, “Not unless you give me a pledge until you send it.”

18 “So what would you want in the way of a pledge?”

She said, “Your personal seal-and-cord and the staff you carry.”

He handed them over to her and slept with her. And she got pregnant.

19 She then left and went home. She removed her veil and put her widow’s clothes back on.

20–21 Judah sent the kid goat by his friend from Adullam to recover the pledge from the woman. But he couldn’t find her. He asked the men of that place, “Where’s the prostitute that used to sit by the road here near Enaim?”

They said, “There’s never been a prostitute here.”

22 He went back to Judah and said, “I couldn’t find her. The men there said there never has been a prostitute there.”

23 Judah said, “Let her have it then. If we keep looking, everyone will be poking fun at us. I kept my part of the bargain—I sent the kid goat but you couldn’t find her.”

24 Three months or so later, Judah was told, “Your daughter-in-law has been playing the whore—and now she’s a pregnant whore.”

Judah yelled, “Get her out here. Burn her up!”

25 As they brought her out, she sent a message to her father-in-law, “I’m pregnant by the man who owns these things. Identify them, please. Who’s the owner of the seal-and-cord and the staff?”

26 Judah saw they were his. He said, “She’s in the right; I’m in the wrong—I wouldn’t let her marry my son Shelah.” He never slept with her again.

27–30 When her time came to give birth, it turned out that there were twins in her womb. As she was giving birth, one put his hand out; the midwife tied a red thread on his hand, saying, “This one came first.” But then he pulled it back and his brother came out. She said, “Oh! A breakout!” So she named him Perez (Breakout). Then his brother came out with the red thread on his hand. They named him Zerah (Bright).

Peterson, Eugene H. The Message: The Bible in Contemporary Language. Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress, 2005. Print.

The NET Bible

38:1 At that time Judah left his brothers and stayed with an Adullamite man named Hirah.

38:2 There Judah saw the daughter of a Canaanite man named Shua. Judah acquired her as a wife and had marital relations with her. 38:3 She became pregnant and had a son. Judah named him Er. 38:4 She became pregnant again and had another son, whom she named Onan. 38:5 Then she had yet another son, whom she named Shelah. She gave birth to him in Kezib.

38:6 Judah acquired a wife for Er his firstborn; her name was Tamar. 38:7 But Er, Judah’s firstborn, was evil in the LORD’s sight, so the LORD killed him.

38:8 Then Judah said to Onan, “Have sexual relations with your brother’s wife and fulfill the duty of a brother-in-law to her so that you may raise up a descendant for your brother.” 38:9 But Onan knew that the child would not be considered his. So whenever he had sexual relations with his brother’s wife, he withdrew prematurely so as not to give his brother a descendant. 38:10 What he did was evil in the LORD’s sight, so the LORD killed him too.

Judah and Tamar - Artist unknown38:11 Then Judah said to his daughter-in-law Tamar, “Live as a widow in your father’s house until Shelah my son grows up.” For he thought, “I don’t want him to die like his brothers.” So Tamar went and lived in her father’s house.

38:12 After some time Judah’s wife, the daughter of Shua, died. After Judah was consoled, he left for Timnah to visit his sheepshearers, along with his friend Hirah the Adullamite. 38:13 Tamar was told, “Look, your father-in-law is going up to Timnah to shear his sheep.” 38:14 So she removed her widow’s clothes and covered herself with a veil. She wrapped herself and sat at the entrance to Enaim which is on the way to Timnah. (She did this because she saw that she had not been given to Shelah as a wife, even though he had now grown up.)

38:15 When Judah saw her, he thought she was a prostitute because she had covered her face. 38:16 He turned aside to her along the road and said, “Come on! I want to have sex with you.” (He did not realize it was his daughter-in-law.) She asked, “What will you give me in exchange for having sex with you?” 38:17 He replied, “I’ll send you a young goat from the flock.” She asked, “Will you give me a pledge until you send it?” 38:18 He said, “What pledge should I give you?” She replied, “Your seal, your cord, and the staff that’s in your hand.” So he gave them to her and had sex with her. She became pregnant by him. 38:19 She left immediately, removed her veil, and put on her widow’s clothes.

38:20 Then Judah had his friend Hirah the Adullamite take a young goat to get back from the woman the items he had given in pledge, but Hirah could not find her. 38:21 He asked the men who were there, “Where is the cult prostitute who was at Enaim by the road?” But they replied, “There has been no cult prostitute here.” 38:22 So he returned to Judah and said, “I couldn’t find her. Moreover, the men of the place said, ‘There has been no cult prostitute here.’ ” 38:23 Judah said, “Let her keep the things for herself. Otherwise we will appear to be dishonest. I did indeed send this young goat, but you couldn’t find her.”

38:24 After three months Judah was told, “Your daughter-in-law Tamar has turned to prostitution, and as a result she has become pregnant.” Judah said, “Bring her out and let her be burned!” 38:25 While they were bringing her out, she sent word to her father-in-law: “I am pregnant by the man to whom these belong.” Then she said, “Identify the one to whom the seal, cord, and staff belong.” 38:26 Judah recognized them and said, “She is more upright than I am, because I wouldn’t give her to Shelah my son.” He did not have sexual relations with her again.

38:27 When it was time for her to give birth, there were twins in her womb. 38:28 While she was giving birth, one child put out his hand, and the midwife took a scarlet thread and tied it on his hand, saying, “This one came out first.” 38:29 But then he drew back his hand, and his brother came out before him. She said, “How you have broken out of the womb!” So he was named Perez. 38:30 Afterward his brother came out—the one who had the scarlet thread on his hand—and he was named Zerah.

Biblical Studies Press. The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press, 2006. Print.

King James Version

38 And it came to pass at that time, that Judah went down from his brethren, and turned in to a certain Adullamite, whose name was Hirah. 2 And Judah saw there a daughter of a certain Canaanite, whose name was Shuah; and he took her, and went in unto her. 3 And she conceived, and bare a son; and he called his name Er. 4 And she conceived again, and bare a son; and she called his name Onan. 5 And she yet again conceived, and bare a son; and called his name Shelah: and he was at Chezib, when she bare him. 6 And Judah took a wife for Er his firstborn, whose name was Tamar. 7 And Er, Judah’s firstborn, was wicked in the sight of the LORD; and the LORD slew him. 8 And Judah said unto Onan, Go in unto thy brother’s wife, and marry her, and raise up seed to thy brother. 9 And Onan knew that the seed should not be his; and it came to pass, when he went in unto his brother’s wife, that he spilled it on the ground, lest that he should give seed to his brother. 10 And the thing which he did displeased the LORD: wherefore he slew him also. 11 Then said Judah to Tamar his daughter in law, Remain a widow at thy father’s house, till Shelah my son be grown: for he said, Lest peradventure he die also, as his brethren did. And Tamar went and dwelt in her father’s house. 12 And in process of time the daughter of Shuah Judah’s wife died; and Judah was comforted, and went up unto his sheepshearers to Timnath, he and his friend Hirah the Adullamite. 13 And it was told Tamar, saying, Behold thy father in law goeth up to Timnath to shear his sheep. 14 And she put her widow’s garments off from her, and covered her with a vail, and wrapped herself, and sat in an open place, which is by the way to Timnath; for she saw that Shelah was grown, and she was not given unto him to wife. 15 When Judah saw her, he thought her to be an harlot; because she had covered her face. 16 And he turned unto her by the way, and said, Go to, I pray thee, let me come in unto thee; (for he knew not that she was his daughter in law.) And she said, What wilt thou give me, that thou mayest come in unto me? 17 And he said, I will send thee a kid from the flock. And she said, Wilt thou give me a pledge, till thou send it? 18 And he said, What pledge shall I give thee? And she said, Thy signet, and thy bracelets, and thy staff that is in thine hand. And he gave it her, and came in unto her, and she conceived by him. 19 And she arose, and went away, and laid by her vail from her, and put on the garments of her widowhood. 20 And Judah sent the kid by the hand of his friend the Adullamite, to receive his pledge from the woman’s hand: but he found her not. 21 Then he asked the men of that place, saying, Where is the harlot, that was openly by the way side? And they said, There was no harlot in this place. 22 And he returned to Judah, and said, I cannot find her; and also the men of the place said, that there was no harlot in this place. 23 And Judah said, Let her take it to her, lest we be shamed: behold, I sent this kid, and thou hast not found her. 24 And it came to pass about three months after, that it was told Judah, saying, Tamar thy daughter in law hath played the harlot; and also, behold, she is with child by whoredom. And Judah said, Bring her forth, and let her be burnt. 25 When she was brought forth, she sent to her father in law, saying, By the man, whose these are, am I with child: and she said, Discern, I pray thee, whose are these, the signet, and bracelets, and staff. 26 And Judah acknowledged them, and said, She hath been more righteous than I; because that I gave her not to Shelah my son. And he knew her again no more. 27 And it came to pass in the time of her travail, that, behold, twins were in her womb. 28 And it came to pass, when she travailed, that the one put out his hand: and the midwife took and bound upon his hand a scarlet thread, saying, This came out first. 29 And it came to pass, as he drew back his hand, that, behold, his brother came out: and she said, How hast thou broken forth? this breach be upon thee: therefore his name was called Pharez. 30 And afterward came out his brother, that had the scarlet thread upon his hand: and his name was called Zarah.

The Holy Bible: King James Version. Electronic Edition of the 1900 Authorized Version. Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 2009. Print.

Sources: NIV, The Message, The NET Bible, King James Version, NET Bible Notes, Faithlife Study Bible, The Apologetics Study Bible, The Bible Knowledge Commentary, Jamieson, Fausset, Brown Commentary, The Bible Reader’s Companion, Matthew Henry’s Commentary, Holman Concise Bible Commentary, The Bible Exposition Commentary, The Teacher’s Bible Commentary, The Teacher’s Commentary, The Bible Guide, Word Studies in the New Testament, Holman Bible Handbook, Calvin Commentaries, Wiersbe’s Expository Outlines, The New Manner and Customs of the Bible, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, The Lexham Bible Dictionary, Easton’s Bible Dictionary, Harper’s Bible Dictionary, Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible, The Archaeological Encyclopedia, Biblical Archeology Review, The New Bible Dictionary, The Lexham Analytical Lexicon, Glossary of Morpho-Syntactic Database
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